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Harry Eskew

(b between Lawrence Co. and Giles Co., TN, Dec 14, 1864; d Lawrenceburg, TN, Feb 9, 1941). American music publisher . He was a composer and compiler of gospel songs published in shape notation. From 1890 to 1911 he produced songbooks under his own name, beginning with Gospel Chimes. In 1912 he established the Vaughan Company in Lawrenceburg, which by 1964 had issued over 105 collections of music, most of them known as convention books because they were intended primarily for use in singing conventions. The firm also published five instruction books for singing school use and a trade journal, the Musical Visitor (later Vaughan’s Family Visitor; ceased 1986), which publicized activities of gospel singers. Vaughan has been credited with having originated the idea of the male gospel quartet in about 1891 and beginning radio broadcasts by such groups; later his firm employed up to 16 quartets at one time. In ...

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Miriam Miller

(d 1587). English printer, publisher and bookseller of French birth . He was a Huguenot refugee who settled in London (c1562) and worked in London and Edinburgh. He ran a general printing and publishing business, and in 1570 he published an English edition of Lassus's Recueil du mellange. He also printed in 1575 the Cantiones sacrae of Tallis and Byrd (see Printing and publishing of music, fig.), the first work published under the terms of a music-printing monopoly granted to the two composers by Elizabeth I. Neither the quality of the music nor the high standard of the printing stopped the venture from being a failure and Vautrollier printed no more music under this licence, although he printed two psalm books in 1587, which were exempt from the monopoly. His type was almost certainly acquired from the Netherlands, and on his death his partbook fount passed to Thomas East. A street was named after Vautrollier in the Blackfriars district of the City of London....

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Cari Johansson

( fl 1755–84). French music publisher . He lived in Paris, and his first privilege for music publishing dates from 1755. At that time he apparently had no premises of his own, but in 1760 the address of his firm is given as rue St-Thomas-du-Louvre. After September 1778 he moved to rue Traversière-St-Honoré, where he was active until about 1784, when Charles-Georges Boyer acquired his stock.

Venier published mostly instrumental works – symphonies, concertos and chamber music. His catalogues give a picture of the international character of Parisian musical life at that time as well as the different influences on the development of the French symphony. At first he published Italian symphonies by Castrucci, Galuppi, Jommelli and Giuseppe Sammartini and, later, works by contemporary German, Bohemian and Austrian composers, including J.C. Bach, J.J.C. Bode, Hasse, Kammel, Mysliveček, Dittersdorf and G.C. Wagenseil. The Mannheim school is richly represented in his catalogues with works by Franz Beck, Christian Cannabich, Anton Fils, Ignaz Fränzl, Holzbauer, F.X. Richter and Johann Stamitz. He also published many works by Boccherini, and he was the first to publish a symphony by Haydn, ...

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Thomas W. Bridges

(b 's-Hertogenbosch; fl Rome, 1575–1608). Dutch calligrapher, editor and engraver of music . He moved to Rome not later than 1575 and in 1586 he began to publish music books, among the first to be printed entirely from engraved plates. (The Intabolatura da leuto del divino Francesco da Milano, imperfectly engraved in about 1535, inspired no immediate imitations of the technique.) Two of these were entitled Diletto spirituale, one with keyboard score and lute tablature and one with only the vocal parts; the third was Peetrino's Primo libro delle melodie spirituali. In two of the books Verovio called himself ‘scrittore’, but in all three books the phrase ‘Martinus van Buijten incidit’ appears on the title-page. Van Buyten may have engraved all of the plates for the Peetrino book and the purely vocal version of Diletto spirituale as well as other Verovio books. However, the version of Diletto spirituale with instrumental music was ‘collected by Simon Verovio, engraved and printed by the same’. In some later editions Verovio clearly stated that he was the engraver, others he signed ‘appresso Simone Verovio’ or ‘stampate da S.V.’, and some he did not sign at all....

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Verve  

Barry Kernfeld and Dave Laing

American jazz and popular record company . It was established in Los Angeles in 1956 by Norman Granz, whose earlier labels Clef and Norgran were absorbed into the new company. Clef, formed by 1946, had functioned as a subsidiary of Mercury until 1953, when Granz briefly ran it independently; it issued recordings by groups associated with his organization Jazz at the Philharmonic and by many leading swing and bop musicians, notably Charlie Parker. Later in 1953 Granz formed Norgran, which reissued material from Clef and produced new recordings predominantly by swing and bop combos. With Verve, Granz continued this policy, reissuing Clef and Norgran recordings and organizing outstanding new swing and bop sessions by veteran players, including Stan Getz and Dizzy Gillespie. Concurrently, Ella Fitzgerald’s series of recorded ‘songbooks’ (to 1961) were of even greater significance; carrying Verve into the realm of American popular song, these albums offered definitive interpretations of the music of Porter, Rodgers and Hart, and the Gershwins....

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Vigoni  

Mariangela Donà

[Vigone]

Italian firm of publishers . Francesco Vigoni (b Milan, c1624; d Milan, 1699) founded the firm in Milan in 1660. He lived first at San Sebastiano and from 1682 in Pescheria Vecchia; he printed books of various kinds (many on religious subjects) including the Ateneo dei letterati milanesi by Abbé Filippo Picinelli (1670), an important biographical source book for Milanese writers and artists. His music publications include sacred vocal and instrumental chamber music by such composers as C.G. San Romano, M.S. Perucona, Giacinto Pestalozza, Tomaso Motta, Bartolomeo Trabattone, G.M. Angeleri and Gerolamo Zanetti. He also published many oratorio and opera librettos. Of Francesco’s five sons, Carlo Federico Vigoni (1658–c1693) shared the management of the firm with his father. He was a musician and the editor of Nuova Raccolta de Motetti Sacri a voce sola (1679, 1681) and Sacre Armonie a voce sola de diversi celebri autori...

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(d Venice, 1619). Italian bookseller and music printer . He may have been of Spanish origin, since he signed some books ‘Vincenci’ when he started publishing in 1583 and for the next few years, and signed his edition of Guerrero’s Canciones y villanescas espirituales (1589) ‘en la emprenta de Iago Vincentio’; but in 1583 he also used the spelling ‘Vincenzi’, which was his usual form until 1588. Thereafter he used ‘Vincenti’.

Between 1583 and 1586 Vincenti printed, in partnership with Ricciardo Amadino, about 20 books a year, almost all musical editions. Vincenti seems to have been the more assertive partner; he signed several dedications of joint publications while Amadino signed none, and when they began to print separately in 1586, Vincenti kept the joint printer’s mark, a pine-cone. The separation was probably amicable, for they continued to use the same typefaces, type ornaments and decorative initials, and printed jointly a number of books on religion and philosophy (...

Article

Virgin  

Dave Laing

British-owned record company. It was founded in 1973 by Richard Branson, already a successful record retailer, chiefly to record popular music. The first four releases featured avant-garde work by such groups as Can from Germany and the British-based Henry Cow. The company's fortunes changed dramatically with the unexpected commercial success of Tubular Bells, an album by Mike Oldfield; issued by Virgin in 1973, it went on to sell over 20 million copies. Virgin associated itself with the punk movement by releasing work by the controversial Sex Pistols in 1977, while under the Front Line label it issued reggae recordings from Peter Tosh, U-Roy and others. During the 1980s, it established itself as a mainstream pop and rock company through such artists as Human League, Culture Club, UB 40 and Simple Minds. In 1982 Virgin acquired the Charisma label, whose most important acts included Phil Collins and Genesis. The company expanded its horizons by setting up a Virgin Classics division, with recordings by Arleen Augér, and Virgin Venture, which featured work by the Irish composer and pianist Mícheál O'Súilleabháin and the jazz composer Mike Westbrook. It had earlier become the British distributor for the JCOA (Jazz Composer's Orchestra Association) label of Mike Mantler and others. During the 1980s branches of Virgin were set up in the USA, Australia, Brazil and several European countries. Virgin Germany was responsible for the multi-million selling new age albums by Enigma (the pseudonym of the producer Michael Cretu)....

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(fl Antwerp, 1542–45). South Netherlandish printer . He formed a partnership with Tylman Susato and Hendrik ter Bruggen in order to print music; ter Bruggen acquired a privilege to do so on 22 December 1541. However, the partnership was short-lived. On 12 September 1542 Susato agreed to pay ter Bruggen for his share of the printing materials, and a lawsuit which Vissenaken brought against Susato, unsuccessfully, on 9 April 1544 showed that the association between the three had lasted for less than a year. A volume of motets published in 1542, Quatuor vocum musicae modulationes numero XXVI (RISM 15427), has only Vissenaken’s name on the title-page, though Susato may have been the musical editor: one of his compositions is included in the collection and Susato’s own first publication, a book of chansons, also comprised 26 items. The 1542 motet book is the earliest dated volume printed in the Low Countries using single-impression music type. The type design is quite different from the one Susato used from ...

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Stanley Boorman

(fl 1603–23). Italian printer . He specialized in music printing in Naples from 1603 to 1623, except for a brief period in the service of the Archbishop of Trani in 1617–18. He published secular vocal music by Macedonio di Mutio and Montella (1603), Gesualdo (1603 and ...

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Stanley Boorman

(fl 1494–1531). Italian printer . He printed a number of volumes in partnership with his brother Matteo, who may have done no more than provide financial support. The most significant music printing that can certainly be assigned to them comprises the treatises of Aaron and Spataro, printed in Venice between 1523 and 1531. By then Bernardino, based in Venice, had also printed in Rome (1507–10) and in Rimini (1521). The printing of Degli Silvestri’s Della origine delli volgari proverbi (1526) is thought to have led directly to the establishment of Venetian censorship. The most important volume associated with Bernardino Vitali is Girolamo Cavazzoni’s Intavolatura (1543), marked with a printer’s device but no name. This has also been ascribed to Bernardus Vercellensis and even to Bernardinus de Vianis. It is now thought likely that it was printed by Vitali, which would make it his last printed work....

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Volk  

Rudolf Lück

German firm of music publishers. It was founded by Arno Volk (b Würzburg, 14 Jan 1914; d Ingelheim, 7 July 1987), who studied music at the University of Cologne, taking the doctorate there in 1943 with a dissertation on Ernst Eichner’s life and works. In 1950 he founded the Arno Volk Verlag in Cologne; it was bought by the Gerig publishing group in 1957, when it became known as the Arno Volk-Verlag Hans Gerig KG; from that year Volk held a leading position with B. Schott’s Söhne in Mainz, becoming chairman of the board of directors in 1974. Since its foundation the Volk-Verlag has concentrated on publishing works on musicology and music education. The firm’s most ambitious project is the series Das Musikwerk, edited by K.G. Fellerer with the collaboration of internationally known musicologists; 48 volumes were produced in the 25 years from 1950, and from 1954 to 1976...

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Jonas Westover

(bc 1965). American record executive. She graduated from high school at 15 and the following year worked as a roadie for Johnnie Thunders and the Ramones. She moved in 1974 to New York City, where she worked as a sound designer for Broadway and Off-Broadway shows, including On The Waterfront...

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Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Augsburg, April 12, 1903; d Kassel, Oct 29, 1975). German music publisher . He had no formal academic training. A crucial factor in his development was his joining the ‘Wandervogel’ at the age of 11, where his love for folksong was aroused. His spontaneous enthusiasm for ‘natural’ music led in 1923 to his meeting with Walther Hensel, with whom he jointly founded the Finkensteiner Bund, an association of singers; it also spurred him to embark on publishing ventures in connection with the revival movements in German musicology, at first particularly in association with Gurlitt and his pupils. This activity grew into the Bärenreiter-Verlag, set up by Vötterle at Augsburg in 1924 and since 1927 based at Kassel. His many pioneering activities, which gave him a world-wide status in the music trade, reflected and made a significant contribution to important periods of German musicology: in the 1920s, when old music was revived; after the war, when musical interests widened and complete editions were begun and a reappraisal of 19th-century music was made; and, more recently, when a cautious probing of modern music was undertaken....

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Vox  

Jerome F. Weber

American record company . It was founded in New York in 1945 by George H. Mendelssohn. Recording began in New York with 78 r.p.m. discs, issued on vinyl as well as on shellac. In 1946 the owner moved to Paris and associated his firm with French Polydor. In July of that year Klemperer conducted his first recordings in 15 years for these labels, joined by Eugène Bigot, Anatole Fistoulari, Paul Paray and Manuel Rosenthal. The company was early in adopting the LP format, in mid-1949. Vox parted from Polydor in 1950 and became associated with Pathé, whose recordings appeared on Vox until early 1954. Vox began to record in Vienna in early 1950, using the facilities of the Vienna SO, and later in Stuttgart and Milan. After 1952 the Vienna SO continued to record for Vox pseudonymously. Ferdinand Grossmann, Rudolf Moralt and Clemens Krauss were Vox’s first conductors in Vienna; in ...

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W. Thomas Marrocco and Mark Jacobs

American firm of music publishers . It was founded in Newton Centre, Massachusetts, in 1901 by the composer Arthur Farwell (b St Paul, MN, 23 April 1872; d New York, 20 Jan 1952) to publish neglected music by contemporary American composers and music using American folk material. Named after an Omaha Indian ceremony for peace, fellowship and song, it began idealistically to further the cause of American music and a new indigenous music that Farwell believed would emerge from a study of ragtime and of black, Indian and cowboy songs. The press published the works of 37 composers (including nine women) whose main interest was in American Indian music, and Farwell, H.W. Loomis and Carlos Troyer were among those whose works used such material. Other composers whose music was published by the firm include Frederic Ayres, Rubin Goldmark, E.S. Kelley, Arthur Shepherd, Henry Gilbert, E.B. Hill and Gena Branscombe. Two collections of music were issued each quarter, one vocal and one instrumental, in volumes beautifully designed and printed, often with introductions by Farwell. Later each composition was published separately in sheet-music form; Farwell designed many of the abstract covers himself, taking pride in their distinctive appearance; his typographical designs were adapted by other publishers. In ...

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Theodor Wohnhaas

(b ?Bamberg; d Nuremberg, July 24, 1547). German printer . By his marriage on 15 December 1527 to Kunegunde, widow of Hans Hergot, he became a citizen of Nuremberg and acquired the latter's printing business, which continued to issue Reformation songs under her name until 1538. After her death (Nuremberg, ...

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Theodor Wohnhaas

(b Öhringen, c1570; d Nuremberg, March 19, 1632). German printer . He was a printer at Öhringen, but became a citizen of Nuremberg on his marriage to Ursula Adelhart in 1593. He printed or published over 150 items, of which almost a third are music. His publications include works by German and Italian composers, notably Vecchi; he was a particularly staunch promoter of the music of Austrian exiles. His work is discussed in T. Wohnhaas: ‘Nurnberger Gesangbuchdrucker und -verleger im 17. Jahrhundert’, ...