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H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Joanna R. Smolko

(b Chicago, IL, March 16, 1892; d Chicago, IL, Oct 23, 1984). American Labor leader. He played trumpet and at the age of 14 organized a dance band. He was soon attracted to union activity, and in 1914 he was elected president of the American Musicians Union (AMU) in Chicago. After being defeated for reelection three years later, he resigned from the AMU and joined the American federation of musicians (AFM). He became president of the Chicago local in 1922, was named to the parent union’s executive board in 1932, and in 1940 was elected national president, a post he held until he retired in 1958 (although he retained the presidency of the Chicago local for another four years).

Petrillo was an aggressive, shrewd, and powerful fighter for the musicians in the AFM. He built the Chicago local into a disciplined force in municipal politics and worked to expand the membership at the national level (by ...


Lise Waxer

(b New York City, Feb 28, 1938; d New York City, June 6, 1993). American vibraphone player, percussionist, composer, arranger, bandleader and producer. He trained at the Juilliard School of Music and launched his career in 1957, recording with Joe Loco. In 1960 he contributed to Johnny Pacheco’s first charanga album, El güiro de macorina and launched his own band in 1963, recording Introducing Louie Ramírez. Through the 1960s he performed with Joe Cuba and was a member of the Alegre All-Stars and, with the vocalist Pete Bonet, led the house band at New York City’s Corso Club in the late 1960s. Through the 70s and 80s he was a staff producer for Fania Records and its subsidiary labels Vaya, Inca, Cotique and Tico, and was also acting president of Alegre Records. As a producer, arranger and composer, he influenced the growing sophistication of New York salsa during this time, evident on his own tunes ...


Reinhold Sietz

(Heinrich Carsten)

(b Altona, June 23, 1824; d Leipzig, March 10, 1910). German composer, teacher, administrator, pianist and conductor. He was given a thorough musical education by his father, J.P. Rudolf Reinecke (b Hamburg, 22 Nov 1795; d Segeberg, 14 Aug 1883), a respected music theoretician and author of several textbooks. From 1845 Reinecke travelled through Europe, from Danzig to Riga; in Copenhagen he was appointed court pianist in 1846, where his duties included accompanying the violinist H.W. Ernst as well as giving solo recitals. He was given a particularly friendly reception in Leipzig by Mendelssohn and the Schumanns, and Liszt, whose daughter was later taught by Reinecke in Paris, spoke of his ‘beautiful, gentle, legato and lyrical touch’. In 1851 he moved to Cologne, where he taught counterpoint and the piano at Hiller’s conservatory. He also gave concerts with Hiller, who recommended him to Barmen. There as musical director and the conductor of several musical societies between ...


Howard Schott

revised by Sarah Eyerly

(b Buffalo, NY, July 27, 1940). American conductor, harpsichordist, and producer. He graduated from SUNY, Fredonia (1962), and Indiana University (MM in conducting 1964, MM in harpsichord 1966, Performer’s Certificate in Harpsichord, 1966, doctoral studies, 1967), and was awarded an honorary doctorate from SUNY, Fredonia, in 2002. As a Fulbright fellow, he studied harpsichord with Gustav Leonhardt in Amsterdam (1967–9). He has served as visiting professor and artistic consultant for the Fundacion del Estado para la Orquesta Nacional Juvenil in Venezuela, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the University of Oklahoma, the Athens Festival, and the Tokyo Summer Festival. From 1969 to 1974, Renz was keyboardist for the New York Pro Musica ensemble. In 1974, he formed the Early Music Foundation, which provides services to the early music community in New York City and sponsors the performance entity Early Music New York (EM/NY). EM/NY is Artist in Residence at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine and presents and records music of the twelfth through the eighteenth centuries, including historical dramatic and dance works. Renz conducts baroque and classical works with the EM/NY Orchestra of Original Instruments, which has appeared at Lincoln and Kennedy Centers and with soprano Renée Fleming. The ensemble’s staged medieval music dramas, such as ...


Frank Walker and Harold Rosenthal

(August Nikolaus) [Rose, Karl]

(b Hamburg, March 22, 1842; d Paris, April 30, 1889). German impresario, violinist and conductor. At the age of 12 he toured England, Denmark and Germany as a violinist. After studies (from 1859) at the conservatories of Leipzig and Paris, he was appointed Konzertmeister in Hamburg (1863–5). In 1866 he went to London and on 10 March appeared as a soloist at the Crystal Palace. After a short stay in England he joined Bateman in a concert tour of the USA, where he met the soprano Euphrosyne Parepa; they were married in New York in February 1867. His wife's success in opera led to the formation of a company under Rosa's management and conductorship, which in its early seasons also included Wachtel, Santley, Ronconi and Formes. Early in 1871 he returned with his wife to England, and then they made an extended visit to Egypt for reasons of health; after this they returned again to London, but Parepa-Rosa died almost immediately, on ...


Stanley Sadie

revised by Jon Stroop


(b London, Sept 8, 1914; d London, March 1, 2000). English harpsichordist, pianist, conductor, writer on music and administrator. He first studied under Thomas Henry Yorke Trotter and Stanley Chapple (1923–31). After a year at the RCM he went to Cambridge, where he studied under Edward J(oseph) Dent and Boris Ord (1932–5; BA 1935, MusB 1936); he then had a further year's study at the RCM. He was a pupil of Constant Lambert for conducting and James Ching and Arthur Benjamin for the piano. He became known as a performer, especially on the radio, and also worked as a music assistant in BBC television. During war service he was guest conductor (1943–4) of the Radio France SO; returning to the BBC in 1945, he became assistant conductor of the BBC Theatre Orchestra and in 1948 music supervisor of the BBC European Service. After holding various other posts, he moved in ...


Marta Cureses

(b Vinaroz, July 1, 1940). Spanish composer, pianist, conductor and stage director. He began studying music in 1945, training as a pianist and composer at the Barcelona Conservatory. He finished his musical studies at the age of 14 and in 1961 he began his career as a pianist, specializing in contemporary music and giving concerts in several countries. In 1967 he composed his first score for the cinema, L'apat, and in the following year he went to the USA on a March Foundation grant to study composition with John Cage, La Monte Young, Philip Corner and other figures of the American avant garde. In 1975 he made a recording of works by Cage, Webern, Stockhausen and other composers.

He was director of the Grup Instrumental Català (1976–9), whose venue was the Joan Miró Foundation, and from 1978 he has dedicated himself exclusively to the composition and performance of his own works. Following the premières of his musicals ...


Charles Fox

revised by Digby Fairweather

[Schatt, Ronald]

(b London, Jan 28, 1927; d London, Dec 23, 1996). English jazz night-club owner, tenor saxophonist and bandleader. He first played the soprano saxophone and took up the tenor instrument at the age of 15. After touring with the trumpeter Johnny Claes (1944–5), Ted Heath (1946) and others, he was one of a number of British players who worked on transatlantic liners (1946–8) solely to travel to the USA to hear the music played by such musicians as Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Bud Powell. From 1948 he played in a number of bands including the Club Eleven, the Jazz Couriers (which he co-led with Tubby Hayes) and the Clarke-Boland Big Band, as well as leading his own quartets and quintets.

In 1959, he established Ronnie Scott’s night club in Gerard Street in Soho. It became the most important venue for jazz performance in the UK, especially after it moved to Frith Street in ...


Craig Jennex

(b Thunder Bay, ON, Nov 28, 1949). Canadian pianist, composer, musical director, actor, producer, and bandleader. He has been musical director for David Letterman’s late-night shows since 1982. Prior to working with Letterman, Shaffer was a featured performer on “Saturday Night Live.” He has served as musical director and producer for the Blues Brothers and cowrote the 1980s dance hit “It’s raining men.” He has served as musical director for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction ceremony since its inception in ...


Gary W. Kennedy

(b Spokane, WA, Jan 6, 1944). American trumpeter, arranger, conductor, and record producer. He began playing piano at the age of four and took up trumpet when he was ten; in his early teens he organized a dixieland ensemble and later he formed a dance band. He studied music at Gonzaga University, Spokane (BA 1967), and trumpet performance at the Manhattan School of Music (MM 1970). After graduation he worked in show bands and with Gene Roland’s rehearsal big band, and from the late 1970s he was a member of Philly Joe Jones’s septet. In the 1980s he played with Jones’s Dameronia, for which he also wrote arrangements and served as music director. Following the drummer’s death in 1985 Sickler led the group, which recorded under his leadership in 1989. For a while each year between 1987 and 1991 he led a quartet for nightclub appearances in Paris. During the same period he toured Japan as a member of Art Blakey’s big band (...