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Gerhard Kubik

(Swa. Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania)

Country in East Africa. It has an area of 945,090 km² and a population of 33·69 million (2000 estimate). Tanganyika, a German colony from 1884 to 1919 and a British trust territory from 1919 to 1961, became independent in 1961. Zanzibar was a British protectorate from 1890 to 1963 when it became independent. In 1964 the two territories united to form one nation. Tanzania's population speaks KiSwahili (Swahili) as a national language, and most speak Bantu languages as their principal language. Exceptions include several communities living in the northern part of the Rift valley, such as the Hadzabe (also known as Hatsa, Kindiga or Tindiga), Sandawe, Iraqw, Gorowa, Burungi or Burunge and Maasai. (See fig.1 for a map of the distribution of ethnic groups referred to in this article.)

Tanzania is a country rich in artefacts that illuminate the past. The Irangi district, in particular, is valued by historians for its rock paintings, some of which depict dance scenes. Even in some present-day Tanzanian traditions, musical traits from the remote past are occasionally displayed, particularly in areas of central Tanzania and near Lake Eyasi....

Article

Taqsīm  

Article

Ṭār  

Christian Poché

Circular frame drum (see Drum §I 2., (vi)), found throughout the Arab world except in Lebanon ( Daff, Riqq) and Syria (daff, Mazhar, riqq). It varies in diameter from 12 cm (Morocco) to 70 cm (Bahrain). Successive migrations have brought the instrument to the borders of the Indian Ocean, to Kenya (matari), Uganda (matali), Zanzibar (tari, the name of both a dance and the instrument), to the Comoros (tari), to the Maldives (thaara, name of the instrument and a semi-religious festival) and to Malaysia (tar).

The term derives from the Soqotri (southern Arabic), meaning ‘frame drum’ and ‘round object’. The roundness applies to all the models described in the field except for the Maldivian thaara (circular or octagonal); so this, unlike the duff (where anarchy reigns over the shape), shows the likelihood of a pre-Islamic split: angular shape in north Arabia, circular in the south, linking up with the round ...

Article

Tarija  

Christian Poché

[ta’rija]

Single-headed goblet drum of Morocco. It is made of glazed pottery, often geometrically decorated. It ranges in height from 12 to 80 cm, and the head, commonly of goatskin, is glued on and can have an internal snare. It is played by Berber men or women during festivities and processions (in Marrakesh), and by children as a toy. Long instruments are called ...

Article

George Leotsakos

(b El Faiyûm, Egypt, Nov 2, 1910; d Tirana, 28 or Dec 29, 1947). Albanian soprano . She studied in Montpellier and Paris (1927–35), where her teachers included André Gresse, and returned to Albania in 1935; later she studied in Italy. She gave numerous recitals throughout Albania, even in remote villages. Her combination of a classical opera repertory with Albanian folksong arrangements (and later partisan songs) endeared her to a popular audience, for many of whom she provided the first contact with foreign art-music. She appeared in Rome, Bari and other Italian cities, and in November 1945 sang Rosina and Mimì at the Belgrade Opera. In 1946 she organized singing classes at the newly-founded Jordan Misja, Albania’s first teaching institution for music. Her repertory leaned towards coloratura arias. Her perfect intonation and rich, clear, sweet tone were combined with a keen sense of style, natural charm and beauty and great will-power....

Article

Ole Matthiessen

revised by Erik Wiedemann and Frank Büchmann-Møller

(Martin )

(b Copenhagen, April 28, 1936; d Perpignan, France, October 8, 2012). Danish saxophonist and bandleader. His father was Congolese, his mother Danish. He grew up in Århus, where he played violin from the age of ten and clarinet and alto saxophone from the age of 16; he studied alto saxophone for three years at the Royal Danish Music Conservatory in Copenhagen. In 1962 he appeared at festivals in Helsinki, where he met Archie Shepp, and Warsaw, where he made his first recording (as the leader of a quintet). After moving to New York he played with Shepp and Don Cherry in the New York Contemporary Five (1963) and with Roswell Rudd and Milford Graves in the New York Art Quartet (1964–5); with both groups he toured Europe and made recordings. He also recorded as a member of the Jazz Composers Guild and with Shepp, John Coltrane, and Albert Ayler. In ...

Article

Winfried Lüdemann

(Willem)

(b Amsterdam, Sept 28, 1946). South African composer of Dutch birth. He is the son of an organist, and his brother is also a composer. The family emigrated to South Africa in 1958, settling near Cape Town. Temmingh studied composition with Fagan at the University of Cape Town (master’s degree in composition, 1970). After working for short periods as a university lecturer in Port Elizabeth and Pretoria, he was appointed lecturer in musicology and composition at the University of Stellenbosch in 1973, becoming associate professor in 1992. He completed his doctorate there in 1976. In 1972 he attended Darmstadt and he also spent six months in Utrecht studying computer music (1979). He has won all the major composition prizes in South Africa.

Although his earlier works reflect all 20th-century styles, Temmingh’s initial reputation rested primarily on his avant-garde compositions. Ligeti’s influence is present in many of them, most notably in Music for Two Pianos. Other characteristics include the use of technology, electronic as well as ...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(Dogo )

(b Dakar, Senegal, c1942). Senegalese percussionist and singer. He began drumming at the age of eight and first performed in public when he was 12. In 1968, at the behest of the dancer and choreographer Katherine Dunham, he traveled to St. Louis, where he became involved in the Black Artists Group and began working as an instructor at Southern Illinois University. In the early 1970s he played with Freddie Hubbard and recorded with Nancy Wilson and B. B. King, the latter two affiliations in an effort to benefit African drought victims. Thiam’s involvement with jazz dates mainly from 1990, when he toured and recorded as one of a trio of African drummers with the World Saxophone Quartet and became a member of Don Pullen’s Afro-Brazilian Connection, with which he remained until Pullen’s death in April 1995. In the early 1990s he joined Ray Drummond’s Excursion All Stars (with which he recorded in ...

Article

David Charlton

[François Luc Joseph]

(b Port Louis, Mauritius, Oct 18, 1850; d Paris, Nov 16, 1909). French composer. He was taken as a child to Paris, where he studied at the Conservatoire with Duprato and Thomas. Soon after leaving the Conservatoire he became well known as a composer of salon pieces and was in demand as a pianist and teacher. His music was particularly successful in the French provinces, and two of his operas were first performed outside Paris.

Although Thomé’s music has generally fallen into oblivion, it was formerly much appreciated. Pougin’s obituary describes the composer as ‘a neat, refined artist, gifted with an attractive melodic vein … and enriched by solid learning’. Thomé’s stage music encompassed various genres, including ballet, pantomime, incidental music (for a wide range of plays) and bleuettes.

all printed works published in Paris

first performed in Paris unless otherwise stated

Article

(b Qafṣa, Tunisia, 1184; d ?Cairo, 1253). Arab scholar. He studied first in Tunisia and then in Egypt. He travelled in Syria and eventually settled in Cairo. The little of his voluminous output that survives testifies to his wide-ranging interests. In addition to erotic subject-matter it includes an important and well-known gemmological treatise, Azhār al-afkār fī jawāhir al-a ḥjār (‘Flowering thoughts on gem-stones’). His other major extant work, part 41 of a huge encyclopedia, Faṣl al-khi ṭāb fī madārik al- ḥawāss al-khams li-ulī al-albāb (‘Eloquent disquisition on the perception of the five senses’), is concerned with music. Literary rather than scientific in orientation, it concentrates on history, anecdote and human behaviour and preserves a number of song texts. It is of particular interest for its inclusion of a section on dance, a subject rarely discussed elsewhere, for its succinct but broadly convincing historical account of musical developments in Muslim Spain and North Africa, and for the light it sheds on some of the features differentiating the western and eastern Islamic art-music traditions in the 13th century. Given his background, al-Tīfāshī was familiar with both, and was able not only to point to modal and formal distinctions but also to attempt a characterization of differences in melodic style, that of Spain being deemed the most complex and difficult....

Article

Article

Togo  

Gerhard Kubik and Amagbenyõ Kofi

(Fr. République Togolaise)

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 56,785 km² and a population of 4·68 million (2000 estimate). Languages spoken in Togo include French, Ewe, Mina (Gen-Gbe), Dagomba, Tim (Tem) and Kabyè (Kabrais or Kabiyé).

Gerhard Kubik

Like neighbouring Ghana and Benin, Togo can be divided linguistically into two parts: north and south. The southern part is densely populated by people speaking Kwa languages, including Ewe and Fon (Fõ), whereas the north is populated by speakers of Voltaic languages. In the central area of Togo, overlapping with neighbouring peoples in Ghana and Benin, there are 14 ethnic groups speaking so-called Togo-remnant languages: Basilia (Basila), Lelemi, Logba (Lukpa), Adele, Likpe, Santrokofi, Akpafu-Lolobi, Avatime, Nyangbo-Tafi, Bowili, Ahlo (Igo), Kposo (Akposo), Kebu (Akebou) and Animere. Some of these languages are spoken by less than 10,000 people, and little is known about their musical cultures.

Gerhard Kubik...

Article

J.B. Steane

(b Plovdiv, June 16, 1894; d Pasadena, ca , June 12, 1960). Armenian tenor. His parents settled first in Bulgaria and then in Egypt, where he made his début in 1914. After studying in Milan he appeared there in 1921 as Chevalier des Grieux (Manon Lescaut). Later that year he travelled to the USA, inaugurating a substantial career with Antonio Scotti’s touring company and from 1923 to 1946 he appeared frequently at the Metropolitan. He sang mostly in lyric roles such as Nicias in Thaïs (with Jeritza) and Corentin in Dinorah (with Galli-Curci). House premières included Falla’s La vida breve (1926) and Puccini’s La rondine (1928), in which he took the light baritone role of Prunier. During the 1930s he travelled widely in Europe, appearing at Covent Garden in 1934 as Calaf. His few recordings show a bright, well-defined voice rather than a rich one, with adequate rather than distinctive powers of characterization....

Article

Tolomeo  

Anthony Hicks

[Tolomeo re di Egitto (‘Ptolemy, King of Egypt’)]

Opera in three acts by George Frideric Handel to a libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym adapted from Carlo Sigismondo Capece’s Tolomeo et Alessandro (1711, Rome); London, King’s Theatre, 30 April 1728.

Tolomeo was Handel’s 13th and last full-length opera for the Royal Academy of Music, and the last of the five operas in which the leading female roles were designed for the rival sopranos Francesca Cuzzoni and Faustina Bordoni, who sang Seleuce and Elisa. The other singers were the alto castratos Senesino (Ptolemy) and Antonio Baldi (Alessandro), and the bass Giuseppe Boschi (Araspe).

Handel revived Tolomeo twice, subjecting it to drastic revision each time. For the production at the King’s Theatre on 19 May 1730 the castrato Antonio Bernacchi took over the title role and Anna Strada del Pò sang Seleuce, while the other roles were adapted for changed voices: the contraltos Antonia Merighi and Francesca Bertolli sang Elisa and Alessandro, and the tenor Annibale Pio Fabri sang Araspe. Handel replaced 12 of the original numbers (including the final ...

Article

Gregory F. Barz

(b Niafounke, Mali, 1949; d Bamoko, Mali, March 7, 2006). Malian guitarist . He was known as the ‘Bluesman of Africa’. His first instrument was a n'jarka (one-string Malian chordophone). Touré’s guitar playing style combines elements of the American blues tradition and Arab-influenced Malian traditional music. After Mali’s independence, he served as director of the Niafounke artistic troupe from 1962 to 1971. With the troupe he performed for the first time in Europe, appearing at a 1968 international festival in Sofiya. Touré was influenced by blues musicians such as John Hooker in the 1970s, and he found the North American guitar playing style to be similar to Malian string playing traditions. He recorded extensively in France during the 1970s and began returning to his roots in the 1980s with a series of collaborative efforts, working with Taj Mahal on Source and Ry Cooder on Talking Timbuktu. The inspiration that Touré drew from his Malian heritage can be heard in his ...

Article

Towa  

Konin Aka

Large gourd vessel rattle of the Baule people of the Ivory Coast. It has an external net strung with cowrie shells or pearls and is used mainly on ceremonial occasions to mark the appearance of masked dancers. It especially evokes the most powerful divinities who protect Baule villages. It also accompanies war songs.

Towa is also the name used by the Agni-Bona and Agni-Diabe peoples for a calabash rattle with a handle, containing seeds or gravel. The Abron call this calabash rattle touwa, sèssègo, or sèssèdjigo. Among these peoples, it is used by women to accompany funeral and rejoicing dances. Tobaha is the vernacular name of a tin rattle with a handle, used by the Ehotile people; it is played by men to accompany the funeral and rejoicing dance called kpandan. One player shakes two of these rattles.

K. Aka: Traditions musicales chez les Akan lagunaires de Côte d’Ivoire: cas des Abbey, Abidji, Éhotilé et M’batto...

Article

A synthesis of American swing and South African traditional or urban popular music. In the 1940s Zacks Nkosi was a forerunner of this style, which flourished in South Africa in the 1950s. Barney Rachabane’s composition Kwela Mama is also representative of the genre, and its practitioners Kippie Moeketsi and Ntemi Piliso later became members of the African Jazz Pioneers, a group which revived township jazz in the 1980s....

Article

Gregory F. Barz

(Travers Norman )

(b Durban, May 5, 1936). South African ethnomusicologist , son of Hugh Tracey. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford (1957–9), where he gained the MA, and was awarded an honorary DMus from Natal University, Durban (1995). He held a position as musicologist with the International Library of African Music (1969–77) and became the director in 1977. He is the director of African Musical Instruments Ltd, a manufacturer of African musical instruments, and as a performer he has toured the world with the group Wait a Minim. The areas of his research and writing focus primarily on African music, particularly the Shona/Sena music family of the Zambezi valley and the Chopi of southern Mozambique.

‘The Mbira Music of Jege Tapera’, AfM, 2/4 (1961), 44–63 ‘Three Tunes on the Mbira dza Vadzimu’, AfM, 3/2 (1963), 23–6 with H. Tracey and G. Kubik: African Music Codification and Textbook Project: Practical Suggestions for Field Research...

Article

Lucy Durán

(Travers )

(b Willand, Devon, Jan 29, 1903; d Krugersdorp, Transvaal, Oct 23, 1977). South African ethnomusicologist of British birth, father of Andrew Tracey. He farmed in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 1921. In 1929 he began to make recordings of indigenous songs and from 1931, with the support of a Carnegie Research Scholarship and on the advice of Holst and Vaughan Williams, he devoted himself to recording traditional music from sub-Saharan Africa and also began his career as a broadcaster; he was regional director for Natal of the South African Broadcasting Corporation (1935–47). In 1947 he was co-founder with Winifred Hoernle of the African Music Society, serving as its secretary and editor of its newsletter (1948–53) and of the annual journal African Music (1955–71). With a grant from the Nuffield Foundation he established the International Library of African Music, Roodepoort, in 1954. Under his direction it acquired an important collection of instruments, music and recordings, largely through his own field trips; he also edited a series of over 200 commercial records from its holdings. He lectured at over 50 universities in the USA, Britain and Africa, and was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Cape Town in ...

Article

Tsambi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Lamellaphone of the Mayombe region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Three types have been reported: a flat-board type with 10 metal tongues; a raft-body type with 11 (apparently) wooden or bamboo tongues; and a box-resonated type with 10 metal tongues.

J.S. Laurenty: Les sanza du Congo (Tervuren, 1962)....