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Iceland  

Pandora Hopkins and Thorkell Sigurbjörnsson

Country in the North Atlantic. The history of Icelandic music has many gaps, since the country has always been sparsely populated. In the absence of cities of any size until recently, and without an aristocratic ruling class, Icelandic society has evolved in patterns different from those of other European nations. Iceland was first settled in the 9th century; it came under Norwegian rule in the 13th century and later under Danish, until 1944, when the country became a republic.

Icelanders possess an abundance of cultural information about their past from aural and literary traditions more than 1000 years old. Traditional music in Iceland exemplifies both insularity and cosmopolitanism, originally as part of Nordic interaction; later in connection with the political domination of Norway and Denmark; and, since independence, by assuming an increasingly international voice.

Early written sources document both instrumental and vocal traditions, although there is no evidence of instrumental accompaniment for vocal performance. Icelandic manuscripts dating from the end of the 11th century to the 15th contain written versions of legal, historical and mythological material that had been transmitted orally from previous eras; some concern events occurring during the time of settlement (...

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Philip Yampolsky, Dr Sumarsam, Lisa Gold, Tilman Seebass, Benjamin Brinner, Michael Crawford, Simon Cook, Matthew Isaac Cohen, Marc Perlman, Virginia Gorlinski, Margaret J. Kartomi, Christopher Basile, R. Anderson Sutton and Franki Raden

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Alan R. Thrasher, Joseph S.C. Lam, Jonathan P.J. Stock, Colin Mackerras, Francesca Rebollo-Sborgi, Frank Kouwenhoven, A. Schimmelpenninck, Stephen Jones, Han Mei, Wu Ben, Helen Rees, Sabine Trebinjac and Joanna C. Lee

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Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade

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Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie and Elizabeth Falconer

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Dimitri Conomos

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Robert Stevenson, Louise K. Stein, Albert Recasens, Belen Perez Castillo, Josep i Martí i Perez, Martin Cunningham, Ramón Pelinski, Jaume Aiats, Sílvia Martínez García and Arcadio de Larrea Palacín

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Tullia Magrini, Nino Pirrotta, Pierluigi Petrobelli, Antonio Rostagno, Giorgio Pestelli, John C.G. Waterhouse and Raffaele Pozzi

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Richard Crawford, Philip V. Bohlman, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Julien Olivier, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Mick Moloney, Marcello Sorce Keller, Stephen Erdely, Şahan Arzruni, Christina Jaremko, Mark Levy, Robert C. Metil, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Mark Forry, Robert B. Klymasz, Portia K. Maultsby, Gerard Béhague, Charlotte Heth, Beverley Diamond, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Zhang Weihua, Susan M. Asai, Youyoung Kang, George Ruckert, Amy R. Catlin and Ricardo D. Trimillos

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Marina Frolova-Walker, Jonathan Powell, Rosamund Bartlett, Izaly Zemtsovsky, Mark Slobin, Jarkko Niemi and Yuri Sheikin

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George Leotsakos

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Benjamin Brinner

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Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie and Elizabeth Falconer

In 

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Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade

In 

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Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade

Cultural region of South Asia. The present Republic of India (Hind. Bharat) has an area (excluding the Pakistan- and China-occupied areas of Jammu and Kashmir) of 3,165,569 km² and an estimated population of one billion people. Before Independence and Partition in 1947, the name ‘India’ referred to the larger region that now includes the nation-states of India, Pakistan, Islamic Republic of and Bangladesh (see Bengali music), also known, along with the nation-states of Bhutan, Nepal, Kingdom of and Sri Lanka, Democratic Socialist Republic of, as South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. In addition to reflecting imperfectly the cultural diversity of South Asia, the modern political boundaries obscure the equally important continuities manifested throughout the region as much in music as in other areas of culture. This article addresses ‘India’ as both a cultural and political entity, and while it focusses on the state of India, much of its content is relevant to the region as a whole. The musical cultures of the other nation-states, and the regions of ...

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Philip Yampolsky, Dr Sumarsam, Lisa Gold, Tilman Seebass, Benjamin Brinner, Michael Crawford, Simon Cook, Matthew Isaac Cohen, Marc Perlman, Virginia Gorlinski, Margaret J. Kartomi, Christopher Basile, R. Anderson Sutton and Franki Raden

(Bahasa Indon. Republik Indonesia)

Country in South-east Asia.

Philip Yampolsky

Currently the fourth most populous nation in the world, Indonesia covers a vast archipelago of some 17,500 islands, of which about 6000 are inhabited (fig.1 ). Its people belong to approximately 300 ethnic groups and speak roughly the same number of languages. The Melayu (Malay) language, originally spoken by ethnic Melayu of the Malay peninsula, eastern Sumatra, and the Riau islands, developed into a trading, administrative and literary lingua franca in many parts of the archipelago; under the name Bahasa Indonesia it has been successfully established as the national language of independent Indonesia. Some 85–90% of the country’s inhabitants profess the Muslim faith, making Indonesia the world’s largest Muslim nation. Irian Jaya, the easternmost province of Indonesia, comprises the western half of the island of New Guinea; its population and cultures are Melanesian rather than Indonesian and it is therefore treated more fully elsewhere (...

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Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade

In