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Beḍug  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Large double-headed barrel drum in the Central Javanese Gamelan. It is about 74 cm long and 40 cm wide and is suspended in a decorative wooden frame. The heads are tacked to the shell and one head is beaten with a heavy mallet. It emphasizes dramatic effects in some gamelan works, especially in the theatre and plays the role of the ...

Article

[bellonion](from Lat. Bellona, goddess of war)

A mechanical instrument built by Johann Gottfried Kaufmann and his son Friedrich of Dresden about 1805. It sounded a trumpet fanfare by means of 24 free reeds (reportedly with resonators in the form of ‘reversed trumpets’) which could be played piano or forte; a crescendo and flourishes could be obtained on two connected kettledrums. A model that played all the regimental marches of the Prussian cavalry was built for the King of Prussia....

Article

Bembé  

Malena Kuss

Cuban drums of African ancestry. The term refers to a set of three drums of different sizes and registers, as well as dancing to these drums and to the celebration in which they participate. There are six types of bembé drums: (1) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical open wooden body, with nailed head; (2) double-headed cylindrical or barrel-shaped body with heads fastened by rope in W pattern and reinforced by transverse netting; (3) double-headed cylindrical body with nailed heads; (4) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical drum, with the head held by a hoop and stretched by rope fastened to perpendicular wedges on the upper half of the body; (5) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical body, with the head fastened by a system of hoops and stretched by metal tension keys; (6) single-headed cylindrical or conical body, with the head held by rope and stretched by straps fastening it to a girdle held in place by wedges on the upper part of the body....

Article

Amanda Villepastour

Double-headed cylindrical drum of the Yorùbá people of Nigeria. One or both skins have snares and one head is struck with a curved stick held by the right hand while the left hand presses on the other skin to regulate the tone. The largest bẹ̀m̀bẹ́ ensembles comprise the ìyáàlù (‘mother drum’) lead instrument, accompanied by the atẹ̣̀lé (‘the one that follows’) and the hourglass drums related to the dùndún ensemble, the kẹríkẹrì, ìṣáájù, and gúdúgúdú. The agogo bell and ṣẹkẹ-ṣẹkẹ or ṣẹ̀kẹ̀rẹ̀ rattles may be added. In palace orchestras, a kàkàkí (long trumpet adopted from the Hausa) may be added. Yorùbá bẹ̀m̀bẹ́ drums were likely adapted from the Hausa gàngaa, a double-headed cylindrical snared drum of similar construction. The bẹ̀mbẹ́ can be used for a range of life-cycle celebrations and in the worship of Yorùbá deities. The bẹ̀mbẹ́ is now most prevalent in Ọ̀ṣun worship in Ọ̀ṣun State. The bẹ̀m̀bẹ́...

Article

Bende  

Margaret J. Kartomi

[bende]

Small suspended bossed gong of Central and East Java, Bali, and Sumatra. It is made of heavy bronze, about 30 to 40 cm in diameter, and is beaten with a padded hammer on the boss, which is about 5 to 7 cm wide. Bende are used in the prajuritan theatre ensemble in the mountains south of Semarang, Java; usually four or more different pitches are played together with a derendeng (frame drum). Some bende are suspended so that they can resonate freely, while others are held by the rim in the left hand to produce a damped sound. The bende is used also in the kelenongan ensemble in Lampung, Sumatra, in the Balinese gamelan gong, and is traditionally used by Javanese military officers for signaling or giving commands to their troops. It is a very old instrument, being mentioned in two 14th-century Old Javanese poems.

See also Derendeng ; Gamelan .

J. Kunst...

Article

Bendre  

Rainer Polak

[bentere, binderi]

Kettledrum of Gur-speaking peoples (Mossi, Sisala, Mamprusi, and others) in Burkina Faso and northern Ghana. It is an almost spherical calabash with a small goat- or antelope-skin head, tuned with black adhesive paste at the center. It is beaten by the hands. The player either stands with the drum suspended from his neck or sits on the ground. Often metal plaques with rings along the edges are attached to the instrument creating a jingling sound. The bendre is considered sacred and noble by the Mossi of Burkina Faso. At the court of Tenkodogo several bendre join gangaogo and lunsi drums in an ensemble that accompanies declamation of the history of the rulers. Alternatively, a single drum can be made to ‘talk’ while a declamator translates the words. At Koupéla the drum is known as binderi, cognate with the bentere of Ghana. In Mali and western Burkina Faso, the Bamana, Bobo, Senufo, and others use a similar calabash drum without tuning paste, called ...

Article

Bentere  

Gavin Webb

[mpintin, pentre]

Calabash kettledrum of northern Ghana whose use has spread to southern areas, including the Akan. The head is tensioned with rawhide thongs tied to a ring at the bottom of the shell. Players either sit or stand with the drum suspended from a strap around the neck and beat the drum by hand....

Article

Bher  

Alastair Dick

Very large metal kettledrum of Sind, Pakistan. It is played standing, with two sticks, as part of the ceremonial band naubat found at the shrines of some Sindi saints (e.g. that of Shah Abdul Latif at Bhitshah). ‘Bher’ doubtless derives from the old Indian drum name bherī, but it is different from that so described in medieval Indian texts....

Article

Bherī  

Alastair Dick

Indian drum name that occurs in Sanskrit texts from the epic to the medieval period. The term has often been translated as ‘kettledrum’, but there appears to be no evidence for this type of drum in India before the Middle Ages. The bherī is described in medieval sources as a double-headed drum, probably barrel-shaped, about 72 cm long and 48 cm in diameter at the heads. The body was made of copper, the heads stretched on creeper hoops laced by rope, with a central cross-lacing. The drum was beaten on the right head by a stick and on the left by the hand. It was described as a battle drum with a majestic sound. Drums of this type are found in ancient Indian sculpture, sometimes borne on a pole carried on the shoulders of two men.

See also Ḍhol.

C. Marcel-Dubois: Les instruments de musique de l’Inde ancienne (Paris, 1941)...

Article

Bi  

K.A. Gourlay

[bin]

Root term in the Benue-Congo language group for double-headed cylindrical drums found in the Jos Plateau and adjoining areas of Nigeria. The term bi is used by the Jaba people, bin by the Katav, Kagoro, Morwa, and Pyem, biyin by the Kaje, bing by the Birom, and ibin and ingonbin by the Jarawa people. In the Ada-mawa language group to the east the ‘b’ becomes ‘v’; hence the Waka vi, Kumba and Teme vim, Yendang vin, and Kugama and Gengle avim. All drums are of the ganga type, with cord and lace bracing, though not all have snares. The most common use is in pairs of larger and smaller drums, for example the Kagoro badang bin (‘large drum’) and shishio bin (‘small drum’), which are played as a rhythmic accompaniment to horn or flute ensembles for singing and dancing. An exception is the bi of the Irigwe of the Jos Plateau, a tall, open, single-headed drum, played standing with hands or sticks, and used as the solo instrument for paeans of praise for traditional warriors and slayers of wild animals....

Article

[Bigothphone]

A Mirliton invented in 1888 by Bigot. A descendant of the Eunuch-flute, it was made of zinc or cardboard in various shapes, often in the form of orchestral brass instruments. Similar mirlitons were called Varinette, Jazzophone or Cantophone. Bigophones were given literary recognition by André Malraux in Lunes en papier...

Article

Bika  

Hungarian friction drum. It can be made of a wooden or metal bucket with the open end covered by a stretched membrane, usually of sheepskin. A horsehair cord passes through a hole in the skin and is tied to a small rod underneath. The cord is rubbed by wetted hands to produce a deep bellowing sound. The bika is used by the Csángó (a Hungarian ethnic group living in Romania) mainly for New Year rituals, and is identical to the Romanian Buhai of Moldavia....

Article

Bili  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Double-headed drum of the Logo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The wooden body is tall and slightly conical. The antelope-skin heads are tied together with leather thongs and beaten with sticks. It is played with other drums, but never with the larimva.

G. Knosp: Enquête sur la vie musicale au Congo belge...

Article

Bilim  

Double-headed cylindrical drum with laced heads, of the Mundang people of Chad. The drum is placed on the ground and each head is beaten by one hand of the drummer. The drum has been recorded providing rhythmic accompaniment with an end-blown trumpet and gourd vessel rattle for a women’s dance at the funeral ceremony of a woman healer....

Article

Arvydas Karaška

Article

Bocú  

Malena Kuss

[bokú]

Single-headed drum of Cuba. It is tall, relatively thin, and open at the base. One of the oldest drums from eastern Cuba, it is a creole instrument blending elements of African and European ancestry and shares musical functions with the tumbadora. There are three types of bocúes: (1) cylindrical or conical wooden body, with nailed head; (2) conical wooden body with the head held by a hoop; and (3) conical wooden body made of staves, with the head fastened by a system of hoops and metal screw tuners (modern).

Traditionally, the body was made from a log or staves, preferably of cedar, although pine and other woods were also used. The oldest drums were cylindrical and carved from a log, with a nailed head; the conical shape resulted when staves from food barrels were reused, being thinned only at the lower end to glue them together. Goatskin was preferred for the head, although bovine, deer, horse, or calf skin could be used. Height commonly ranges from 65 to 95 cm, head diameter from 20 to 27 cm, and base diameter from 10 to 19 cm. The tallest ...

Article

Mícheál O Súilleabháin, Sandra Joyce and Niall Keegan

Single-headed frame drum of Ireland. The membrane, which is normally goatskin but could be deer-, greyhound-, ass-, foal-, or horse-skin, is usually nailed to the frame. It is played either with the hand or, more commonly, a stick about 20 cm long, which is usually carved from ash, holly or hickory wood and is also known as a ‘tipper’ or cipín (‘little stick’). It may have a knob at one or both ends and a strip of leather is occasionally fastened to its centre to form a holding loop. A smaller stick (about 10 cm long) with a leather loop at one end and a carved knob at the other is sometimes used.

The term ‘bodhrán’ appears to be derived from bodhar, meaning ‘deaf’ or ‘dull-sounding’. The instrument was associated with folk ritual and was played in festival processions; it has survived primarily in association with the festival of St Stephen's Day. Until recently the construction of the ...

Article

Bofu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Barrel drum of the Han Chinese. The wooden body is about 40 to 45 cm long, with two tacked heads between 20 and 25 cm in diameter. It rests horizontally on a low rectangular frame. As with other instruments used in imperial Confucian rituals, its body is usually lacquered red, a colour associated with ritual and ceremony, and it may be further decorated. The ...

Article

Bokenza  

K.A. Gourlay

[bonkenza, bonkenja, bonkendja]

Cylindro-conical double-headed drum of the Konda and Nkundo peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Konda drum is about 58 cm tall and the Nkundo about 44 cm. The cone is narrow and elongated, giving a goblet-shaped appearance without a supporting base, and the upper head is fastened by parallel cords which, at the point where the cylinder gives way to the cone, take the form of a net covering the cone. Traditionally the bokenza was a war drum, beaten in battle to encourage the warriors. The drums have leather carrying straps and often contained small rattling pebbles. The Lia lokiru (116 cm) (cf. Nkundo lokiro and Sengele lokilo) was of the same type and served the same function. The Nkundo term for a large drum (140 cm) of this type, bondundu, would appear to be cognate with the Yembe and Konda ndungu and the Dia and Sakata ...

Article

Bokio  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[bonkeli]

Single-headed drum of the Kota and Kutu peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The footed wooden body is about 80 cm tall. The head can be of antelope, snake, or crocodile skin, usually laced to the body with leather thongs. It is beaten by the hands.

O. Boone...