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Tini  

Stanley Boorman

Italian family of printers. They were active in Milan from at least 1572. The brothers Francesco and Simone Tini were the first to print music, beginning in 1583 with a volume of works by Maddalena Casulana. Simone was dead before the end of 1584, as the company signed itself ‘Francesco e eredi di Simone Tini’ between 1584 and 1590. Francesco apparently died in 1590 or 1591, although the firm continued to publish. Donà believes that Michele Tini, who had signed books in 1590, was the heir to the firm. Between 1598 and 1603 the ‘eredi di Simone Tini’ published with G.F. Besozzi, and from 1603 to 1612 with Filippo Lomazzo, to whom the business then passed. Their output represents the extent to which popular music was in demand in Milan, including editions of Anerio (1590), Belli (1586), Dentice (1593), Andrea Gabrieli (1588, 1590...

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Theodor Wohnhaas

German firm of music publishers. Augustin Josef Tonger (1801–81) founded a music shop and publishing firm in Cologne in 1822. The retail business was taken over as an independent concern in 1872 by his son Peter Josef (i) (1845–1917). The latter’s son, Peter Josef (ii) (1875–1960), and grandson, Peter Josef (iii) (1902–89), did much to develop a flourishing business. Peter Tonger (b 1937), son of Peter Josef (iii), joined the firm in 1965 and has been sole owner of the company since the death of his father. Tonger’s Taschen-Alben series, of which 62 volumes had appeared by World War II, reached an overall circulation of more than three million copies. The firm has also published choral and school music, Hausmusik and music literature. After the Cologne premises were destroyed in World War II, it moved to Rodenkirchen. Contemporary composers whose works it publishes include Jürg Baur, Bialas, Bresgen, Dinescu, Feld, Lemacher, Mersmann, Siegl, Schroeder and Julius Weismann. Works by female composers published for the first time include those by Johanna Kinkel, Fanny Mendelssohn, Marianne von Martínez and Anna Amelia von Sachsen-Weimar....

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George Brock-Nannestad

Danish record company. It was established in October 1937, in the wake of a Danish court injunction against the free use of gramophone records in broadcasting, which was part of a Europe-wide action by the phonographic industries in 1934–5. Before 1940 Tono imported matrices from which it manufactured its own records, and these were broadcast until a settlement was reached between the record companies and the radio stations. Tono absorbed the label Corona and was acquired by Schous Fabrikker, which also owned the popular-music labels Helofon, Ekko and Schou: it also had a matrix exchange agreement with Sonora of Sweden. From 1937 to 1955 Tono recorded and promoted both Danish jazz (Svend Asmussen, Peter Rasmussen) and classical music; notable among recordings in the latter category were those by Egisto Tango, Emil Telmányi – who made the first recording of Nielsen's Violin Concerto – Endre Wolf, Andor Foldes, Victor Schiøler, King Frederik IX (...

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Topic  

Georgina Boyes

British record company. It specializes in British Folk Revival performers and field recordings of traditional singers and musicians. Its earliest records were issued around 1939 by the Workers' Music Association. Founded in 1936, the WMA was a cultural offshoot of the Communist Party of Great Britain, but with Alan Bush as president and Benjamin Britten and Sir Granville Bantock among its vice-presidents, it received funding from the Ministry of Education between 1945 and 1949 and provided musical resources for a range of left-leaning organizations. Through the Topic Record Club it produced small runs of politically orientated recordings.

Topic’s disparate early releases included some folksong, but when Bill Leader became production manager in 1956 a policy of specializing in Folk Revival and traditional performance was instituted. Particularly through the influence of A.L. Lloyd, its first artistic director, Topic shaped the repertory and performance style of the burgeoning Folk Revival. With Lloyd guiding record content and lending intellectual weight with his disc notes, Topic championed regional voices and industrial folksong and pioneered uncensored versions of erotic folksongs, also linking song from calendar customs with the fresh and vigorous singing of the Watersons, creating a new approach to the performance of English traditional songs. The vocal styles of other Topic performers and their forms of guitar accompaniment were equally influential on solo performance within the Folk Revival; ...

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M.K. Duggan

(b Asola, March 4, 1451; fl 1479–1529). Italian printer and publisher. Active in Venice, he was primarily a publisher rather than a printer after 1495, when he formed a full partnership with his son-in-law Aldo Manuzio. He published two missals with music in 1496 and 1497, using roman chant type. After Manuzio’s death in ...

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Alexander Weinmann

(b Switzerland, c1715; d Vienna, Jan 4, 1798). Swiss music publisher and art dealer. He established his business in Vienna in the early 1770s, and on 5 April 1775 advertised the arrival of new copper engravings in the Wiener Zeitung. His first dealings in music consisted of imports from England, the Netherlands and Paris, his source for Anton Huberty's publications. In 1781 his own first publications appeared. Initially he was a commission agent for Anton Huberty, who had moved to Vienna and eventually became only an engraver for Torricella, gradually handing over many of his pieces; one of the most important was Geminiani's violin tutor, which Torricella published in a splendid new edition on 16 October 1782. The firm flourished in its early days, but increasing competition from Artaria & Co. culminated in a public auction (12 August 1786), at which most of Torricella's plates were obtained by Artaria. He continued to run his art shop until he died, impoverished....

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Toshiba  

Sachio Moroishi

Japanese record company, part of the general electrical engineering company Tōkyō Shibaura, founded in 1939. The company entered the record business in 1955, releasing a large number of EMI recordings; in 1969, with an injection of capital from EMI, the name changed to Toshiba EMI. Toshiba had begun, in the mid-1950s, to record contemporary Japanese works, providing a stimulus to Japanese composers as well as bringing their achievements to the attention of the public. Works recorded include the opera The Black Ships by Kōsaku Yamada, the opera The Twilight Heron by Ikuma Dan, and orchestral works by Akira Ifukube, Yasushi Akutagawa, Yoritsune Matsudaira and Kan Ishii. These recordings were also released overseas, providing a wider forum for Japanese composers and performers, notably the conductors Masashi Ueda and Kazuo Yamada, the Iwamoto Mari String Quartet and the Tokyo SO.

In the 1980s Toshiba EMI began recording in Europe, with issues such as a complete Mahler symphony cycle by the Cologne RSO conducted by Gary Bertini, while at home its recordings won praise for excellent performances in music such as the complete piano works of Satie played by Aki Takahashi. Although the core of Toshiba EMI's classical output has consisted of releases of EMI recordings, the company has contributed to the promotion of classical music and continues to be a leading record label in Japan....

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Stanley Boorman

[ Toulouze ]

( fl Paris, 1496–1505). French printer . He was presumably from Toulouse, and may have been the first to print mensural music using movable type; his L’art et instruction de bien dancer uses type and is earlier than Petrucci, though in many respects rather crude. His edition of Guerson’s Utilissime musices regule, which may predate L’art, uses the same music type. Michel was not the earliest music printer in Paris, though his predecessors had printed only liturgical volumes. He was living there in 1496, close to Guillaume Guerson, who also printed and sold music. They seem to have collaborated, for Michel also used some of Guerson’s type. He is mentioned in Guerson’s will of 1503, and was last referred to in 1505.

None of Michel’s four musical books is dated, although 1488 has been added by hand to L’art. This is certainly too early: it was probably printed about 1496...

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Laurent Guillo

(fl Lyons 1564–85, then Geneva 1585–1615). French humanist printer , son of Jean de Tournes (fl 1542–64). His musical output has long been underestimated. He undertook music printing with the cooperation of Claude Goudimel (who had formerly worked with Nicolas Du Chemin in Paris between 1551 and 1555), and printed in Lyons from 1572 works by Orlande de Lassus, Claude Goudimel (both under the pseudonym Jean Bavent), Cornelius Blockland, Gilles Maillard and Jacques Arcadelt. After fleeing to Geneva when Protestants were banished from Lyons, apart from reprinting works by Blockland and Arcadelt he printed pieces by Lassus and Johann Tollius for Jerome Commelin (a bookseller in Heidelberg), and the first three of the four books of psalms set by Sweelinck for Hendrik Barentsen (an Amsterdam bookseller, also a visitor to the Frankfurt fairs). Comprising 17 volumes, his output is meticulous and typographically varied, two-thirds of it being devoted to a Protestant repertory. His son, Jean, printed three books of music by Blockland and Claude Le Jeune in Geneva from ...

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Alexander Weinmann

(b Gochsheim, nr Schweinfurt, Jan 20, 1747; d Vienna, Sept 5, 1805). Austrian music publisher and copyist . The son of Johann Veit Traeg, a musician, he moved to Vienna before 1779 and established a music copying business, branching out into music publishing in 1794. His son Johann Traeg the younger (b 15 Sept 1781; d after 1831) acquired the firm by decree of the town council on 12 February 1808.

Johann Traeg the elder began working as a music copyist in the early 1780s. His first advertisement in the Wiener Zeitung on 10 August 1782 announced that all genres of music could be purchased from him. The undertaking subsequently developed into the most prominent copying workshop in Vienna. Between 21 December 1782 and 15 January 1794 frequent advertisements in the Wiener Zeitung announced new manuscripts, and also mentioned items for sale by other publishers. On 16 May 1789...

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Mark Clague and Dan Archdeacon

Growing out of the Detroit Artists Workshop (founded 1964), Trans-Love Energies (TLE, formally, Trans-Love Energies Unlimited, Inc.) was an anti-establishment commune founded in Detroit in February 1967. Its mission was to “produce, promote, manage, and otherwise represent musical and other artists, in recordings, concerts, tours, media, and related fields of culture and entertainment, including films, books, posters, light and sound environments—all on a cooperative, non-profit basis, for the purpose of educating and informing the general public in terms of contemporary art forms and cultural patterns.”

An umbrella corporation, TLE included a production company, a light show and poster company, the Artists’ Workshop Press (distributor and publisher of underground newspapers, including the Warren-Forest Sun), and many side enterprises that helped fund commune operations. Inspired by rock music’s potential to catalyze social change, TLE managed musical acts including the Up, Iggy and the Stooges, and most notably the MC5. The activist leader John Sinclair (...

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Jeremy Drake

French firm of music publishers, founded in 1947 by the song and film composer Marc Lanjean as the classical department of Editions Ray Ventura. In the course of the 1950s and 60s Editions Transatlantiques published works by Françaix, Jolivet, Milhaud, Rivier, Bondon, Daniel-Lesur and Wiener, as well as some classical works (Vivaldi, Devienne, Rameau, Hummel, Leclair etc.), songs (e.g. ...

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Alexander Weinmann

(b Hungary, Nov 11, 1717; d Vienna, July 31, 1798). Austrian publisher of Hungarian birth. He was the leading music publisher and retailer in Vienna between 1770 and 1790. He arrived there in 1739, and worked as a journeyman in Van Ghelen’s printing office before buying J.J. Jahns’s business in 1748. Subsequently he became court bookseller (1751) and court printer (1754). The numerous privileges resulting from the Empress Maria Theresa’s patronage and his own efficiency and business acumen helped his firm to flourish. The house he bought in Alt-Lerchenfeld in 1759 was transformed into a ‘typographical palace’; in 1773 he bought the Freisingerhof on the Graben and built the new Trattnerhof there in 1777. His standing is strikingly demonstrated by the fact that the future Emperor Joseph II learnt printing from him.

Trattner started advertising music in the Wiener Diarium in 1756, but only on a small scale before ...

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Ilona Mona

(b Vienna, 1807; d after 1866). Hungarian music publisher . From 1828 he made regular public appearances as a solo violinist and in a formal letter he described himself as a ‘musician, honorary member of several philharmonic societies at home and abroad, conductor, committee member and archivist of the Pestbuda Society of Musicians’. In 1844 he took over Vince Grimm’s publishing house in the city of Pest, thus becoming the last owner of the Kunst- und Industrie-Comptoir (founded in 1801). He published mostly dance music that aimed to serve average tastes, and occasionally also piano scores of operas (Ferenc Erkel’s Hunyadi László, György Császár’s A kunok, Franz Doppler’s Benyovszky and Vanda). He kept plate numbering in exemplary order, with only rare instances of duplication. More than 400 of his publications are known. Surprisingly, the plate numbers 1–105 are missing; his first known plate number is J. T. 106. There are, however, some unnumbered specimens, and some with only alphabetical markings. According to present information it may be assumed that his alphabetically marked plates date from before ...

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Trojan  

Dave Laing

British record company. One of the principal reggae companies in Britain, it was founded in 1967 by the owners of two existing reggae labels, Chris Blackwell of Island and Lee Gopthal of Pyramid. ‘Trojan’ was the nickname of the Jamaican producer Duke Reid, and the company issued recordings made by Reid and other leading Jamaican producers including Bunny Lee, Leslie Kong and Lee Perry, whose productions appeared on the Upsetter label from 1969. The company also issued records by British-based performers such as Dandy Livingstone, Judge Dread and Greyhound, often using associated labels such as Down Town, Big Shot and Horse. During the first half of the 1970s a considerable number of Trojan releases were hits in Britain. Several were reggae cover versions of pop or country music ballads. They included Jimmy Cliff's Wonderful World, Beautiful People, Ken Boothe's Everything I own, John Holt's Help me make it through the night...

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Richard Macnutt

(b Paris, Dec 17, 1798; d Paris, April 11, 1850). French publisher. After training as a mathematician, he acquired the publishing firm of Isouard (who traded as Nicolo) in February or March 1825, taking premises at 3 rue de Ménars, Paris. In September 1828 he moved to 23 rue St-Marc Feydeau. In June or July 1835 he moved again, to 40 rue Neuve-Vivienne (sometimes given simply as rue Vivienne). For a short time after his death his firm continued to advertise, but in October 1850 it was taken over by Brandus (with whom Troupenas had occasionally published in partnership).

Troupenas’ success in business mainly derived from his contacts with Rossini and Auber. Between 1826 and 1829 he published the first editions of Rossini’s last four operas – Le siège de Corinthe, Moïse, Le comte Ory and Guillaume Tell; later he published the Soirées musicales, the Stabat mater and the adaptation ...

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Susan Fast

(Wister )

(b Clarksdale, MI, Nov 5, 1931; d San Marcos, CA, Dec 12, 2007). American songwriter, guitarist, pianist, bandleader, talent scout, and record producer. He began playing piano as a boy in Clarksdale, forming the Kings of Rhythm while still in school. His musical education consisted of listening to music and playing with blues musicians such as B.B. King. Turner is often credited with writing and recording the first rock and roll record (according to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame), “Rocket 88,” although the track was released under the name of Jackie Brenston (a member of Turner’s band who sang and played sax on the record). Recorded in 1951 at Sam Phillips’s Sun Studios in Memphis, this uptempo R&B song provided a template for the rock and roll emerging later in the decade. The modified 12-bar blues form, boogie woogie bass line, percussive piano, guitar distortion, and rowdy sax solo became standard features of songs by Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and others....

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Ugrino  

Theodor Wohnhaas

German firm of music publishers. In 1921 Gottlieb Harms and Hans Henny Jahnn founded the firm in Hamburg; in 1923 it was registered as an ‘association for safeguarding the interests of the Ugrino religious community, publishing section’. Hilmar Trede joined the firm in 1925 as director. The first undertaking (in 1921) was a complete edition of the works of Vincent Lübeck which was followed by complete editions of Scheidt and Buxtehude. Jahnn was forced to emigrate in 1933, and apart from works already in preparation when he left, which continued to appear until 1935, publishing did not resume until his return in 1952. In 1956 the firm was again incorporated in the commercial register. After Jahnn’s death in 1959 it was taken over by his daughter Signe Trede. On 1 October 1971 the VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik in Leipzig acquired the publishing rights of Ugrino, which still continues to produce works by Buxtehude, Gesualdo, Scheidt, Schlick and others. On ...