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Apwanga  

F.J. de Hen

Side-blown ivory trumpet of the Kango of the northern-central Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a carved mouthpiece and one fingerhole in the tip. (LaurentyA, 370)

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A category of melody in the music of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. See Ethiopia, Federal Democratic Republic of, §I, 3 .

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An earth bow or Ground harp .

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Ardin  

K.A. Gourlay

Angle harp played by Moorish women of Mauritania. It usually has 11 to 14 strings and a neck more than 100 cm long. The neck is inserted into a hemispherical calabash resonator, about 40 cm in diameter, which is covered with a stretched sheepskin. The strings are attached to a curved wooden rod on the soundtable, into which each end of the rod disappears, and to tuning pegs at the upper end. Circular metal discs with small rings round the edges are fixed on the soundtable. The harp is played with its body in front of the seated player, the neck to the left of the player’s head. It can be played with both hands or only with the left, the right then providing a percussive accompaniment on the soundtable....

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Arekwa  

Double clapperless bell of the Igbo people of Nigeria. Extremely large and made of iron, it is used with a drum ensemble by the rulers of Nsukka for the yam festival and New Year celebrations.

See also Ogene .

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Ari (i)  

Peter Cooke

Tall, slightly conical drum of the Lugbara people of northwestern Uganda. It has a laced head and is beaten by the hands.

M. Trowell and K.P. Wachsmann: Tribal Crafts of Uganda (London, 1953), 374 and pl.88G.

See also Uganda drum .

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Arigo  

F.J. de Hen

Trapezoidal or tulip-shaped Slit-drum of the Mangutu of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. In the region of Watsa Gombari the trapezoidal arigo is reserved for the use of the chief.

LaurentyTF, 139 F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi...

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Aro  

Amanda Villepastour

Combined rattle and concussion Clappers of the Yorùbá people of Nigeria and Benin. The instrument comprises two metal rings, each holding three containers, inside which are pellets. The player holds the instruments more or less horizontally and strikes the sides of the rings together. The ...

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Watson Forbes

(b King William’s Town, South Africa, March 4, 1916; d Ipswich, Sept 7, 1978). British viola player of Russian-Lithuanian parentage. He studied the violin with Achille Rivarde at the RCM, London, and played in the major London orchestras until the war, after which he changed to the viola. He became principal viola with the Goldsbrough Orchestra (later the English Chamber Orchestra) in ...

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Arote  

F.J. de Hen

(1) Notched flute with four fingerholes of the Mamvu of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. (LaurentyA, 281) (2) End- or rim-blown flute with three fingerholes of the Mundo of the DRC. (LaurentyA, 294)

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Christian Poché

Abyssinian drum, lyre, or lute of the early Islamic era. The word sounds foreign to the language and has no known derivation in it, but an Ethiopian origin remains plausible. Some Arab lexicographers have identified the instrument as an Abyssinian drum, similar to the kūba...

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Arub  

Single-headed wooden pot-shaped drum of the Bergdama people of Namibia, resembling the Hottentot khais. It was beaten with the thumbs and used by medicine-men.

See also Khais .

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J.H. Kwabena Nketia

The music of one of the dominant and culturally important ethnic groups in Ghana, Republic of . The Asante number about 1,500,000 and are grouped politically into large territorial units, each of which is headed by a paramount chief under whom there are district chiefs of different ranks. The constitutional head of the Asante is the Asantehene, to whom all paramount chiefs owe allegiance. In the pre-colonial period, the Asante sphere of influence spread over many parts of Ghana and extended westwards to the borders of Côte d’Ivoire and eastwards across the Volta....

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Asei  

F.J. de Hen

Set of cylindrical, stopped whistles threaded onto cord or wire, of the Mbuti of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (LaurentyA, 188)

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Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b during a voyage from Turkey to Syria, 1917; d Egypt, July 14, 1944). Syrian singer. Born to a well-known Syrian family, she moved to Cairo with her family in 1924 and made some commercial recordings while still a teenager. In 1932 she married her cousin Prince Ḥasan al-Aṭrash and returned to Syria. After giving birth to a daughter she was pronounced unable to produce any more children (and not therefore a son and heir). She left her husband to give him the chance of having an heir, and thereafter deep sadness marked her life and the romantic meanings in her songs....

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Asok  

Vessel rattle of the Pahuin of Cameroon and Gabon. The rattle can be made of any convenient container filled with pebbles or seeds, or a dried fruit shell containing seeds.

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Jeremy Montagu

Side-blown ivory horn of the Ashanti people of Ghana. A fingerhole in the tip allows a change of pitch. It is used for ‘talking’, recounting proverbs or history and also sending messages. It is blown by court horn-blowers of the Asantehene.

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Laurence Libin

Water drum of the Tuareg people of Niger. A hollowed half calabash floats open-side down in a large bowl of water (the bowl can be another calabash, a bucket, or another container) and is beaten by women using sticks, finger rings, sandals, spoons, or other implements....

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Assogi  

Rattle of the Ndasa and Mbamba of the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Concussion rattles of the Ashanti people of Ghana.