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G. Kraft

revised by Clytus Gottwald

(b Gotha, 1550–55; d Gotha, after 1633). German composer, music editor and teacher. He was related to Luther. He was educated at the famous grammar schools of Schulpforta and Gotha and in 1568 he enrolled at Jena University. For many years he was Kantor at Gotha. On 1 January 1598, probably referring to his work in this post, he described himself as being in his 27th year as an employee of Duke Johann Casimir of Saxony, whose service he must thus have entered in 1572, the year in which the regency of Gotha had been transferred to the duke from the house of Saxe-Coburg. He evidently played an active part in the musical life of Gotha. He communicated with a number of other musicians, among them Philipp Avenarius, Melchior Franck and Bartholomäus Helder. As late as 1634 he was a member of the town council. His work as a musician and teacher enhanced the social standing of music in the area, to the undoubted benefit of several of his younger contemporaries, especially Michael Altenburg. He also did much to foster in Thuringia an interest in recent Italian music. He may have studied in Italy; certainly he had contacts there, in particular with Gastoldi. His most important work is ...


Kurt Gudewill

(b Plauen, between 1581 and 1584; d Eisleben, 1611, after 10 April). German composer, music editor and schoolmaster. He was appointed a teacher at the Gymnasium at Eisleben and Kantor of St Nicolai there on 10 April 1611, but he died later that year. On the title page of his Brautgesang aus dem Hohenlied (1610) he was still referred to as a student of theology; it is not known where he studied or for how long. His two eight-part settings from the Song of Songs (1610) are his only works to survive complete. The texts of the songs in his two collections Venus Glöcklein and Sales venereae musicales (both 1610), which also contain dances and of which only one or two partbooks survive, show that he was inspired by Hans Leo Hassler’s Lustgarten (1601). He is of greater interest as an editor of Italian madrigals with German texts, an activity to which he may well have been stimulated by Valentin Haussmann. His ...


Richard Crawford

revised by Nym Cooke

( b Stoughton [now Canton], MA, May 8, 1750; d Northampton, MA, May 12, 1825). American composer, tune book compiler and singing master . A carpenter by trade, Mann taught singing schools in Massachusetts and composed sacred music as well as a few secular songs. He probably helped Isaiah Thomas compile early editions of The Worcester Collection (1786–1794), and he published two tune books of his own: The Northampton Collection (Northampton, 1797, 2/1802) and The Massachusetts Collection (Boston, 1807). An undistinguished melodist, Mann allied himself with the movement to reform New England’s psalmody in the 1800s, condemning fuging tunes and favouring European compositions in his second tune book. His complete works have been edited by D.C.L. Jones (New York and London, 1996).

F.J. Metcalf: American Writers and Compilers of Sacred Music (New York, 1925/R), 81–2 D.C.L. Jones:: Elias Mann (1750–1825): Massachusetts Composer, Compiler, and Singing Master...


Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Italy?; d Washington, DC, Feb 14, 1853). American organist, music teacher, publisher, and composer of Italian birth. He was active in Boston between 1807 and 1818, together with his brother Vincent and other relatives, all of whom played and sang at dances and assemblies. The earliest documentary evidence of his activity in the United States is an advertisement in the Columbian Centinel (28 Nov 1807), in which he describes himself as “Music Master of the Italian Band, teacher Piano Forte, Clarinet, Violoncello, Violin, French Horn, Trumpet, Flute, French Guitar, &c. Produces certificates from Church of St. Peter in Rome.” He also played organ for the First Church, and according to Barbara Owen was responsible in part for the musical education of Boston organ-builder Ebenezer Goodrich from 1804 to 1807. In December of 1814, he gave an organ concert at Boylston Hall, Boston, and in the years ...


Harry Eskew

( b Maury County, TN, April 3, 1836; d Atlanta, GA, July 2, 1899). American composer and arranger of Sunday-school and gospel hymns, and hymnbook compiler . He received his musical training under L.C. and Asa B. Everett, with whom he was associated for several years in teaching and publishing. In the 1860s he became music editor for the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in Nashville, a position he held for 30 years. In 1875 he joined the faculty of Vanderbilt University, leaving two years later for an appointment at Emory and Henry College, Oxford, Georgia. He established the R.M. McIntosh Publishing Company, publishing at least 20 collections for church and Sunday-school use. McIntosh is best known as the arranger of the camp-meeting tune ‘Promised Land’, which he changed into a major key to fit the gospel hymn style. (L.E. Oswalt: Rigdon McCoy McIntosh: Teacher, Composer, Editor, and Publisher, diss., New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, ...


(b Brussels, May 28, 1777; d Paris, Dec 18, 1858). Flemish composer, conductor, publisher and teacher. He was the son of Henri Mees (b Brussels, 1757; d Warsaw, 31 Jan 1820), principal baritone of the Théâtre de la Monnaie, Brussels, and of Anne-Marie Vitzthumb, a singer. He showed precocious musical talent: at the age of five he sang in a church choir, at seven he began to study the violin and at ten he played in the orchestra of the Monnaie. He had further violin studies with J.-E. Pauwels and lessons in harmony and counterpoint with his grandfather Ignaz Vitzthumb. In 1794, during the second French occupation, the family emigrated to Hamburg, where Henri Mees and other Brussels artists established a theatre for the Comédie-Française; Joseph-Henri occasionally sang secondary roles and conducted the orchestra there. He also opened a music shop, from which he published works from the Parisian repertory....


Richard Jackson

[?Richard ]

(fl c1806–36). Pianist, teacher, publisher, and composer, probably of French origin. He was one of the many musicians in New York in the early 19th century who dabbled in several musical activities in order to earn a living. Meetz was listed as a music teacher in New York directories from 1810 to 1836 (he claimed in newspaper advertisements to have been a pupil of Mozart). He also appeared as a pianist, sold pianos, and sold and published music. Meetz was primarily the New York agent for the Philadelphia music publisher George E. Blake, though he did publish a few titles under his own name; two of his works for piano, General Lafayette’s Grand March and Quick Step (1824) and General Montgomery’s Dead March (?1818), bear a Philadelphia imprint. He was probably related to the pianist Cesarine Meetz and the pianist and singer Julius Metz...


Joanne Swenson-Eldridge

(b 1793; d Philadelphia, June 4, 1873). American conductor, composer, publisher and teacher of French birth . He was a bandmaster in Napoleon’s army before emigrating to the USA, where he settled in Philadelphia (1828). In 1833 he was elected a member of the Musical Fund Society; that same year he founded the Philharmonic Society, an amateur orchestra in Philadelphia. His transcriptions of operatic excerpts and popular songs for the guitar date from as early as 1832. In 1835 he joined the music publisher Augustus Fiot in establishing the firm of Fiot and Meignen. After their partnership was dissolved in 1839, Meignen continued in the music publishing business until 1842. He succeeded Charles Hupfeld as conductor of the Musical Fund Society Orchestra during the 1844–5 season and held the post until 1857; his Grand Military Symphony was first performed under his direction on 17 April 1845. He also conducted the première of William Henry Fry’s ...


Denise Launay and Georgie Durosoir

(b Bar-sur-Aube, c?1610; d after 1663). French composer, organist, teacher and music publisher. He was living in Paris by 1631, when he was referred to as a ‘maître compositeur de musique’. In 1642 he was organist of St Nicolas-des-Champs. He was highly thought of as a teacher: in 1643 Gantez spoke of ‘Vincent, Métru and Massé, the three most celebrated teachers in Paris’; he also stated that Métru was maître de musique to the Jesuits. A document of 1692 (Mémoire des compositeurs), corroborated by La Borde, states that, together with Roberday and Gigault, he was one of Lully's teachers. He also tried his hand at music publishing: on 21 June 1633 he obtained official permission ‘to print, sell and distribute, through any printer or bookseller he may choose, every kind of music he has produced or may produce in the future’. To this end he took on a printer from Pierre Ballard, who at the time had a monopoly of music publishing and now used his influence in high places to suppress his rival. On ...


Peggy Daub

(b Piedmont, ?c1725; d Paris, c1785). Italian composer, violin and viola teacher and music publisher, active in France. He called himself ‘le cadet’ or ‘le jeune’ until 1763–4, when his elder brother probably died. Three of his first four published works were dedicated to Parisians who apparently were his patrons or pupils. In 1765 he began an enterprise which was to be much more important than his compositions or teaching: he and the German painter Johann Anton de Peters (1725–95) founded the first Parisian musical subscription and lending establishment, the Bureau d’Abonnement de Musique. For two years La Chevardière and other publishers fought the new Bureau in court, involving hundreds of musicians on either side; the decision in 1767 was in favour of the Bureau, which continued to operate until at least 1789. Miroglio was listed in periodicals as a composer and teacher up to ...