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John C.G. Waterhouse

(b S Giorgio a Cremano, Naples, Aug 6, 1883; d Anacapri, Aug 26, 1971). Italian composer. After gaining a diploma at the Liceo di S Cecilia, Rome (1908) he lived mostly as a freelance composer. He spent the years 1912–21 in Tunisia, mainly in the village of Hammamet; and, though he then moved to Rome, he continued to spend much time in Tunis, where he founded a concert society and in 1927 a music school that later became a conservatory. In 1933 he settled in Anacapri.

Santoliquido’s early works, such as L’ultima visione di Cassandra and Crepuscolo sul mare, reveal a sensitive but basically unoriginal talent, influenced by both Wagner and Debussy. His residence in Tunisia led him to give several pieces a local colouring; but such features as the augmented 2nds of Il profumo delle oasi sahariane, Ferhuda and comparable works are never more than picturesque. Nor did his idiom change substantially as time went on, though his best inter-war compositions, such as ...


Ferdinand J. de Hen

[banzi, gombi]

Box zither of the Zande people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has 9 or 11 strings. The semicircular resonator, open-ended at front and back, is made of bark stretched and tied over a frame of three to seven flexible sticks that are bent into semicircles and affixed to the underside of the soundboard, making a shape like a boat hull. (...


Gary W. Kennedy

[John ]

(b ?Algeria, 1944). American double bass player, composer, and leader. His father was a jazz pianist, and his brother was also a musician. He may have grown up in North Africa, where his father toured with an Algerian group, but from 1973 he was leading small groups and recording (1974, 1976) in France; his sidemen included Daunik Lazro, François Jeanneau, Muhammad Ali, and Mino Cinélu, among others. In 1977 or 1978 he moved to New York, where he continued as the leader of small groups and also of the Multinational Big Band; notable sidemen in the latter were Roy Campbell, Jack Walrath, Art Baron, Talib Qadir (later known as Talib Kibwe), Joe Ford, Jemeel Moondoc, Mark Whitecage (who was also a regular member of Sarbib’s small groups), and Dave Hofstra (on electric bass guitar). In the mid- to late 1980s Sarbib appears to have ceased to perform and record; nothing is known of his life from that time. He also played piano....


John Owen Ward

(b Headingley, Leeds, July 24, 1877; d Vevey, July 31, 1958). English writer on music and encyclopedist. He had little formal schooling and was largely self-taught; he spent some years as a music teacher in Canterbury and South Africa, then as a university extension lecturer on music appreciation at Manchester, meanwhile taking his ARCM, and the BMus degree at Oxford. In 1907 he formed the Home Music Study Union, whose journal the Music Student (later the Music Teacher) he edited until 1921. In 1912 he moved to London, where he began to make his way as a journalist (Evening Standard, 1913–20) and university extension lecturer. During World War I he organized the ‘music for the troops’ section of the YMCA, work which resulted in his Listener's Guide to Music (1919). From 1920 to 1925 he was music critic of The Observer, where he became an early champion of broadcasting, the gramophone and the player-piano. He gave fortnightly impromptu radio reviews of musical broadcasts; from ...


Erwin R. Jacobi

(b Kaysersberg, Upper Alsace, Jan 14, 1875; d Lambarené, Gabon, Sept 4, 1965). Alsatian organist and musicologist. After receiving piano lessons at the age of five from his father, he studied the organ and, while still at school, had private music lessons from Eugen Münch, who gave him an early introduction to Bach’s work. At Strasbourg University (1893–9) he studied theology and philosophy, continuing his musical education privately. He perfected his organ technique under Widor in Paris, and played the organ under Ernst Münch in Strasbourg in the performances of Bach cantatas and Passions with the choir of St Wilhelm. He studied music theory with Jacobsthal in Strasbourg, took piano lessons with Philipp and Marie Jaëll in Paris and participated in Stumpf’s studies of the psychology of sound in Berlin. In 1896 he paid his first visit to Bayreuth, where he established friendly relations with Cosima and Siegfried Wagner. His aversion to the modern organ as an instrument for the interpretation of Bach’s polyphonic music dates from the same year and as a result he devoted himself to a careful study of organs and organ building....


Ingram D. Marshall

(b Corvallis, OR, Oct 10, 1944). American composer. He studied at the University of Oregon with Homer Keller (BA 1967) and at Brown University with Paul Nelson and Shapiro (MA 1969); he studied traditional African music in Ghana, Tanzania and Zimbabwe in 1970. In 1969 he began teaching at Colorado College, where he founded the Pearson Electronic Sound Studio and the New Music Ensemble. His awards include the New England Conservatory-Rockefeller Foundation chamber music prize (1980, for Arcs), the Kayden Arts Award (1983) and an NEA fellowship (1985).

Scott’s interest in African music and the works of Steve Reich and Terry Riley has influenced his own compositions, which are built around melodic repetition and gradual rhythmic change. In 1977 he developed a ‘bowed piano’ technique: as many as ten players excite the strings of an open piano with monofilament bows and sticks coated with resin. The sounds produced resemble that of a mass of string instruments or a giant accordion, or occasionally electronic effects. His works in this medium range from short studies to the concert length ...


Hugh Wood

revised by Mervyn Cooke


(b Budapest, May 4, 1905; d Kruger National Park, South Africa, Sept 24, 1960). British composer and teacher. Born into a musical family, he started to learn the cello at the age of ten, and from 1919 to 1924 studied at the Budapest Academy of Music with Adolf Shiffer (cello) and Kodály (composition). In 1925 Seiber entered a wind sextet (Serenade) for a Budapest competition: when it was not awarded the prize, Bartók resigned from the jury in protest. After completing his studies, Seiber accepted a teaching post in Frankfurt, then in 1927 joined a ship’s orchestra as cellist, visiting both North and South America. In 1928 Seiber was back in Frankfurt on the staff of the Hoch Conservatory, where his class in the theory and practice of jazz – the first of its kind anywhere in the world – achieved a succès de scandale. During these years he conducted at the theatres of the city, and was cellist of the Lenzewski Quartet. Seiber left Frankfurt in autumn ...





Eric Charry

(Fr. République du Sénégal)

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 196,190 km² and a population of 9·49 million (2000 estimate), approximately 92% of whom are Muslim. The Senegal river defines the northern boundary with Mauritania and eastern border with Mali. The Gambia river defines the country of the same name, which cuts through the middle of Senegal (fig.1). The region south of The Gambia, called Casamance, is lush compared to the dry north. Senegal has undergone strong Islamic influence via its northern region in the Sahel, and early, prolonged European contact via its western border along the Atlantic coastline. The hereditary professional musician, oral historian and praise-singer (Griot) is prominent in the socially differentiated societies of the Wolof, Haalpulaaren (Tukulor, Toucouleur, FulBe or Fulani) and Mandinka. Senegal is well known for its drumming and dance traditions, especially the Wolof sabar ensemble, its Mandinka kora players and its wealth of urban popular music groups....


Gavin Webb


Bridge harp of the Akan and Ashanti people of Ghana. The name seperewa derives from the Akan terms se (‘talk’), pre (the word that describes the strumming motion from the thumb), and wa (‘small’). So seperewa roughly translates to ‘this small instrument that you strum speaks’. It has 6 (traditionally) to 14 strings, a wooden box resonator, and a skin soundtable. A gently curved wooden neck extends upwards from the front of the instrument away from the player. The tall bridge, notched or pierced with holes up both sides for the strings to pass through, stands vertically on the skin. The strings, nowadays often of nylon, are tied around the neck and extend to the tail. Textual sources date the instrument’s presence as far back as the late 17th century. Its tuning and hand positioning, with the strings for the left hand tuned to the first, third, and fifth degrees of the scale while the right-hand strings are tuned to the second, fourth, and sixth degrees, facilitates the modal harmonic progressions typical of Akan music. The instrument normally accompanies praise singing....



Ferdinand J. de Hen

Arched harp of the Ngbaka people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has five (sometimes seven) fibre strings. The wooden soundbox is almost rectangular with slightly rounded corners, and is covered with antelope skin pierced by two soundholes. The wooden neck stands almost perpendicular to the soundbox and has a roughly carved human head at the top. This type of harp is also found in the northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo among the Mbanja, Nzakara, Poto, and Sango peoples, and in the Republic of Congo....


Gerda Wolfram

(b Sozopolis, Pisidia, 465; d Xois, Egypt, Feb 8, 538). Greek hymnographer and theologian. He studied law and philosophy in Alexandria and Berytus and in 488 was baptized in Libya. He became a monk and is thought to have founded a monophysite monastery near Maiuma in Palestine. Because of the persecution of Palestinian monophysite monks, Severus went to Constantinople in 508, where he opposed the teachings of the Council of Chalcedon and succeeded in gaining the support of Emperor Anastasius I for the monophysite cause. In 512 he became Patriarch of Antioch, but with the suppression of monophytism following Anastasius’s death in 518 he was removed from office and went into exile in Egypt. In 535 Severus returned to Constantinople, but he was excommunicated in 536 and again fled to Egypt where he later died.

One of Severus’s intentions after he had taken up office was to create a magnificent rite (according to his biographer, Joannes bar-Aphthonia). Realizing that the people of Antioch loved both sacred and secular music, he composed many hymns and employed ecclesiastical singers to attract more people to church services. He was a prolific writer, whose surviving works have mostly come down in Syriac translation, among them the hymnal ...


(b Shoah, Ethiopia, 1949). Ethiopian singer, church musician, and liturgical scholar, naturalized American. Seyoum began studying music at the age of eight and attended various religious schools in his homeland. As he grew older, he began to learn new types of performance, including the Bethlehem style of singing, Christian chant, and sacred dance. At 17 years of age, he was already named a quanygeta, or “leader of the right hand side,” an important position among Ethiopian church musicians (also called dabrata). He quickly rose from deacon to marigeta, the leader of the musicians. He spent ten years in Greece learning more about liturgical practices and then came to the United States in 1982. Seyoum settled in Alexandria, Virgina, and joined the Debre Selam Kidist Mariam Church in Washington, DC. He became a leader there, and his remarkable musical skills have led to the preservation of many traditional elements of the Ethiopian Christian tradition in America. To codify and disseminate these practices, Seyoum released a six-CD set of liturgical materials. He has memorized the entirety of the Ethiopian Psalter (Dawit) and has intimate knowledge of other sacred books, such as the Ethiopian Hymnary. Seyoum is an expert of instrumental church practices, including those that are tied to the extremely complicated notational system from Ethiopia that includes more than 600 symbols. He is also the only living master of the prayer staff and its movements (an art called ...


(b Tugela, Ladysmith, South Africa, Aug 28, 1941). South African composer and singer . He is the leader of the world-renowned a cappella group Ladysmith Black Mambazo and the chief exponent of isicathamiya, a tradition of male choral performance and dance that emerged in the 1920s and has remained popular with Zulu-speaking migrant labourers. His early recordings in the 1970s highlighted themes typical of the genre such as longing for ancestral homelands, the Zulu past and a world of stable gender relations. Shabalala also reinvigorated the genre by introducing new choreography and by replacing the more voluminous sound of earlier isicathamiya singing with highly polished, subtle sound textures. After converting to Christianity in 1975, he produced a series of albums of religious inspiration, before collaborating in 1986 with Paul Simon on the Graceland album. In 1987 Shabalala became the first South African musician to win a Grammy Award for his album ...


Samha El-Kholy


(b Cairo, Nov 15, 1923). Egyptian violinist and composer. He studied at the Fuad I Music Institute (1941–5) and, proving a proficient violinist, was engaged to play with several composers. He conducted the Radio Music Ensemble and later the Reda Folkdance Troupe (1982–6).

His earliest compositions, from 1948, are instrumental monodic works employing traditional forms. But in 1950, after becoming acquainted with Western classical music through a private recording collection, he decided to compose Arabic music in a Western idiom. He studied with two Italians residing in Egypt, Menato and Isaiga, and now divides his time between playing and composing. He formed the Sharara Sextet (which includes his two sons Hassan and Ashraf), with which he has toured the Arabian countries, England, France and Germany. From 1956 to 1979 he travelled to Tunisia, Libya, Lebanon and Jordan to teach and help found ensembles of traditional music. Since ...


Christian Poché

[Shawqī Muṣṭafá, Yūsuf ]

(b Tanta, 1925; d Masqaṭ, Nov 20, 1987). Egyptian musicologist . He studied science in Cairo and at Harvard, taking the doctorate in 1950, concurrently investigating Arab and European music. He began teaching at the Cairo Conservatory and later at the University of Cairo. He took part in conferences on Arab music in 1964 and 1969, his paper on Arabic music scales from the latter being one of his most important essays. In 1983 he was invited by the Sultan Qaboos bin Said of Oman to carry out field research on Omani music. He became the supervisor of the Oman Centre for Traditional Music in Masqaṭ, compiled a dictionary of Omani music, published posthumously, and in 1985 organized a conference on traditional Omani music. Shawki is one of the major figures of Arab music in the 20th century. His writings are carefully investigated, and are characterized by their scientific approach....



Ferdinand J. de Hen

Panpipe of the Luba/Luluwa people in the Shaba region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has two or three bamboo tubes. Four shiba panpipes are used, in conjunction with other instruments, for dance music. Siba or shiba is also a generic name among the Sampwe for panpipes with four bamboo tubes, and with four, five, seven, or eight bamboo tubes among the Luba....


Cootje Van Oven

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 73,326 km² and a population of 4·87 millon (2000 estimate). Colonized by the British in the early 19th century, the state became independent in 1961 and a Republic in 1971. The population comprises the Mende in the south and the Temne in the north, with a number of smaller ethnic groups, including the Kissi, Malinké (Maninka), Fula (FulBe) and Krio.

Although Sierra Leone is a relatively small country, it has a rich variety of music. This is not only because it has different peoples, each with their own musical variety, but also because of their influence on each other. In addition, music is closely connected with dancing, drama, storytelling and the visual arts. Even carving and other arts and crafts are associated with music through the use of masks and costumes by dancers who act as the embodiments of certain spirits, and through the decoration of such instruments as the ...


Bill Dobbins

(Ward Martin Tabares)

(b Norwalk, CT, Sept 2, 1928; d New Rochelle, NY, June 18, 2014). American jazz pianist, bandleader and composer. As a child he was exposed to Cape Verdean folk music performed by his father, who was of Portuguese descent. He began studying the saxophone and the piano in high school, when his influences were blues singers such as Memphis Slim and boogie-woogie and bop pianists, especially Bud Powell and Thelonious Monk. In 1950 Stan Getz made a guest appearance in Hartford, Connecticut, with Silver’s trio, and subsequently engaged the group to tour regularly with him. Silver remained with Getz for a year, during which time three of his compositions, Penny, Potter’s Luck (written for Tommy Potter) and Split Kick, were recorded by the band for the Roost label.

By 1951 Silver had developed sufficient confidence to move to New York, where he performed with such established professionals as Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, Oscar Pettiford and Art Blakey. In ...


Linda Fujie

(b Wesermünde, nr Bremerhaven, May 6, 1938). German ethnomusicologist . He studied musicology and ethnology at the University of Hamburg, receiving the doctorate in 1971 with a dissertation on Egyptian folk music. In 1972 he was appointed director of the ethnomusicology department of the Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin (formerly the Phonogramm-Archiv). From 1984 he was also professor of musicology at the Hochschule der Künste, Berlin. He has conducted field research in Egypt, the Sudan, Nigeria, Cameroon, Western New Guinea and Northern Sumatra. His areas of interest include methodology, organology, film and trance music and dance. In addition to publishing on these topics, he has also made several ethnomusicological and ethnographical films. He has served as editor of the record and audio-visual series ‘Museum Collection Berlin’.

Studien zur ägyptischen Volksmusik (diss., U. of Hamburg, 1971; Hamburg, 1972) ‘Probleme, Methoden und Ziele der Ethnomusikologie’, Jb für musikalische Volks- und Völkerkunde, 9 (1978), 8–52; repr. in ...