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A synthesis of American swing and South African traditional or urban popular music. In the 1940s Zacks Nkosi was a forerunner of this style, which flourished in South Africa in the 1950s. Barney Rachabane’s composition Kwela Mama is also representative of the genre, and its practitioners Kippie Moeketsi and Ntemi Piliso later became members of the African Jazz Pioneers, a group which revived township jazz in the 1980s....

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Gregory F. Barz

(b Durban, May 5, 1936). South African ethnomusicologist , son of Hugh Tracey. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford (1957–9), where he gained the MA, and was awarded an honorary DMus from Natal University, Durban (1995). He held a position as musicologist with the International Library of African Music (...

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Lucy Durán

(b Willand, Devon, Jan 29, 1903; d Krugersdorp, Transvaal, Oct 23, 1977). South African ethnomusicologist of British birth, father of Andrew Tracey. He farmed in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 1921. In 1929 he began to make recordings of indigenous songs and from ...

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Tsambi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Lamellaphone of the Mayombe region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Three types have been reported: a flat-board type with 10 metal tongues; a raft-body type with 11 (apparently) wooden or bamboo tongues; and a box-resonated type with 10 metal tongues.

J.S. Laurenty: Les sanza du Congo...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Drum of the Bena Kalundwe, Luba, and Sanga peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a cylindrical, footed body 1.2 to 1.5 metres long, with a single head nailed on. Among the Luba it is beaten for the enthroning of a chief, or in times of war....

Article

Tsimbi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Lamellaphone of the Loango region of the western Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has six or seven metal tongues and a resonator made of a hollowed piece of wood. It is open on the end nearer the player and beak-shaped at the opposite, closed end. The Sundi call it ...

Article

Tsinda  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Drum of the Mbole, Kutu, and Saka peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The single head is nailed to the footed body, which is decorated with geometrical incisions. It resembles the Nkundo bondundu.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi...

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Metal leg bells of the Wanga people of Northern Nyanza district, Kenya.

Article

Tolia Nikiprowetzky

The Tuareg (sing. Targi), probably of Berber origin, are defined here as traditionally nomads who are widely dispersed over the middle of the Sahara and the Sahelian steppe-country, to the south of the desert. The estimated population of 500,000 are Muslims and have a hierarchical matrilineal social structure with several castes. The Tuareg are in permanent contact with their neighbours, both those of African origin to the south and those of Arab descent to the north, and maintain economic relations with these groups through barter. In spite of this, they have retained their cultural identity and their own language, Tamachek or Tamacheq (with its own script, Tifinar). Many features of Tuareg music are likewise quite distinct from those of its neighbours. In contrast with black Muslim societies, there are no professional musicians among the Tuareg, although certain members of the servant caste do at times profit from their gifts as singers or instrumentalists....

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Double-headed drum of the Yeke, Luba, and Lomotwa peoples in the Shaba region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The body is made of a palm tree log, with both ends hollowed but left solid in the centre. The heads are nailed on. Frequently it is decorated with white and red geometrical patterns. It is suspended from the neck of the player and used to accompany songs of praise to the chief....

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Daniel Avorgbedor

(b Winneba, Ghana, 1937; d Legon, Ghana, June 14, 1993). Ghanaian composer. After obtaining diplomas in general and African music at the University of Ghana (1962–4), he entered the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest (1964), studying composition with Rezső Sugár. He later took the masters degree and the doctorate in musicology (...

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David Scott and Nigel Scaife

(b Melbourne, Oct 13, 1889; d London, Nov 18, 1946). Australian music critic and poet. Educated at the Scotch College, Melbourne, he emigrated to England in 1907 and from 1910 to 1914 he travelled in South Africa, Austria, Germany and Italy, where his studies ranged widely: he never devoted himself exclusively to music. In ...

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Small spherical metal pellet bell of European make used by the Tshokwe people of the Lóvua/Lunda district, Angola. Mounted on strips of antelope skin, the bells are attached to the legs of dancers or may be shaken by hand to accompany singing.

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Rosemary Williamson

(b Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe], Aug 17, 1942). British musicologist . He studied at the University of Cape Town (BMus 1963) and at Oxford, where he took the doctorate in 1969 with a dissertation on Janáček’s stylistic development as an operatic composer. He served as associate editor of ...

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Uindja  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Rattle of the Nzakara people of the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made of dried fruit shells strung together, and is worn on the arms and legs of dancers.

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Clapper bell of the Baganda people of Uganda. It is made from a narrow rectangular strip of iron, folded into the shape of an inverted U, with the clapper suspended inside it.

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Undaji  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Voice modifier of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made of reed or a hollow stem of the papaya tree. One end is covered with a thin skin or spider web that vibrates and alters the vocal timbre when the user sings into the other, open end. Although uncommon, it is used throughout the DRC and called by various names including ...

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Daniel Avorgbedor

(b Ogidi, Jan 1, 1946). Nigerian composer. After studying music at the University of Ibadan, Nsukka (diploma, 1973), he pursued graduate studies at Trinity College of Music (diploma, 1977). His completion of an MA in ethnomusicology at Queen’s University, Belfast, studying with John Blacking, marked an important shift in Uzoigwe’s theoretical background. In his works completed at Ibadan, notably the ...

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Arvid O. Vollsnes

(b Stavanger, Aug 25, 1887; d Haugesund, Dec 14, 1952). Norwegian composer. The son of a missionary, he spent five years of his early childhood in Madagascar. He received his first musical education in Kristiania (now Oslo) between 1907 and 1909, qualifying as an organist and studying composition with Elling, an advocate of the Brahms tradition; he also published his first work. At the Berlin Conservatory (...

Article

(b Calvinia district, Cape Province, April 26, 1916; d Stellenbosch, May 27, 1983). South African composer. Although he started to compose at an early age, he received no formal instruction until 1938; of his early works, only the Vier weemoedige liedjies are regularly performed. In ...