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Anthony J. Greening

(b Ely, bap. Aug 24, 1579; d Ely, bur. July 28, 1641). English composer and organist. He was born into a family which had close connections with the music of Ely Cathedral; a Michael Amner, who was a lay clerk there from 1576 to 1588, was John's uncle, and a Ralph Amner (possibly John's brother or cousin) was a lay clerk successively at Ely, Windsor and the Chapel Royal. John himself left Ely to study music at Oxford under the patronage of the Earl of Bath, but returned in 1610 to succeed George Barcroft as Informator choristarum. He did not, however, graduate BMus until 1613. Two years later his only publication, Sacred Hymnes of 3, 4, 5 and 6 parts for Voyces and Vyols appeared. Amner was subsequently ordained to the diaconate, and later appointed vicarius (minor canon); so he drew the annual stipends of both organist and prebendary. Throughout his tenure of office (31 years) he continued to compose for the Anglican liturgy. As late as ...

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Renato Bossa

(b Sciacca, nr Agrigento, c1650; d Naples, c1695). Italian composer. He went from his native Sicily to Naples to complete his musical education and remained there until his death. He was maestro del coro of S Paolo Maggiore and later of the Conservatorio di S Onofrio (1681–8). On 14 September 1687 he was appointed second maestro di cappella of the Conservatorio di S Maria di Loreto ‘to teach the boys, in the morning, to play and sing’. The governors there described him as ‘one of the outstanding personalities of the city’, but in 1689 he had to resign ‘because of his many commitments’, as is stated in the governors' document appointing Alessandro Scarlatti in his place. He dedicated his op.1 to the Emperor Leopold I of Austria.

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(fl 1617–25). Italian composer. His name has sometimes been incorrectly spelt ‘Anagnino’ and ‘Agnanino’. He was an Augustinian monk and lived for part of his life in Naples. He published several volumes of music but only two survive (and the second of these is incomplete): Nova sacra cantica … liber secundus...

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Rudolf A. Rasch

(b Oberweissbach, Thuringia, 1657; d Amsterdam, bur. March 14, 1714). Dutch composer, organist, violinist and carillonneur of German origin. He settled at Amsterdam and became organist at the Lutheran church in 1683, but was dismissed for bad behaviour and drunkenness in 1694; he was frequently asked for advice about organs and bells and was also a musician at the city theatre. He seems to have played an important part in zangspelen (Singspiele), along with such composers as Johannes Schenk and Servaas de Konink. These zangspelen, with texts by contemporary Dutch poets including Dirck Buysero and Cornelis Sweerts, are short, light, spoken plays interspersed with sung stanzas. Nothing is known about their performance and no complete scores have survived, though a number of items are extant in songbooks. These are in binary form and either French or Italian in style. Anders’s two books of instrumental music were possibly intended for use as incidental music in the theatre. His op.1 is rather in the French idiom; the other book is modelled on Italian examples....

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Charles Beare

In 

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Friedrich Baser

[Endres, Enders, Karl]

(d ?Irsee, nr Kaufbeuren, Swabia, 1627). German composer. He was a monk at the Benedictine abbey at Irsee and was its abbot from 1610 until his death. He helped, together with Johann Seytz and Gregor Stemmelius, to make the abbey a leading south German centre for the cultivation of liturgical music in the early 17th century, and a number of vocal works and transcriptions for organ by him survive in manuscript. Most are signed ‘FCA’ (‘Frater Carolus Andreae’) and must therefore date from before his appointment as abbot. A slightly later work, however, is the Magnificat, which he intended for the fine new organ which he had installed shortly after becoming abbot, probably in 1612. Some of his music, such as the eight-part Te Deum, is written in the Venetian polychoral style. (U. Kornmüller: Die Pflege der Musik im Benedictiner-Orden, Würzburg and Vienna, 1881)

Article

Colin Timms and Anne MacNeil

[Giambattista]

(b Florence, Feb 9, 1576; d Reggio nell’Emilia, June 7, 1654). Italian actor, dramatist and poet. He was the son of Isabella and Francesco Andreini, famous commedia dell’arte players, and was educated at the University of Bologna. In 1594, taking the stage name ‘Lelio’, he joined the Compagnia dei Gelosi, the comic troupe to which his parents belonged, and in 1601 he married the actress and singer Virginia Ramponi (‘La Florinda’). By the time the Gelosi disbanded in 1604 he had already formed his own company, the Compagnia dei Fedeli, which served the Medici and Gonzaga families, with brief interruptions, until it disbanded, playing throughout northern and central Italy. In 1613 Maria de’ Medici invited the Fedeli to Paris. Their visit, which lasted from September 1613 to July 1614, was so successful that they performed there again from January 1621 to March 1622, probably December 1622 to March 1623...

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(b Padua, 1562; d Lyons, June 10, 1604). Italian actor, dramatist and poet, mother of G.B. Andreini. After her marriage in the late 1570s to Francesco Andreini, they joined the renowned Compagnia dei Gelosi, assuming the roles of prima donna innamorata and Lelio innamorato. They were favoured performers at the courts of Tuscany, Ferrara, Mantua and France. Isabella led the Gelosi from the 1580s until her death (when it disbanded), negotiating patronage and accepting payments on its behalf. In 1589 she performed alongside her rival Vittoria Piisimi at the wedding celebrations in Florence for Ferdinando de' Medici and Christine of Lorraine; Pavoni described the enthusiasm of the audience for Isabella's performance of the comedy La pazzia d'Isabella, during which she sang canzonette alla francese. Her talents as an author were also widely praised and she was accepted into the Accademia degli Intenti of Pavia in 1601. Of her nearly 500 lyric poems (two books of which were published in Milan in ...

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Tim Carter and Anne MacNeil

[‘La Florinda’ ]

(b Milan, Jan 1, 1583; d Bologna, 1629–30). Italian actor, singer and poet, first wife of G.B. Andreini. When they married in 1601, Virginia and her husband formed the Compagnia del Fedeli, in which she assumed the role of prima donna innamorata. Her stage name derived from her performance in Giovanni Battista’s tragedy La Florinda (1603, Florence). In spring 1608 she replaced Caterina Martinelli as the protagonist of Monteverdi’s Arianna and took part in his Ballo delle ingrate during the wedding celebrations for Prince Francesco Gonzaga and Margherita of Savoy; according to Antonio Costantini (1608), she learnt the part for Arianna in six days. She also sang the title role in G.C. Monteverdi’s opera Il rapimento di Proserpina during the festivities for the birth of the Infanta Margherita Gonzaga in 1611. Contemporary accounts suggest that her performance in Arianna was exceptionally powerful, and her talents as a singer were recalled with praise by Bonini in his ...

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Lini Hübsch-Pfleger

[Spangenberg, Wolfhart]

(b Mansfeld, probably before 1570; d Buchenbach, nr Freiburg, before Oct 1636). German theologian and writer. The first two names of his pseudonym are equivalents of Wolfhart Spangenberg, his original name, and Andropediacus derives from the name of his birthplace. He was the son of Cyriac and grandson of Johann Spangenberg. His father having been obliged to leave his position as court preacher at Mansfeld in 1574 because he supported Matthias Flaccius's substantialist view of Original Sin, he spent his earliest years at, among other places, Strasbourg, from 1578, and Schlitz, near Fulda, from 1581 and came under his father's influence in theological and artistic matters. He matriculated at Tübingen University on 5 April 1586 and took the bachelor's degree in 1588 and master's degree in 1591. He too was an adherent of Flaccianism, which hindered his career as a theologian. In 1595 he followed his father to Strasbourg, where he gained citizenship and earned his living as a proofreader. In ...

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Guy Bourligueux

(b Lerín, Spain, c1650; d Madrid, Spain 1686). Spanish organ builder. He worked with his father-in-law, Gabriel de Ávila, maker to the royal chapel at Madrid, on the construction of the organ in Charles II’s palace (1675–6), and succeeded him in his court office. In 1670–72 he had built the magnificent instrument for the Magistral Church of Saints Justo and Pastor, Alcalá de Henares, highly praised by the organist Andrés Lorente. Andueza also built the organs at the Collegiate Church of Santa María la Mayor, Talavera de la Reina (1672–3); the Church of Santiago, Alcalá de Henares (1679); and the Convent of the Holy Trinity, Madrid (1683). An inspired innovator, he was one of the most brilliant representatives of the late 17th-century Madrid school. He taught the organ builder Domingo de Mendoza.

L. Jambou: Evolución del órgano español: siglos XVI-XVIII, Documentos...

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Klaus Fischer

(b Rome, c1567; d Graz, bur. June 12, 1630). Italian composer and organist, younger brother of Felice Anerio.

He spent much of his life in Rome. From letters of Ancina it appears that from at least 1583 he was closely connected with Filippo Neri's Congregazione dell'Oratorio. He decided at an early age to become a priest and received the tonsure on 12 December 1583; he became ostiary on 22 November 1584 and lector on 20 December 1586. He was ordained deacon on 17 July 1616 and became a priest seven days later. Anerio celebrated his first Mass at Il Gesù on 7 August 1616, with all the musicians of Rome, divided into eight choirs, providing the music for the liturgical ceremony. His connections with the Gesù date from the early 1590s, when documents indicate that he was associated with the Congregazione dell'Oratorio. In 1595, when Anerio was in the service of Cardinal Antonio Maria Gallo, he and other members of his family were witnesses to the process of the beatification of Neri. In ...

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(b Paris, June 20, 1650; d Paris, 26/April 28, 1710). French violinist, father of Jean-Jacques-Baptiste Anet ( see Baptiste ). He was the son of Claude Anet, an instrumentalist. In his youth he studied under Lully. By 1673, when he entered into the first of his three marriages, he was in the service of Louis XIV’s brother, the Duke of Orléans. His first wife, Jeanne Vincent, was the mother of Baptiste. Anet remained in the service of the Duke of Orléans (and later that of the duke’s son) but also served in the 24 Violons du Roi from 1699 until his death. On his deathbed, he sold his position in the 24 Violons to his colleague Joseph Francoeur for the latter’s son Louis. He enjoyed a successful career, but nothing is known of his violin playing, and no music has been found to suggest that he was a composer. He is presumed to have been the first teacher of Jean-Jacques-Baptiste Anet....

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(fl 1678–91). Italian composer. He is known mainly for seven masses for small groups of voices and continuo, which he published in two volumes, three in the first, op.1 (Milan, 1678), and four in the second, op.2 (Milan, 1691). The first volume also contains a Magnificat...

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Giuseppe Vecchi

[‘Il Rivotorto’]

( b Rivotorto, nr Assisi, 1632; d Assisi, Dec 23, 1697). Italian composer . He bore as a sobriquet the name of his birthplace. He first studied at the monastery there and later at Perugia, Assisi and, in 1655–6, Bologna. As a member of the Franciscan order he held a series of appointments as maestro di cappella, beginning at S Francesco, Bologna, in 1656. He then worked at Spoleto and Palermo and finally, until his death, at S Francesco, Assisi. Music at this basilica notably flourished under his direction, and he enjoyed a high reputation as a contrapuntist; he wrote a short treatise on counterpoint, Sommario del contrapunto (MS, 1691, I-Bc ). While at Assisi he was also superintendent of the Sacro Convento and wrote its history, which was published posthumously. All his compositions are sacred, and most are for two or more choirs. They are competently written, but they are sometimes marred by a too easy acceptance of superficial effects and massive sounds....

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Traute Maass Marshall and Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht

[Scheffler, Johannes]

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Dec 1624; d Breslau, July 9, 1677). German poet. He received an excellent education and his first exposure to the budding vernacular literature at the Elisabeth Gymnasium, Breslau. He attended the universities of Strasbourg, Leiden and Padua, at the last of which he received the degrees of MD and PhD in 1648. He returned to Breslau and served as personal physician to the Duke of Oels in 1649–52. A clash with the Protestant censor led to his conversion to Catholicism on 12 June 1653, on which occasion he assumed the name of (Johann) Angelus Silesius. He defended his conversion in writing and soon became an outspoken and prolific agent and leading poet of the Counter-Reformation. He was ordained priest in 1661 and spent his later years – when his creative powers were in decline – mostly in religious activities and polemics.

Angelus Silesius's two principal poetic works are ...

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Josef-Horst Lederer

(b Cremona; d 1630). Italian theorist. He was a Franciscan tertiary and studied composition with Claudio Merulo. According to Lucchini, he was maestro di cappella at the Florentine court in 1622, but this cannot have been so, as Marco da Gagliano held the post at that time. In his treatise La Regola del contraponto, e della musical compositione (Milan, 1622) he was primarily concerned with strict counterpoint, basing his theory on mathematically established intervals from the speculative theory of harmony. In this way he appears as one of the closer adherents of Zarlino, together with Girolamo Diruta, Cerone, Artusi and Zacconi, but he defended the seconda pratica as the outcome of the prima pratica. He discussed – with continual references to Merulo – intervals, keys, imitation and composition in two and more parts, including double counterpoint. As practical illustrations the treatise presents two of Angleria’s own ricercares, and some canons and a ricercare by his friend G.P. Cima....

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Nigel Fortune and Tim Carter

(b ?Milan, between c 1610 and 1615; d Florence, May 11, 1674). Italian composer and instrumentalist. He joined the court musicians of the Grand Duke of Tuscany at Florence on 16 March 1639. For several years he was also in the household (as aiutante da camera) of Cardinal Giovan Carlo de’ Medici; and in 1647 he was associated with Prince Mattias de’ Medici, governor of Siena. He failed twice (on a technicality) to gain the post of organist of Florence Cathedral in 1645 and 1649; in documents associated with the latter round of applications he is styled ‘Milanese’. He is mentioned by Atto Melani in two letters to Prince Mattias: in one of 7 September 1653 he is named as one of the musicians who had slandered Melani on his recent arrival at the court at Innsbruck; in the other, dated 27 September 1654, Melani drew attention to his contrary opinion of Act 1 of Cavalli’s ...

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Robert Stevenson

(fl 1611). Portuguese composer. He studied with Manuel Mendes at the Évora Cathedral choir school. Around 1600, having already joined the order of S João Evangelista, he succeeded Pedro Thalesio as mestre de capela at the Hospital de Todos-os-Santos in Lisbon. In March 1611 he moved to Coimbra hoping to be elected to the chair of music at the university there, but after he had waited nine months, Thalesio was chosen. Sometime later until 22 December 1622, he held a royal appointment to head the music at S João Baptista, Tomar. Only three works have been identified as his: a four-voice motet, Pueri hebraeorum vestimenta (in P-EVp , ed. in PM, xxxvii, 1982), a five-voice hymn, O lingua mens sensus vigor, and a four-voice alleluia (both in AR ).

E. Vieira: Diccionário biographico de músicos portuguezes, 1 (Lisbon, 1900), 35 F.M. de Sousa Viterbo: A Ordem de Christo e a música sagrada nas suas igrejas do continente...