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Reinhard Oehlschlägel

(b Saalfeld, Feb 16, 1939). German writer . After working in industry and the press, Müller studied journalism at the Karl Marx University, Leipzig, 1959–63, and was a cultural editor for the state news service in Halle, Leipzig and Berlin until 1980, when he became principal dramatic adviser at the Komische Oper, Berlin. In 1986 he took the doctorate at the Humboldt University, East Berlin, with a dissertation on Heine’s views on music.

As well as his musical criticism, musical journalism and satirical pieces for East German radio, the weekly Sonntag (Freitag from 1990) and the satirical magazine Eulenspiegel, Müller has written librettos for the operas Candide, after Voltaire, by Reiner Bredemeyer (1986, Halle), Gastmahl, oder Über die Liebe, after Plato, by Georg Katzer (1988, Schwetzingen) and Antigone oder Die Stadt, after Sophocles, also by Katzer (composed 1989–90). He has also prepared a German text for Joplin’s ...


Ivan Čavlović

(b Tuzla, Sept 14, 1942). Bosnian-Herzegovinian composer, editor, and music critic. Nuić graduated from the Primary and Secondary Music School in Tuzla. She then graduated from the Academy of Music in Sarajevo, in the Department for Music Theory and Pedagogy; afterwards she studied composition with Miroslav Špiler.

She worked as music editor at Radio Sarajevo (1971–92) and at Radio Federacije Bosne I Hercegovine (1994–2007).

Initially engaged in radiophonic composition, Nuić has more recently turned to pieces for traditional instrumentation. Additionally, she is an author of music for numerous radio shows, TV films and educational shows, theatrical plays, and four short films. Nuić is also the composer of the ballet Prizivanje Peruna, choreographed by D. Boldin (première 21 May 1988), and one of the most often performed ballets at the National Theatre in Sarajevo.

Nuić has also written extensively for newspapers and magazines such as ...


André Clergeat

(b Paris, Feb 27, 1912; d Montauban, Dec 8, 1974). French writer on jazz. After studying the saxophone he first wrote about jazz at the age of 18. He was one of the founders (in 1932) and then president of the Hot Club de France, and from 1935 to 1946 he was the editor of the journal Jazz-hot. With his unrivalled enthusiasm for communication, Panassié wrote hundreds of articles for this and other periodicals and was the author of several books, notably Le jazz hot, an important study that was among the first to treat jazz seriously. In 1938 Count Basie dedicated to him and recorded a composition called Panassié Stomp. The same year, in New York, Panassié organized a series of small-group recording sessions with Mezz Mezzrow which also included (at various times) Tommy Ladnier and Sidney Bechet; these were highly influential and contributed considerably to the New Orleans revival movement. In ...


Mike Ashman

(b Mainz, June 21, 1883; d Munich, Jan 27, 1973). German stage designer. He studied law, and later worked as an illustrator. In 1921 the writer Thomas Mann recommended him to Bruno Walter as designer for a new production of Gluck’s Iphigénie en Aulide at Munich. During the 1920s he designed opera productions for Berlin, Dresden and Munich. His association with Bayreuth began in 1933, when he designed the Ring for Heinz Tietjen, with whom he worked both there and in Berlin during the 1930s and 40s. Other important work included Ring cycles at La Scala (1938), Rome (1953–4) and Vienna (1958–60), and the ‘official’ première of Richard Strauss’s Die Liebe der Danae at Salzburg in 1952.

Preetorius’s style dominated mainstream European Wagner design in the two decades preceding Wieland Wagner’s revolutionary productions at Bayreuth (his influence on Wieland’s early work was great but unacknowledged), forging a link between the weighty, pictorial Wagner settings of the late 19th century and the sparser experimental work of the mid-20th century. His ...


Horst Leuchtmann

revised by James Deaville

(b Leipzig, Feb 12, 1769; d Leipzig, Dec 16, 1842). German critic, writer and editor. He was educated at the Thomasschule, Leipzig, where he studied composition and counterpoint with the Kantor, J.F. Doles. He began composing at an early age and was 17 when his cantata Die Vollendung des Erlösers was first performed. It was perhaps the impression made on him by Mozart, whom he met in Leipzig in 1789, that caused him to doubt his own talent and abandon a musical career; on his father’s advice he began studying theology, but in 1794 he chose the career of a writer, since his humble background prevented advancement in the Church. He published many stories and dramatic works, as well as popular scientific articles, most of which found recognition in his lifetime. He enjoyed close ties with Weimar: a Lustspiel by Rochlitz was performed there in 1800, performances of three other stage works soon followed and Rochlitz visited Weimar in ...


William Osborne

(b Fair Haven, CT, Feb 7, 1857; d Pasadena, CA, Nov 28, 1940). American organist, composer, teacher, music publisher, and music critic. Rogers studied with organ virtuoso Clarence Eddy in Chicago, followed by further study in Berlin and Paris, 1875–82. He worked for a year in Burlington, Iowa, before establishing himself in Cleveland as an organist of various churches, as well as the Euclid Avenue Temple, which he served for 50 years. He was a prolific composer, a teacher at the Cleveland School of Music, a critic at the Cleveland Plain Dealer (1915–32), and a publisher of his own works and those of others. He wrote about 550 pieces, and his more than 130 songs (issued between 1878 and 1933), organ pieces, and church music were widely performed in their time. For the organ he left three sonatas, two sonatinas, three suites, and many one-movement genre pieces. He also wrote secular partsongs, cantatas for both Christmas and Easter, several settings of the Latin Mass, and both a ...


Rosemary Williamson

(b Florence, June 8, 1927; d Cambridge, Jan 16, 2001). British writer of partly Italian descent. He studied at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, and was a research student in history with Herbert Butterfield at Cambridge (1948–51). He then worked for the (Manchester) Guardian, as leader writer, features editor and deputy London editor, before moving to Sussex University, 1964–89, to teach history, finally as reader. Rosselli worked as a critic but was chiefly noted for his writings on the social and economic background of opera, particularly in Italy. His authoritative The Opera Industry in Italy (1984) explored aspects of operatic history and culture unfamiliar to the music historian, as too did his Music and Musicians in Nineteenth-Century Italy (1991) and his studies of the role, in the broadest sense, of the singer. These include important articles on castratos, the singer’s relation to his patrons, a study of contractual documents between pupils and teachers, and a book on the profession itself, ...


Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Robert (D.) ]

(b New York, c1945). American writer. He studied clarinet and drums and played drums in workshops with Jaki Byard (1968–71) and Cedar Walton (1972). In the 1960s and 1970s he wrote for American and European periodicals, including Down Beat, Jazz Journal, and Jazz Forum, and in 1975 he began publishing the monthly magazine Cadence, which in the following years printed many wide-ranging interviews with jazz and blues musicians and reviews of recordings. Later he formed Cadence Jazz Records (1980), which by the late 1990s had issued more than 100 recordings; North Country Record Distribution (1983), which distributes the jazz and blues recordings of more than 900 small independent labels; Cadence Jazz Books (1992), which publishes reference books, histories, and discographies; and CIMP (1996), for which he had produced about 100 recordings by the turn of the century. He donated his extensive indexed collection of books and journals, covering jazz and blues literature in the English language, to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library (...


Julie Anne Sadie


(b London, 30 Oct 1930; d Cossington, Somerset, 21 March 2005). English musicologist, critic, and editor. He was educated at St Paul’s School, London, and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, reading music under Thurston Dart, Charles Cudworth, and Patrick Hadley (BA, MusB 1953, MA 1957, PhD 1958). After teaching at Trinity College of Music, London (1957–65), he worked as a music critic for The Times (1964–81), a reviewer for Gramophone (1965–2005), editor of the Musical Times (1967–87), and general editor of the Master Musicians series (from 1976). In 1970 he was appointed editor of the New Grove dictionaries, serving as emeritus editor from 1999; he also initiated and edited a number of related or kindred publications including a Handbook series and the Man and Music/Music and Society series. He was for many years a regular broadcaster on Radio 3 and the World Service, chiefly on 18th-century topics, and prepared several critical editions, notably of the Mozart piano sonatas (...


Gary W. Kennedy

(b New York, Oct 31, 1950). American writer. After studying music at CUNY and at the guitar center of the New School for Social Research he worked as an editor, feature writer, and columnist for the periodical of Tower Records, Pulse (1983–91), and contributed numerous articles to Down Beat (1984–93). While serving as a music critic for The Nation (from 1986) he was a columnist for 7 Days (1987–9) and Taxi (1988–90); he then wrote essays for Atlantic Monthly and taught at CCNY (both from 1991). As both a music critic and a feature writer he has contributed to the New York Post (1988–90), the New York Daily News (from 1993), and Fi (1996–9), and he has written for the New Yorker, the New York Times, the Village Voice, Rolling Stone, and Musician...