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Lennart Hedwall

(b Stockholm, Nov 28, 1793; d Bremen, Sept 26, 1866). Swedish author, pedagogue, journalist, and composer. After an education administered mainly by private tutors, Almqvist attended university in Uppsala and graduated in 1816. He then took a position as a government clerk in Stockholm, where he engaged in youthful and idealistic movements that worshiped Gothic ideals, the early German romanticism, and Swedenborg’s teachings. He was soon the leading spirit in these circles, and with his visionary religiosity he gained almost prophet-like status among them. In an attempt to realize his ideals, from 1823 to 1824 he lived as a farmer in the remote Wermland but soon returned to Stockholm where in 1827 he became a teacher at the Military Academy of Karlberg; he took an additional teaching post in 1829 at the recently founded experimental college Nya Elementarskolan. There he served as headmaster from 1829 to 1841 and wrote a dozen textbooks on different subjects from linguistics to mathematics....


Faruk Yener

(b Istanbul, March 11, 1906; d Ankara, July 27, 1978). Turkish composer and conductor. He had his first music lessons from his mother. He showed a precocious talent for playing the qānūn and at 16 he composed a musical play in traditional Turkish monophonic style. In 1927 he went to Vienna and studied composition with Joseph Marx at the Academy of Music and conducting with Oswald Kabasta. He returned to Turkey in 1932, was appointed conductor to the Istanbul City Theatre Orchestra and taught history of music at the Istanbul Conservatory. In 1936 he became assistant conductor of the Ankara Presidential SO, taught piano at the State Conservatory and was an assistant to Carl Abert at the Ankara State Opera. In 1946 he was appointed conductor of the Presidential PO and held the post until 1952, when he left because of a nervous breakdown, though he continued to teach at the conservatory and to appear as guest conductor in Ankara and with the Vienna SO and the Stuttgart RSO. One of the Turkish Five, Alnar showed strong attraction in his works to the rhythmic and melodic patterns of Turkish monophonic music. (...


August Corbet

revised by Corneel Mertens and Diana von Volborth-Danys

(b Antwerp, Sept 12, 1876; d Antwerp, Oct 5, 1954). Belgian composer and conductor. He studied in Antwerp at the Flemish Music School (later called the Royal Flemish Conservatory) under Peter Benoit and Jan Blockx, and conducting under Eduard Keurvels. In 1903 he became professor at the Conservatory, and was director of that institution from 1934 to 1941, when he retired. He was also active as an orchestral and operatic conductor, and was a member of the Académie Royale de Belgique.

Alpaerts was one of the outstanding personalities in Flemish musical life, both as conductor and composer; he was also a great teacher and an admirable organizer. As a composer he was, like Paul Gilson and August de Boeck, a typical Flemish representative of the Impressionist school. However, his Impressionism came closer to Richard Strauss and Respighi than to Debussy. An example of this tendency is the symphonic poem ...


Ingo Schultz

revised by Howard Hotson

(b Ballersbach, nr Herborn, March 1588; d Gyulafehérvár [Weissenburg, Transylvania; [now Alba Julia, Romania], Nov 9, 1638). German theologian, encyclopedist and music theorist. From 1608 he taught at the Calvinist academy, Herborn, where J.A. Komenský was among his pupils. Following the disruptions of the Thirty Years War, he transferred to Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania in 1629–30. His liberal strand of Calvinist thought is reflected in his theological understanding of music: he tolerated secular music (both polyphonic and instrumental) alongside strictly regulated church music as long as it was committed to the spiritual purpose of all music. Classifying music among the mathematical disciplines, he treated it briefly in a series of mathematical textbooks and most extensively in his masterwork, the largest, most comprehensive and systematic encyclopedia assembled to that time (1630). Like that of most of the 37 disciplines handled in the work, his treatment of music is derivative, and its chief importance lies in its comprehensiveness, systematic presentation, wide distribution and easy accessibility within the encyclopedia as a whole. Like Erycius Puteanus and David Mostart, he favoured seven-syllable solmization series (...


Eldonna L. May

(b Detroit, MI, April 13, 1953). American composer and pianist. As a teenager, she studied piano with Pearl Roberts McCullom. She received bachelor and master’s degrees in music composition at Wayne State University, studying with James Hartway. In 1983, she became the first female African American composer to receive the DMA in composition from the University of Michigan, where she studied with william Bolcom , Eugene Kurtz and Leslie Bassett. She also worked in electronic music with George Wilson for several years.

Alston taught briefly at Wayne State University (1983), Oakland University (1987), and Eastern Michigan University (1988). In 1991, she rejoined the faculty at Oakland University, where she is an associate professor in music composition. Her music has been performed in the United States and abroad. Alston’s Four Moods for Piano and Three Rhapsodies for Piano were selected for New York premieres by the North/South Consonance Ensemble. ...


Edward H. Tarr

(b Weissenfels, June 15, 1734; d Bitterfeld, May 14, 1801). German trumpeter, organist and teacher. Son of Johann Caspar Altenburg, he was sworn into apprenticeship by his father at two years of age and was released from his articles as a trumpeter 16 years later. Because of the decline of Baroque social order, however, he was never able to find a position as a trumpeter. He became a secretary to a friend of his father's, a royal Polish stablemaster, then studied the organ and composition with Johann Theodor Römhild in Merseburg until 1757 and (briefly) with Bach's son-in-law, Johann Christoph Altnickol, in Naumburg. In 1757 he joined the French army as a field trumpeter and participated in the Seven Years War, then travelled to various German states, returning to Weissenfels in 1766. In 1767 he found a position as an organist in Landsberg, and in 1769 in the then small village of Bitterfeld. He auditioned unsuccessfully for better positions and died embittered and impoverished....


Karl-Ernst Bergunder

(b Alach, nr Erfurt, May 27, 1584; d Erfurt, Feb 12, 1640). German composer. He was sent to school at Erfurt in 1590 and went on to study theology at the university there in 1598, gaining the bachelor’s degree in 1599 and the master’s degree in 1603. He taught at Erfurt from 1600, beginning at the Reglerschule; from 1601 he was Kantor at St Andreas and from 1607 was also rector of the school connected with it. He abandoned teaching in 1609 and became a pastor: he worked in the parishes of Ilversgehofen and Marbach, near Erfurt, until 1610 and then moved to Tröchtelborn, near Gotha, where he stayed until 1621 and was probably also Kantor. He published most of his music during these years. He was likened to Orlande de Lassus as an ‘Orlandus Thuringiae’ and he himself was conscious of living at a time of great musical activity: as he wrote in the preface to his ...


Karen Ahlquist

(b New Bloomfield, PA, Feb 8, 1904; d Newport, PA, June 3, 1976). American composer, pianist and teacher. She studied at Vassar College (AB 1925), Columbia University (AM in musicology, 1931) and the Eastman School of Music (MM in composition, 1932). Her teachers included Ernest Hutcheson (piano, 1925–6), Rubin Goldmark (composition, 1926–7) and, at Eastman, Howard Hanson and Bernard Rogers. She taught at Vassar from 1929 to 1931 and between 1938 and 1942. In 1942 she joined the faculty of Connecticut College for Women, teaching composition, theory, history and the piano. She became a full professor in 1956 and department chair in 1963.

Alter began to compose while at college and continued until she retired from teaching in 1969. While at Eastman she composed large works with orchestra which Hanson conducted; these included a staged ballet Anthony Comstock at the Festival of American Music in ...


Stephen Tobriner

(b Naples, Jan 29, 1745; d Noto, Oct 17, 1820). Italian composer and music teacher. He was educated in Naples, where he met two wealthy citizens from Noto, a small city in south-eastern Sicily, who invited him to their city. Altieri arrived in 1766, became a music teacher, married and held the position of maestro di cappella for all the city’s churches. He worked in Noto until his death.

A collection of Altieri’s compositions was given to the Biblioteca Comunale of Noto by a local bishop who had acquired it from a relative of Altieri’s: it comprises 449 works, mostly sacred vocal music, but also secular vocal music and instrumental works.

D. Russo: Indice alfabetico delle opere e della Raccolta musicale del M.o Paolo Altieri, Biblioteca comunale di Noto (Noto, 1913) L. Modica: Catalogo tematico per autori del Fondo Altieri (diss., U. of Catania, 1988) [excludes Altieri’s works]...


Eric Blom

revised by Malcolm Turner

(b Adelnau, Poznań, April 4, 1862; d Hildesheim, March 25, 1951). German musicologist. He received lessons in the violin and music theory from Otto Lüstner while at school in Breslau, and studied medieval history and classical philology at Marburg and Berlin (1882–5). After training as a librarian at the Royal University Library, Breslau (now Wrocław), he moved in 1889 to Greifswald University where in addition to his library duties he held the post of lecturer in medieval history and in librarianship from 1893. In 1900 he obtained a post at the Royal Library in Berlin, where he was instrumental in founding the Deutsche Musik Sammlung, and where he finally became director of the music section in 1915 in succession to Albert Kopfermann. He held this position until his retirement in 1927. The energetic cultivation of his dual interests, music and librarianship, both during his professional career and after his retirement to Hildesheim, resulted in the production of an invaluable series of catalogues of published works for various instruments or combinations of instruments....


Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

(b Kelantan, Malaysia, 1940). Malaysian shadow puppeteer. From an early age he became interested in wayang kulit Siam, which is associated principally with the state of Kelantan and is the most important of Malaysia's four types of shadow play. He received his early training as a dalang (puppeteer) from his father and at the age of 11 created his own experimental wayang kulit Siam troupe with a few friends.

He later studied wayang kulit Siam with Pak Awang Lah, the most famous Kelantan dalang. After an initial lack of success, he managed to impress the international audience of scholars at the 1969 conference Traditional Drama and Music of Southeast Asia, held in Kuala Lumpur. This exposure enabled him to travel overseas. The Seri Setia Wayang Kulit troupe, with Amat as leader, visited ten European countries in 1971 under the sponsorship of UNESCO and the Malaysian Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism, giving performances in 31 cities. Aside from returning to Europe and performing in several Asian countries, Amat has also performed in Russia and Turkey (...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Neuss, July 6, 1899; d Lüdenscheid, Sept 1, 1994). German musicologist and choir director. He studied musicology with Ludwig at Göttingen University (1919–21) and subsequently with Gurlitt at Freiburg University, where he received the doctorate in 1924 with a dissertation on the melodies Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen and Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh' darein. He was a lecturer at the Bauernhochschule in Rendsburg (1924–5) and at the Volkshochschule in Kassel (1925–6). He then acted as music consultant to the Central Office for General Librarianship in Leipzig (1926–8) and lectured in Protestant church music at the University of Münster (1930–39). After the war he lectured at the Landeskirchenmusikschulen of Hanover (1947–8) and the Rhineland (1949–57).

In the early 1920s Ameln embarked on a fruitful career as a choral and orchestral conductor and director of choral courses. His object was the authentic performance of old music, and this was coupled with considerable editorial work. He edited the journal of the Finkenstein League, ...


John M. Schechter

revised by Luis Merino

(b Santiago de Chile, June 22, 1922; d Santiago, Feb 3, 1999). Chilean composer and writer. Introduced to music by his father, a cellist, he studied theory and the piano at the Catholic Conservatory from 1935 to 1939. After graduating in civil engineering from the University of Chile (1945), he pursued work in composition with Jorge Urrutia Blondel at the National Conservatory (1948–52). He made his first experiments in electronic music when he was planning music programmes for Chilean Radio (1953–6), and in 1956 created the Experimental Sound Workshop at the Catholic University of Santiago. He taught both at the Catholic University and on the arts faculty of the University of Chile.

Amenábar wrote for the voice, chamber groups, solo instruments, and ensembles, and he composed incidental music for the cinema and theatre. His electro-acoustic music carries special importance: such works as ...


Licia Mari

(b Venice, Aug 28, 1917; d Venice, Feb 20, 1995). Italian composer, pianist and teacher. He studied at the Venice Conservatory, where he took his diploma in the piano (1938, with Tagliapietra), in composition (1946, with Gabriele Bianchi, a Malipiero pupil), and choral and orchestral conducting (1947, with Sante Zanon, Sanzogno and Scherchen). He had a concert career as a pianist, and was a coach for the opera seasons at La Fenice, where he also conducted from 1973 to 1985. He was awarded international prizes for composition, and received honours in recognition of his commitment to teaching, which manifested itself in a series of pedagogical texts, many of which remain in manuscript. The influence of the generazione dell’ottanta can be seen in his Sonata for string orchestra (1947), in which rigorous, economical contrapuntal writing is supported by a solid formal awareness, Classical in nature; melodies cultivate a French kind of archaism, tinged with modality. These elements remained typical of Amendola’s work, along with a predilection for the piano, for which he wrote some technically complex works (e.g. Fifth Sonata, ...


Juan Orrego-Salas

revised by Luis Merino

(b Santiago, Sept 2, 1911; d Santiago, Aug 2, 1954). Chilean composer and pianist. He studied with Allende for composition and Renard for the piano at the Santiago National Conservatory (1923–35), where he then held appointments as coach at the opera department (1935), assistant professor of the piano (1937), professor of analysis (1940), and director (1945). At the same time he taught at the Liceo Manuel de Salas in Santiago. He was secretary-general to the Instituto de Extensión Musical (from 1941), a founder-director of the Escuela Moderna de Música, Santiago (1940), and a member of various arts societies. In 1943 he went to the USA as a guest of the Institute of International Education and in 1953 he was in Europe for the performance of his Wind Sextet at the ISCM Festival. His early compositions show the influences of French music and Chilean folklore; from the late 1940s his work became more Expressionist and abstract....


Natan Shahar

(b Warsaw, Aug 8, 1909; d Yakum Kibbutz, Israel, Dec 18, 1993). Israeli composer and teacher of Russian descent. He received his early musical education in Moscow. In 1924 he emigrated with his family to Palestine, where he continued his musical studies with Shlomo Rozovsky (1928–9). He began to compose in 1930. From 1934 to 1936 he studied music education at Trinity College, London, and composition with Bantock and Rowley; at the same time he also studied at Tonic Sol-fa College, London. With the formation of the Israeli Army, he was appointed First Officer for music, founding the orchestras of both the army and the cadets. In 1949 he became the central inspector for music education at the Ministry of Education, a post he held until his retirement in 1975.

Amiran was one of the Ereṣ Yisrael composers who developed the character of what became known as typical Israeli folksong. His vast number of songs (around 600), many of which set biblical texts, were published in a wide array of pamphlets and song books. The most notable of these include: the nursery songs ...


Agustín Fernández

(b Cochabamba, Sept 23, 1912; d Cochabamba, Feb 15, 1998). Bolivian pedagogue, composer and architect. After fighting in the Chaco War he studied music and architecture in Chile (1936–42); thereafter, apart from a study trip to Madrid in 1959, he remained in his native Cochabamba. The Coro de los Valles, which he founded in 1954, was for several decades the mainstay of the city’s musical life. Wayra, Anaya’s most renowned composition, was originally written for this choir and subsequently arranged for various instrumental combinations.

Notwithstanding his prolific career as an architect – he served as dean of the faculty of architecture at the Universidad Mayor de San Simón de Cochabamba and designed university campuses in Cochabamba and Oruro – Anaya has earned national recognition mainly on the strength of his educational work. In 1961 he founded the Instituto Laredo, a school for gifted children, with the goal of promoting happiness through an ‘integral education’; this is characterized by a particular emphasis on music, based on the principle that, of all disciplines, music cultivates the widest range of human faculties. Witness to the integrity of Anaya’s ideas is the unusually high number of his pupils that have gone on to positions of leadership, both within and outside the arts....


Bayan Northcott

(David )

(b London, April 6, 1967). English composer, teacher and writer on music. While still at Westminster School he began studying privately with John Lambert, continuing at the RCM, where he took the BMus. He then studied with Goehr at Cambridge. He also attended the Contemporary Composition Course at the Britten–Pears School in 1992 and was Britten Memorial Fellow at Tanglewood in 1993, profiting from the guidance of Knussen. From 1994 to 1996 he was Constant and Kit Lambert Fellow at the RCM, where he was later appointed a professor of composition. He is also active as a broadcaster and writer, contributing to such periodicals as Tempo and The Musical Times.

Although he has followed the progress of his British peers with close sympathy, Anderson's initial enthusiasms were for such continental radicals as Xenakis, Vivier and the ‘spectral’ composer Murail (with whom he also took lessons) and for the various folk musics of eastern Europe. His early compositions tended to be study pieces, each concentrating upon a single technique – melodic decoration, for instance, or overtone-derived harmony. These he has mostly withdrawn, but the concerns they focussed have continued to evolve and interact in his published output....


(b Stockholm, Aug 22, 1851; d Stockholm, May 20, 1918). Swedish pianist, teacher and composer. At the Swedish Royal Academy of Music (1867–74) he studied the piano first with Johan van Boom and then with Ludvig Norman, harmony with Otto Winge, the organ with Gustaf Mankell and composition with Berens. After further piano study with Hilda Thegerström (1874–6), he went to Berlin, where he became a pupil of Clara Schumann and Heinrich Barth and also studied composition at the Hochschule für Musik with R. Wüerst and Friedrich Kiel. During this period he frequently deputized as a teacher for Barth, both at the Hochschule and privately. He returned to Stockholm in 1884 and two years later founded a piano school, where at first he was the only teacher of the instrument, with Sjögren as teacher of harmony. The school gradually developed a more general curriculum, including courses in other instruments and in singing, and became the country’s outstanding private music school. Noted Swedish musicians who studied at the school (Anderssons Musikskola) include Stenhammar, Astrid Berwald, Wiklund, Fryklöf and Gustaf Heintze. Andersson was appointed professor of piano at the Stockholm Conservatory in ...


Jere T. Humphreys


(b Herrington, KS, June 4, 1929). American music educator, author, and illustrator. She obtained two degrees from the same institution, Arizona State College (BA 1951), later Arizona State University (MA 1961). She was a teacher and music supervisor in the public schools of Arizona (1951–72), where she became known for her energy, leadership, and creativity. She then taught at Arizona State University (1972–90), during which time she was a consultant for school music series textbooks and the principal author of several other series, all published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Andress also served on and chaired numerous state- and national-level committees; made over 250 teaching and workshop presentations, including some internationally for US Department of Defense Dependency Schools; and published two books on early childhood music education. She served as president of the Arizona Music Educators Association (1967–9), was named its Arizona Music Educator of the Year (...