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Nicol Viljoen

(b The Hague, Dec 17, 1952). South African composer of Dutch origin. He has been resident in South Africa since 1953. He studied at the Conservatory of Music, Pretoria (1969–71, 1974–5), the RAM, London (1977–8), the University of Stellenbosch (...

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David Coplan

(b Durban, Dec 7, 1924; d London, Aug 8, 1997). South African ethnomusicologist . He studied Bantu languages and phonetics at Witwatersrand University, Johannesburg (1942–6), after which he became cultural recreation officer in the former Johannesburg Non-European Affairs Department. He promoted black cultural activities, including adult education in music and joined Hugh Tracey’s African Music Society and the Bantu Music Festival Committee. In ...

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Sabar  

Rainer Polak

Family of drums and a drum/dance genre of Senegal and the Gambia. Specialist woodworkers carve the instruments from single pieces of hardwood. The drummers themselves attach the goatskin heads with wooden pegs. Most sabar drums are played with one bare hand and one light stick....

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Richard Wigmore

(b Rochovot, Israel, Jan 14, 1960). South African bass-baritone of Israeli birth. The son of an Israeli father and an English mother, he emigrated to South Africa with his family in 1966. After studying singing at the RNCM in Manchester and at the University of Toronto, Saks made his professional début in ...

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Christian Poché

(b Cairo, Jan 7, 1917; d Cairo, July 8, 1965). Egyptian music theorist and composer . He began his career as an inspector of music and later taught in Cairo. He was deeply impressed by the Western theory of musical temperaments, and tried to find a similar application within the Arab theory of music. He was a supporter of equal temperament and the division of the octave into 24 quarter equal tones. At first in his writings, he emphasized the problems raised by ...

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Awatef Abdel Kerim

(b Alexandria, Oct 5, 1945). Egyptian composer. He took his first music lessons at the experimental music school in Helwan. At the age of 16 he continued his piano studies at the Cairo Conservatory, where he also studied composition with Gamal Abdel-Rahim and the Russian composer Guovany Michaelov. At that time he was already writing music for films and playing Egyptian light music in ensembles. After graduating in ...

Article

Richard Taruskin

Projected grand opera in four acts by Modest Petrovich Musorgsky to his own libretto after Gustave Flaubert’s novel; concert performance of fragments, Milan (RAI), 10 November 1980.

Three major scenes and three additional numbers were composed between autumn 1863 and spring 1866. The plot, set in Carthage during the Punic Wars, in many ways parallels that of Serov’s opera ...

Article

Samba  

Gerard Béhague

An Afro-Brazilian couple-dance and popular musical form. Originally ‘samba’ was a generic term designating, along with batuque, the choreography of certain circle-dances imported to America from Angola and the Congo. A characteristic element of the folk samba is the umbigada, an ‘invitation to the dance’ manifested by the touching of the couple’s navels. Singing always accompanies the dancing. Melodic contours are generally descending and melodies isometric. In the ...

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Sambani  

Clappers of the Hausa people of northern Nigeria. They are metal double clappers of dumb-bell shape (two shallow, connected cups) with small iron rings in holes around the rims of the cups, which can be oval, round, or pear-shaped. One pair is held in each hand, the fingers supporting the upper clapper, the thumb the lower. Women use them without other instruments to accompany religious songs during Islamic festivals and at wedding and name ceremonies....

Article

SAMRO  

South African Music Rights Organisation. See Copyright (under South Africa).

Article

Charles Timbrell

(bMazamet, Oct 24, 1916, dParis, Oct 20, 2008). French pianist and composer. After early piano studies in Morocco and Toulouse, he moved to Paris and studied with Yves Nat at the Conservatoire, where he received a premier prix in 1937. Subsequently he won ...

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Josephine Wright

(b nr Guinea, West Africa, 1729; d London, Dec 14, 1780). English writer and composer of African descent. He was born on a slave ship en route from Guinea to Cartagena, Columbia (South America). At the age of two he was brought from Cartagena to England, where he was later befriended by John, 2nd Duke of Montagu, Mary, Duchess of Montagu and George Brudenell, 1st Duke of Montagu. Sancho reportedly appeared briefly in London productions of ...

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Sansa  

A term used frequently in the generic sense for several types of African lamellaphone. See Lamellaphone, §1. See also Gabon, §3.

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John C.G. Waterhouse

(b S Giorgio a Cremano, Naples, Aug 6, 1883; d Anacapri, Aug 26, 1971). Italian composer. After gaining a diploma at the Liceo di S Cecilia, Rome (1908) he lived mostly as a freelance composer. He spent the years 1912–21 in Tunisia, mainly in the village of Hammamet; and, though he then moved to Rome, he continued to spend much time in Tunis, where he founded a concert society and in ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Box zither of the Zande people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has 9 or 11 strings. The semicircular resonator, open-ended at front and back, is made of bark stretched and tied over a frame of three to seven flexible sticks that are bent into semicircles and affixed to the underside of the soundboard, making a shape like a boat hull. (...

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Gary W. Kennedy

(b ?Algeria, 1944). American double bass player, composer, and leader. His father was a jazz pianist, and his brother was also a musician. He may have grown up in North Africa, where his father toured with an Algerian group, but from 1973 he was leading small groups and recording (...

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John Owen Ward

(b Headingley, Leeds, July 24, 1877; d Vevey, July 31, 1958). English writer on music and encyclopedist. He had little formal schooling and was largely self-taught; he spent some years as a music teacher in Canterbury and South Africa, then as a university extension lecturer on music appreciation at Manchester, meanwhile taking his ARCM, and the BMus degree at Oxford. In ...

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Erwin R. Jacobi

(b Kaysersberg, Upper Alsace, Jan 14, 1875; d Lambarené, Gabon, Sept 4, 1965). Alsatian organist and musicologist. After receiving piano lessons at the age of five from his father, he studied the organ and, while still at school, had private music lessons from Eugen Münch, who gave him an early introduction to Bach’s work. At Strasbourg University (...

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Ingram D. Marshall

(b Corvallis, OR, Oct 10, 1944). American composer. He studied at the University of Oregon with Homer Keller (BA 1967) and at Brown University with Paul Nelson and Shapiro (MA 1969); he studied traditional African music in Ghana, Tanzania and Zimbabwe in ...

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Hugh Wood and Mervyn Cooke

(b Budapest, May 4, 1905; d Kruger National Park, South Africa, Sept 24, 1960). British composer and teacher. Born into a musical family, he started to learn the cello at the age of ten, and from 1919 to 1924 studied at the Budapest Academy of Music with Adolf Shiffer (cello) and Kodály (composition). In ...