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Gregory F. Barz

Country in southern Africa located between Mozambique and South Africa. It has an area of 17,400 km² and a population of 985,000. British colonial rule established Swaziland as a protectorate in 1903 and independence was achieved in 1968. The population is 84% Swazi and 10% Zulu, and the kingdom's official languages are English and siSwati. Both the siSwati- and Zulu-speaking peoples of Swaziland belong to the Nguni group of Bantu language speakers and speak a tonal language with clicks adopted from neighbouring San and Khoikhoi peoples. Traditional culture is maintained in the country and annual ceremonies are performed and preserved at a national level. Music in Swaziland is largely homogeneous; Swazi vocal music is distinctive but bears a resemblance to Zulu choral singing (Rycroft, ...

Article

Taarab  

Janet Topp Fargion

A musical genre, the term ṭāarab comes from the Arabic ṭārab (from the root ṭrb), meaning pleasure, rapture, entertainment, or these emotions as evoked by music. In East Africa it denotes a style of popular entertainment music played at weddings and other celebrations along the Swahili coast. The style contains the features of a typical Indian Ocean music, combining influences from Egypt, the Arabian peninsula, India and the West with local musical practices. Musicians generally agree that ...

Article

Darius Brubeck

(b Pretoria, c1940). South African guitarist, singer, flutist, and percussionist. He took up electric guitar in 1954 and started performing four years later. From 1961 he led groups known usually as Malombo (but also as Malombo Jazzmen, Venda-Malombo, and Malombo Jazz Band). The first such group was a cooperative formed with Julian Bahula and the flutist Abbey Cindi which appeared to great acclaim as the Malombo Jazzmen at the Castle Lager Jazz Festival in ...

Article

Ṭabl  

Michael Pirker

Arabic generic term for drums. It is particularly applied to double-headed cylindrical drums in the Arab Middle East, including North Africa (especially Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and the Sudan). It may occur in combination with other words, indicating drums of the same type with regional differences of size or drums used in different regional combinations of instruments. The term ...

Article

Tabshi  

K.A. Gourlay

Small snared kettledrum used by the Hausa and other peoples of northern and central Nigeria. The wooden body is 27 cm tall and 22 cm in diameter. It has a goatskin or duiker-skin head with a patch of tuning-paste. The head is lapped to a leather-bound rope ring and V-laced, with leather thongs and a horizontal tuning brace, to an iron ring at the base of the body. A hole in the side of the body is used to pour in a libation of oil and spices. In Hausa music the ...

Article

Tama  

K.A. Gourlay, Lucy Durán and Rainer Polak

Variable-tension hourglass drum of the Wolof and Mande-speaking peoples (Khasonka, Soninke, Maninka, Bamana, Dyula) and their neighbours in Senegal, the Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Ivory Coast. The tama is struck with one curved drumstick with a flattened end, and by one hand. The two heads are lapped onto rings at the ends of the wooden body and joined by numerous cords so that, when the drum is placed under the player’s arm, pressure on the cords can vary the pitch. Most modern instruments are relatively small (25 to 30 cm tall, 10 to 15 cm in diameter); in Mande languages, these are known as ...

Article

Tambari  

Anthony King, K.A. Gourlay and Roger Blench

A common name for the Kettledrum used in sets as part of the regalia of many traditional savanna states of West Africa. Its association with royalty in, for instance, the Hausa states of Nigeria is chronicled in the 17th century, and in its form, usage and name the ...

Article

Taqsīm  

Term referring to an improvisation section in Arab and Turkish art music. See Arab music, §I, 5, (ii); Egypt, Arab Republic of; Greece, §IV, 1; Lebanon, §IV, 3, (ii); Mode, §V, 2, (iv); Ottoman music, §1; Turkey, §IV, 4 .

Article

Ṭār  

Christian Poché

Circular frame drum (see Drum, §I, 2, (vi)), found throughout the Arab world except in Lebanon ( Daff, Riqq) and Syria (daff, Mazhar, riqq). It varies in diameter from 12 cm (Morocco) to 70 cm (Bahrain). Successive migrations have brought the instrument to the borders of the Indian Ocean, to Kenya (...

Article

Tarija  

Christian Poché

Single-headed goblet drum of Morocco. It is made of glazed pottery, often geometrically decorated. It ranges in height from 12 to 80 cm, and the head, commonly of goatskin, is glued on and can have an internal snare. It is played by Berber men or women during festivities and processions (in Marrakesh), and by children as a toy. Long instruments are called ...

Article

George Leotsakos

(b El Faiyûm, Egypt, Nov 2, 1910; d Tirana, 28 or Dec 29, 1947). Albanian soprano . She studied in Montpellier and Paris (1927–35), where her teachers included André Gresse, and returned to Albania in 1935; later she studied in Italy. She gave numerous recitals throughout Albania, even in remote villages. Her combination of a classical opera repertory with Albanian folksong arrangements (and later partisan songs) endeared her to a popular audience, for many of whom she provided the first contact with foreign art-music. She appeared in Rome, Bari and other Italian cities, and in ...

Article

Winfried Lüdemann

(b Amsterdam, Sept 28, 1946). South African composer of Dutch birth. He is the son of an organist, and his brother is also a composer. The family emigrated to South Africa in 1958, settling near Cape Town. Temmingh studied composition with Fagan at the University of Cape Town (master’s degree in composition, ...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b Dakar, Senegal, c1942). Senegalese percussionist and singer. He began drumming at the age of eight and first performed in public when he was 12. In 1968, at the behest of the dancer and choreographer Katherine Dunham, he traveled to St. Louis, where he became involved in the Black Artists Group and began working as an instructor at Southern Illinois University. In the early 1970s he played with Freddie Hubbard and recorded with Nancy Wilson and B. B. King, the latter two affiliations in an effort to benefit African drought victims. Thiam’s involvement with jazz dates mainly from ...

Article

David Charlton

(b Port Louis, Mauritius, Oct 18, 1850; d Paris, Nov 16, 1909). French composer. He was taken as a child to Paris, where he studied at the Conservatoire with Duprato and Thomas. Soon after leaving the Conservatoire he became well known as a composer of salon pieces and was in demand as a pianist and teacher. His music was particularly successful in the French provinces, and two of his operas were first performed outside Paris....

Article

(b Qafṣa, Tunisia, 1184; d ?Cairo, 1253). Arab scholar. He studied first in Tunisia and then in Egypt. He travelled in Syria and eventually settled in Cairo. The little of his voluminous output that survives testifies to his wide-ranging interests. In addition to erotic subject-matter it includes an important and well-known gemmological treatise, ...

Article

Ankle bells used by bowl-lyre players of the Marach people of Kenya.

Article

J.B. Steane

(b Plovdiv, June 16, 1894; d Pasadena, ca , June 12, 1960). Armenian tenor. His parents settled first in Bulgaria and then in Egypt, where he made his début in 1914. After studying in Milan he appeared there in 1921 as Chevalier des Grieux (...

Article

Tolomeo  

Anthony Hicks

Opera in three acts by George Frideric Handel to a libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym adapted from Carlo Sigismondo Capece’s Tolomeo et Alessandro (1711, Rome); London, King’s Theatre, 30 April 1728.

Tolomeo was Handel’s 13th and last full-length opera for the Royal Academy of Music, and the last of the five operas in which the leading female roles were designed for the rival sopranos Francesca Cuzzoni and Faustina Bordoni, who sang Seleuce and Elisa. The other singers were the alto castratos Senesino (Ptolemy) and Antonio Baldi (Alessandro), and the bass Giuseppe Boschi (Araspe)....

Article

Gregory F. Barz

(b Niafounke, Mali, 1949; d Bamoko, Mali, March 7, 2006). Malian guitarist . He was known as the ‘Bluesman of Africa’. His first instrument was a n'jarka (one-string Malian chordophone). Touré’s guitar playing style combines elements of the American blues tradition and Arab-influenced Malian traditional music. After Mali’s independence, he served as director of the Niafounke artistic troupe from ...

Article

Towa  

Konin Aka

Large gourd vessel rattle of the Baule people of the Ivory Coast. It has an external net strung with cowrie shells or pearls and is used mainly on ceremonial occasions to mark the appearance of masked dancers. It especially evokes the most powerful divinities who protect Baule villages. It also accompanies war songs....