(b Plaquemine, LA, Oct 8, 1893; d New York, Nov 6, 1965). American jazz and popular pianist and publisher . He moved to New Orleans in 1906 and travelled with a minstrel show as a singer and dancer in 1911. After returning to New Orleans he began a music publishing venture (c1915) with A.J. Piron. Later in the decade he moved briefly to Chicago and then permanently to New York, where he founded a music publishing firm and several music stores; he also organized many recording sessions, principally for Okeh (1923–30). The most important of Williams’s groups was the Blue Five. Although noted more for its instrumental recordings made under Williams’s name, including Cakewalking Babies from Home with Louis Armstrong and Sidney Bechet (1925, OK), this group was principally an accompanying band for blues and vaudeville singers. Williams also made nearly 100 recordings with his ‘washboard’ bands....
revised by Mike Hazeldine
revised by Ian Woodfield
(b London, 1758–9; d Paris, Oct 1817). English army officer, composer, author and music publisher. He joined the Bengal Army at 19 and sailed for India in 1778. After 20 years on active service there his career as an officer came to a sudden end. He was a captain in the 17th N. India Regiment when he was suspended for having written a letter, signed ‘Mentor’, published in the Calcutta Telegraph on 17 March 1798, in which he criticized the Government’s military policy. He was ordered home, his conduct being found by the Board ‘highly criminal and of a dangerous tendency’, and was later retired on half pay.
On his return to London, Williamson opened a warehouse in the Strand, ‘where a great variety of Music, Instruments, as also Prints and Drawings, may be had’. As a self-proclaimed authority on all matters Indian, his main value as a musical commentator lies in his remarks on the lucrative export trade in instruments between London and India. In his ...
R. Allen Lott
(b Germany, 1764; d Philadelphia, Dec 30, 1851). American publisher . He took over John Christopher Moller’s business in Philadelphia in 1794 and established one of the most active and enduring music publishing firms of the early 19th century. He built up a large and varied catalogue of instrumental and vocal music and popular songs, including Stephen Foster’s first published song, Open thy lattice, love (1844). In 1856 the firm was taken over by Lee & Walker, which was in turn acquired by Oliver Ditson in 1875. In 1822 Willig acquired the business of Thomas Carr in Baltimore, and his son George Willig jr took control of that firm (which was renamed after him) in 1829. The Baltimore firm also published popular songs, especially minstrel music such as Clare de Kitchen, Jim Crow and Zip Coon. At the death of George Willig jr in 1874, his sons Joseph E. Willig and Henry Willig, who had joined him in ...
(fl London, 1584–1611). English music printer . He owned one of the most successful general printing businesses in London. He held several important offices in the Company of Stationers and ultimately became Printer to the City of London. From 1592 he printed several editions of the Sternhold and Hopkins psalter for John Day and for his son Richard Day. His publications began with John Dowland’s Lachrimae (dated 2 April 1604 in the Stationers’ register); it was financed by Thomas Adams and was one of the most important musical publications of the time. Windet’s music output is not large, numbering only a dozen volumes, including Coprario’s Funeral Teares (1606), Robert Jones’s The First Set of Madrigals (1607) and Ultimum vale (1605) and Thomas Ford’s Musicke of Sundrie Kindes (1607). Windet worked with type, and his printing was always of a high standard, distinguished by spacious layout and a clean, sharp impression. His skill must have been stretched to its limits by the eccentric demands of Tobias Hume’s ...
William D. Gudger
revised by Andrew D. McCredie
(b Ampfing, Upper Bavaria, Oct 22, 1885; d Frankfurt, May 30, 1935). German composer and editor. The son of a school teacher and organist, he attended the Munich Academy of Music where he studied with Rudolf Louis, Joseph Rheinberger and others. From 1913 he was an editor and adviser with Schott of Mainz, for whom he compiled Das Buch der Motive (Maine, 1921), which became a standard source for identifying Wagner’s leitmotifs. After military service, he taught theory and piano in Wiesbaden; two years before his death he was appointed director of the Mainz Music School. His music is in the late-Romantic tradition. In addition to orchestral works in conventional genres, he wrote two grandiloquent sacred works: the Missa symphonica (1926) and the Requiem (1929). His small piano pieces (op.37) adopt certain modern trends, inviting comparison with Bartók’s Mikrokosmos.
(b Philadelphia, PA, 1837; d Philadelphia, PA, 1918). American composer and publisher. He was the younger brother of Septimus Winner (1827–1902). He followed his older brother into Philadelphia’s growing music publishing business. Evidence suggests Septimus gave his brother a job, possibly as early as 1845. Septimus and Joseph had a contentious relationship, with Septimus permitting his brother to rejoin the business at least once after a separation for unknown causes. By 1854, Joseph opened his own business and maintained it until 1895; his son ran it until 1918. Joseph and Septimus reconciled at least one other time, sharing business locations from 1885 to 1887. Family records describe Joseph’s jealousy of his brother’s compositional successes and, using his middle name as a pseudonym, he published at least 25 songs prior to his 1869 success, Little Brown Jug. By his retirement, he had published well over 50 songs under the Eastburn moniker....
Nicholas E. Tawa
(b Philadelphia, May 11, 1827; d Philadelphia, Nov 22, 1902). American composer, teacher and publisher . His parents were Joseph Eastburn Winner, a violin maker, and Mary Ann Winner (née Hawthorne), a relative of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Largely self-educated in music, he played and taught several instruments. Around 1845 Winner became a music publisher and opened a music store with his brother Joseph. He was active in Philadelphia’s music circle and was a member of the Musical Fund Society, in whose orchestra he played for five years, the Cecillian Musical Society, and the Philadelphia Brass Band.
Winner wrote many simple and highly popular pieces, arrangements and instruction methods for different instruments. He is best known for his songs issued under the pseudonym Alice Hawthorne, which spawned the genre known as ‘Hawthorne Ballads’. Other pseudonyms were Percy Guyer, Mark Mason and Paul Stenton. Recognition came with How sweet are the roses...
(d Berlin, before 1772). German music printer and publisher . He founded his firm in Berlin in 1750 and introduced Breitkopf’s improved typeface there. He published primarily works by Berlin composers (Quantz, Agricola, C.P.E. Bach) and collections such as Musicalisches Mancherley (1762–3) and Lieder der Deutschen mit Melodien...
(b Kraków, 1523; d Kraków, 15–17 June 1605). Polish printer and bookseller active in Kraków. He was probably a pupil of Florian Ungler. For the high standards of his publications (which equal those of Januszowski), Wirzbięta received the title ‘Sacrae Maiestatis Regiae chalcographus’. A Calvinist, he became the principal printer for the Reformation in Poland. He published much music, almost entirely consisting of songbooks in which Protestant solo songs are well represented. In Walenty z Brzozowa's ...
Bernd Baselt and Karl-Ernst Bergunder
(b Altenburg, c1660; d Gotha, April 3, 1717). German composer, music editor and teacher. He was first taught music by his father, Johann Ernst Witt, who was Altenburg court organist in succession to Gottfried Scheidt and had come from Denmark when a Danish princess married into the ruling house of Saxe-Altenburg about 1650. The Altenburg male heirs having all died out, the succession passed in 1672 to the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, Friedrich I, who, probably in 1676, gave Witt a scholarship to study in Vienna and Salzburg. He also paid for him to study composition and counterpoint with G.C. Wecker in Nuremberg in 1685–6. On 1 June 1686 Witt was appointed chamber organist at the Gotha court. In 1688 he was again sent to study with Wecker. In 1694 he was appointed substitute for the Kapellmeister, W.M. Mylius, and he succeeded him after his death, in 1713...
(b Varel, c1669; d Aachen, July 1746). Dutch music publisher and organist of German origin. It is possible that he was given instruction in music by his father, himself an organist. In December 1719, at which time he was musician to the Prince of Nassau, he applied, unsuccessfully, for the post of organist at the Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk in Amsterdam; in 1724 he became organist of the Oude Lutherse Kerk there. The Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk post became vacant again in 1725; Witvogel's request to be transferred there was granted in 1726, and he held that post until his death. On 21 May 1731 he received a government privilege for printing two collections of psalms and spiritual songs which he had compiled for use in the Protestant church. In this way he began his activity as publisher, eventually bringing out at least 93 publications. At his death his firm was taken over by Jan Covens, who later also bought the publications of Roger & Le Cène....
revised by Clytus Gottwald
(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Nov 19, 1534; d Strasbourg, Sept 11, 1592). German mathematician, music editor, ?composer and writer on music . From 1553 he studied at the Viadrina at Frankfurt an der Oder, where he was a pupil of the mathematician Helias Camerarius. In 1555 his name appeared, as ‘David Nephelius Wratislaviensis’, in the matriculation register of the University of Wittenberg. From at least 1568 until his death he was a teacher of mathematics and a Kantor at Strasbourg. He is of musical interest for his editing of two volumes of psalms: Psalmen: mit 4 Stimmen zu singen in den Kirchen und Schulen in Strassburg (Strasbourg, 1577) and Psalmen für Kirchen und Schulen auff die gemeine Melodeyen syllaben weiss zu 4 Stimmen gesetzt (Strasbourg, 1583), as well as Die teutsche Litanei: für Kirchen und Schulen zu vier Stimmen gesetzt (Strasbourg, 1583). According to Zahn the first collection of psalms is based principally on old melodies, most of which are in the tenor part. The second contains mainly melodies from Strasbourg and from the Bohemian Brethren, which are in the cantus part. It includes nine unidentified tunes fashioned on definite rhythmic models and thus related to the reformed psalter; Wolkenstein may have written them himself. The second collection can profitably be seen as a link between the French psalter and Lucas Osiander's ...
Clyde William Young
(b c1550; d Heilbronn, Sept 10, 1618). German organist and anthologist . His father, also named Johann, served as town clerk and organist in Würzburg. The younger Woltz took an organ post at Heilbronn in c 1572, and from 1592 he also served as Würzburg representative at an ecclesiastical court in Heilbronn. His Nova musices organicae tabulatura was published in Basle in 1617 (RISM 1617²4/R; 1 piece ed. in Cantantibus organis, vii, Regensburg, 1962). In compiling this anthology of keyboard music, Woltz collaborated with his nephew, Christoph Leibfried (1566–1635), organist, jurist and court clerk in Rötteln. 85 motets with Latin titles appear first, mostly by Giovanni Gabrieli (22), Hassler (13) and Andrea Gabrieli (10). Other composers, apart from Merulo, Lassus and Monte, are less well known, and are mostly Italian and German. 53 intabulated German songs occupy the second section; here works by Hassler and Franck predominate. 50 ...
Clement A. Miller
[Ioannes Litavicus ]
(fl 1540–60). German music editor . He was the son of Dr Johannes Romanus Wonnecker (or Wonegker) from Hanau, who in 1522 was rector of the University of Basle and opposed its acceptance of Lutheranism. When Wonnecker's widow married (c1540) the renowned Swiss musical humanist Heinrich Glarean, Johannes Ludwig Wonnegger became Glarean's stepson. Wonnegger was later a lecturer at the University of Freiburg, but is best known as the editor of Glarean's Musicae epitome (Basle, 1557, 2/1559) and its German translation, Uss Glareani Musick ein Usszug (Basle, 1557). The aim of the treatises, according to Wonnegger's preface, was to popularize Glarean's theory of 12 modes by offering modestly priced editions to the general public. Musicae epitome is a concise, 151-page abridgment of the voluminous Dodecachordon. In book 1 brief plainsong examples illustrate each mode. Book 2, on mensural music, contains nine short polyphonic pieces which demonstrate proportions and other mensural procedures; seven of these compositions come from the ...
(b Northboro [now Northborough], MA, July 30, 1752; d Northboro, MA, Aug 6, 1804). American composer and tunebook compiler. He worked as a fuller of cloth, served as tax assessor and captain of a militia company, and led a local choir in Northboro. He was a drummer and later a member of the Committee of Correspondence during the Revolution, and several of his compositions relate to that conflict. The magnificent Warren, an elegy for the patriot Joseph Warren, is one of 27 pieces by Wood in his and Joseph Stone’s The Columbian Harmony (Boston, n.d. ). A Hymn on Peace, published independently in 1784, was sold by William Billings, among others. The Funeral Elegy on the Death of General George Washington (1800), also issued separately, was also later adapted and sung after the death of President W.H. Harrison in 1841.
Wood compiled one tunebook on his own, ...
Peter Ward Jones
(b Edinburgh, July 31, 1805; d Armadale, Cove, June 25, 1892). Scottish music publisher and writer on music . He was the son of Andrew Wood, a music publisher in Edinburgh, who named him after his partner John Muir. He received his initial musical education in Edinburgh, partly with Kalkbrenner, who visited the city in 1814. After periods of study in Paris with J.P. Pixis and in Vienna with Czerny, he returned to Edinburgh in 1828 for a while and taught music. For a number of years he was in London, where his interests were mostly literary. In 1848 he became director of the newly established Glasgow branch of the family publishing firm Wood & Co.; the branch became known as J. Muir Wood & Co., though it retained close links with the parent firm, and survived until 1899. He provided many notes for the later editions of G.F. Graham’s ...
William R. Lee
(b Medford, MA, Dec 18, 1794; d Boston, Nov 9, 1845). American clergyman, editor, and music advocate. A graduate of Yale College (AB 1811), Woodbridge became a teacher and principal in New Jersey and Connecticut and later editor and owner of the American Annals of Education and Instruction (1831–7). Not himself a musician, he became the most vigorous advocate of vocal music in the common schools in the early 1830s after observing educational practices in Europe the previous decade. He involved Elam Ives and Lowell Mason in music teaching experiments, assisted in the development of song collections and music teaching manuals, and was one of the founders of the Boston Academy of Music. As a leading educational reformer, Woodbridge brought to the attention of New Englanders the thought and practices of Swiss and German educators in music. A geographer and writer, he visited Europe three times (...
Robert M. Copeland
(b Beverly, MA, Oct 23, 1819; d Columbia, SC, Oct 26, 1858). American composer, editor, teacher and writer. He studied music in Boston, London and Paris. On his return he worked as a private teacher, church organist and choral conductor. His first musical publications were tune books compiled in collaboration with his cousin Benjamin F. Baker, with whom he also formed the National Musical Convention, a training school for teachers.
During the 1840s and 50s Woodbury travelled extensively as a choral conductor and baritone soloist. He was organist at Marlborough Chapel, Boston (1843–4), and from 1846 to 1848 was corresponding editor of the World of Music. He was organist at Rutgers Street Church, New York (1850–51); he also edited the American Monthly Musical Review (1850–53) and the New York Musical Pioneer (1855–8). His health began to fail in the 1850s and he spent his final years struggling against tuberculosis; he visited Europe and the Mediterranean in ...
(b c1455; d London, 1534). English printer, of French origin . He was Caxton’s assistant at Westminster, London, about 1480, and in 1495 he published an edition of Ranluf Higden’s Polycronicon, the first book published in England to include musical notes. Wynkyn’s reputation as an influential music printer rested for many years on the theory that he printed the ...