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John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Christopher Fifield

(Dorius Johannes)

(b Potsdam, Oct 22, 1838; d Danzig, Aug 27, 1922). German critic, pianist, conductor and composer. The son of an organist, he studied music from an early age. In 1859 he enrolled at the University of Berlin, studying theology and later philosophy; during this time he took piano lessons from Hans von Bülow. For a time he was torn between his interests in philosophy and music; having decided upon the latter he studied thoroughbass with Carl Friedrich Weitzmann and composition with Friedrich Kiel. For two and a half years he taught the piano privately in Berlin before accepting a position at Kullak’s Neue Akademie der Tonkunst in 1868. With the singer Clara Werner (whom he married in 1870) he gave concerts in Berlin, Pomerania and Silesia and became organist at the Nikolaikirche in Stralsund in 1869. In his dissertation Praeliminarien zu einer Kritik der Tonkunst (University of Greifswald, ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Brooklyn, NY, Feb 22, 1921; d Baltimore, May 24, 1990). American music critic and conductor. He attended Brooklyn College (BA 1943), took conducting diplomas in Paris at the Conservatoire and the Ecole Normale de Musique (1946–9) and studied musicology at Cornell University (MA 1950), where he took the doctorate in 1960 with a dissertation on orchestral conducting which he later revised and published as A History of Orchestral Conducting in Theory and Practice (New York, 1988). As a Fulbright Fellow he attended the university and the music academy of Vienna and became apprentice conductor at the Staatsoper (1955–6). He then worked at Goucher College (from 1956; from 1964 as professor), and in 1957 was appointed to the staff of the Peabody Conservatory, where he was conductor from 1957, and chairman of the department of music history and literature from 1964...

Article

John Snelson

(Friedrich) [Gallas, Brian Roy]

(b Wellington, New Zealand, Feb 15, 1946). New Zealand writer on musical theatre. He studied law and classics at Canterbury University, New Zealand, subsequently joining the New Zealand Opera company as a bass singer. After moving to London he became a casting director and then a theatrical agent in musical theatre; from 1990 he devoted himself to writing and broadcasting on this subject. His pioneering two-volume study The British Musical Theatre (London, 1986), won several awards: its thorough survey of performances has ensured its place as an essential reference work. His later Encyclopedia of Musical Theatre (Oxford, 1994) is ambitious in its scope, displaying both the breadth of Gänzl’s interest and, through its selections and judgments, his characteristically personal view of the subject. His other books include Gänzl’s Book of the Musical Theatre (with Andrew Lamb; London, 1988), a companion guide in the manner of Kobbé, ...

Article

George J. Grella

(b Arlington, MA, Dec 17, 1954). American composer, singer, broadcaster, and journalist. He taught himself to play drums, piano, and guitar as a teenager, after seeing Soft Machine open for Jimi Hendrix when he was 13. He attended the Rhode Island School of Design (BA 1976), where he played jazz piano, sang, composed chamber music, and organized free-jazz ensembles. He moved to New York and worked as a graphic designer and illustrator, producing work for Paul Bley’s label Improvising Artists and for composer La Monte Young, while making music on the side. Garland followed the twin paths of piano improvisation and composition for chamber ensembles in the minimalist style and later joined Nigel Rollings’s band Ad Hoc Rock; with Rollings he sang and played drums, guitar, and keyboards and appeared at The Kitchen, Carnegie Hall, and in the Noise Fest at White Columns (1981). In ...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

(b Paris, April 2, 1908; d Paris, Oct 24, 1981). French critic, writer on music and organist. He studied the organ and harmony at the Paris Conservatoire (1934–7) under Marcel Dupré and Georges Caussade, and took a degree in literature at the Sorbonne. He was in charge of the Jeunesses Musicales de France and in 1942 was appointed resident organist at St Louis-des-Invalides in Paris, the great organ of which he inaugurated after its reconstruction in 1957. He was music critic for the Figaro under the pseudonym of Clarendon from 1945 until his death. He was also a radio and television producer at the ORTF from 1948.

Many of Gavoty’s works are enthusiastic biographies of organists (Vierne, Jehan Alain) and other famous musicians whom he knew personally; he was author of Les Grands Interprètes, a popular series of biographies of contemporary musicians illustrated by the photographer Roger Hauert (Geneva, ...

Article

Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

[Matteo]

(b Warsaw, April 6, 1892; d Welland, ON, Jan 3, 1976). Polish music journalist, conductor and composer. While a law student at Warsaw University, he studied music with Stanisław Barcewicz (violin), Roman Statkowski (composition) and Mieczysław Surzyński (theory) at the Institute of Music in Warsaw (1909–13). He continued his musical education under Max Reger (composition), Arthur Nikisch and Hans Sitt (conducting) at the Leipzig Conservatory, at the same time studying musicology at the university with Hugo Riemann and Arnold Schering (1913–14). He completed his study of conducting and composition with Nikolay Tcherepnin, Aleksandr Glazunov and Maximilian Steinberg at the Petrograd Conservatory (1914–15) and stayed in Russia (Petrograd, Kiev) as conductor and music critic until 1918, when he returned to Poland. He lived in Warsaw until 1939, dividing his time between his profession as a lawyer and his work as a music journalist and critic. In ...

Article

Peter Heyworth

(b London, May 3, 1908; d Oxford, June 28, 2000). English music administrator, pianist, educationist and critic. He was educated at Christ’s Hospital and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he was an organ scholar, and studied with Artur Schnabel in Berlin (1930–33). But though he developed into a fine pianist and made some successful concert appearances, notably in chamber music and in a series of Mozart concertos, which he performed with impeccable technique and style, he at first became a music critic. After a brief period on the Daily Telegraph he joined The Observer (1934–45), succeeding A.H. Fox Strangways as chief critic (1939). He began a new phase of his career as a musical educationist in 1948, when he founded the Summer School of Music at Bryanston, Dorset; it moved in 1953 to Dartington Hall, Devon, and Glock remained its music director until ...

Article

Jacquelyn Sholes

(b Shenandoah, IA, June 2, 1898; d Memphis, TN, Feb 4, 1990). American music critic, conductor, and pianist. He studied at the University of Nebraska (1915–16), Chicago Music College (1920–22, subsequently incorporated into Roosevelt University), and the Gunn School in Chicago (MM 1923). He worked as a music critic for the Chicago Herald and Examiner between 1925 and 1936 and for the Chicago Tribune from 1943 to 1947. Between 1935 and 1943 he served as the Illinois state director of the Works Progress Administration’s Federal Music Project and as a co-conductor of the Illinois SO. In 1947 he became the first full-time music critic for the Los Angeles Times, a position from which he officially retired in 1965. He subsequently contributed to the LA Times as a staff writer and, from 1966 until shortly before his death, as Critic Emeritus. Goldberg was known for his emphatic support of conductors Zubin Mehta and Georg Solti and also for his recollections of such figures as Percy Grainger, Josef Hofmann, Vladimir Horowitz, Lauritz Melchior, and Artur Rubinstein. Trained as a pianist, he was especially knowledgeable about pianists and piano repertory....

Article

John C.G. Waterhouse

(b Faenza, Sept 12, 1890; d Rome, June 14, 1965). Italian composer, conductor and critic. He studied at the Bologna Liceo Musicale with Torchi and Busoni. After teaching in Bologna (1920–24) and Parma (1925–8), he became the director of the Florence Conservatory (1928–47), the Bologna Conservatory (1947–9) and the Conservatorio di S Cecilia (1950–60). His earlier music combines high seriousness, at times somewhat academic, with luxuriant chromatic harmony reminiscent of Bax or, more significantly, Alfano. The textures and orchestration sometimes suggest Strauss, as does Guerrini’s interest, around 1920, in the symphonic poem; and there are indications, too, of Ravel's influence. The most substantial and imaginative of his early works is his second published work in the genre, L’ultimo viaggio d’Odisseo, which shows his harmony and orchestration at their most evocative. Also notable, in this early period, are the chamber compositions: the Violin Sonata is typical, combining succulent chromaticism with reiterative thematic developments. In time Guerrini’s academicism grew more pronounced, while his tendency to romantic indulgence was tempered by a new, architectonic sobriety. His best work after ...