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Article

Katy Romanou

(b Corfu, Greece, May 2, 1911; d Athens, Greece, Jan 17, 1970). Greek music historian, trumpeter, and teacher. He was taught music at an early age in Corfu’s Philharmonic Society. In 1928 he moved to Athens, and studied the trumpet at the Odeion Athinon (‘Athens Conservatory’). He then became a teacher of that instrument at the Ellinikon Odeion (‘Greek Conservatory’) in Athens, and joined the State Orchestra of Athens and the orchestra of the National Lyric Stage.

In 1958 he published his Neoelliniki mousiki: Symvoli eis tin istorian tis (‘Neo-Hellenic music: contribution to its history’). The book, detailed and richly documented, remains today the most comprehensive study on music in the Ionian Islands in the 19th century and early 20th (but not confined to that location). In 1999 Stelios Tzermpinos published an index of names in Neoelliniki mousiki, making it easier to use. However, the book is out of print and difficult to find. It is also difficult to access the ‘Motsenigeio istoriko archeio neoellinikis mousikis’ (‘Motsenigian historic archive of neo-Hellenic music’), the personal library and rich archive of sources collected by Motsenigos over 25 years, and donated by his wife, Litsa Papa, at his death, to the National Library of Athens. Among its resources are 1300 scores – some extremely rare – of works by 124 Greek composers of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th....

Article

Michael Baumgartner

(b Oakland, CA, Feb 19, 1955). American jazz saxophonist, bass clarinetist, composer, and leader. He grew up in Berkeley, where he received his first musical training, in stride and ragtime piano. At the age of nine he began playing alto saxophone and at the age of 11 tenor saxophone. From the age of 12 through his later teens he led several R&B bands. He continued his formal training at Pomona College in Los Angeles, where stanley Crouch and Margaret Kohn were among his teachers. After his graduation in 1975 Murray moved to New York where he began playing the loft circuit with such experimental musicians as Anthony Braxton, Don Cherry, and Julius Hemphill. His first steady engagement came with the Ted Daniels’ Energy Band; its members were Hamiett Bluiett, Lester Bowie, and Frank Lowe. After his first European tour in 1976, Murray established the renowned World saxophone quartet ...

Article

Paula Conlon

[‘Doc’ Tate ]

(b Fletcher, OK, July 3, 1932; d Lawton, OK, March 5, 1996). Native American (Comanche) maker and player of juniper flutes. He attended the Fort Sill Indian School and Haskell Indian Institute. He learned flute making from the Kiowa maker Belo Cozad (1864–1950) and the Lakota maker Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976). He used the traditional method of splitting the wood, carving the channel, boring the holes, and inserting the plug, then gluing the flute back together with sap, binding it with leather thongs, and attaching the external block. His first album, Indian Flute Songs from Comanche Land (NAM 401C, n.d.), was the first commercial recording consisting entirely of music for solo Indian flute. He introduced new playing techniques, including cross-fingerings to extend the range, and extending the warbling sound on the lowest tone to all the available pitches, thus expanding the flute’s repertoire and contributing to its revival in the latter 20th century. Tate (the English name given to him) was recognized as a National Heritage Fellow in ...

Article

Michael Conklin

(b Corsicana, TX, Feb 24, 1933; d Kingston, NY, Jan 20, 2009). American saxophonist and flutist. At an early age he moved with his family moved to Dallas, where he attended Lincoln High School. After graduation he earned a scholarship to study music and theology at Jarvis Christian College. After two years of college, Newman decided to perform professionally with alto saxophonist Buster Smith. While touring with Smith, he played with rhythm-and-blues bands that featured such musicians as Lowell Fulson and Ray Charles, who was Fulson’s pianist. From 1954 he played in Charles’s band and in 1958 made his first recording as a leader, the album Fathead: Ray Charles Presents David “Fathead” Newman for Atlantic Records. Newman left Charles’s band in 1964 and moved to New York. From the late 1960s through the 1970s, he parlayed the fame garnered while working with Charles to record albums for Atlantic Records, Warner Bros., and Prestige, some of which were heavily produced and pop-oriented. He returned to his hard bop roots in the 1980s and began a productive association with HighNote Records in the 1990s that lasted until his death from pancreatic cancer. Newman’s final two recordings, ...

Article

Charles E. Kinzer

[Nick ]

(b New Orleans, LA, May 27, 1900; d Paris, France, Sept 3, 1973). American jazz clarinetist. A Creole of color, he studied solfège with lorenzo Tio jr. , before taking up clarinet around 1910. By 1916, when he joined the US Navy, he had professional experience with the bands of Buddy Petit and Billy Marrero. After returning to New Orleans in 1920, he worked with the Maple Leaf Orchestra and Manuel Perez’s band. In the period 1923–4 he became known as a fluent improviser while leading a band at Tom Anderson’s saloon that included Luis Russell and Barney Bigard. This group traveled to Chicago to join Joe Oliver in 1924. Nicholas recorded with Oliver, and his work on “Jackass Blues” shows a penetrating upper register tone, quick vibrato, and ability to execute liquid slides between clarion-register notes. After a tour of the Far East (1927), he moved to New York and worked through the 1930s with such leaders as Luis Russell, Jelly Roll Morton, and Louis Armstrong. Following World War II he teamed up with Kid Ory and led various groups. After moving to Paris in ...

Article

Kimberly Woolly

(b Chicago, IL, 1951). American contrabassoonist. She holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Northwestern University and an additional degree from Roosevelt University. Among her teachers are Burl Lane and Wilbur Simpson. She was a member of the Civic Orchestra of Chicago, has appeared with the Chicago SO and St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, and is a founding member of the Chicago Bassoon Quartet and the contrabassoon duo The Two Contras. Most notably, she is one of the few contrabassoon soloists in the United States. Her efforts to promote the instrument have led her to commission and premiere multiple solo works, some of which can be heard on her CDs ...

Article

Vasil S. Tole

[Lulushi ]

(b Korçë, Albania, March 23, 1954; d Korçë, April 23, 1990). Albanian folk clarinettist . Master of the iso-polyphonic repertory associated with Korçë during the second half of the 20th century. Lulushi grew up in a family of folk music performers, and he began to play folk instruments such as accordion and clarinet at a very young age. His grandmother, Qerime, was a singer of the Korca saze in the 1930s. As a member of the Ensemble Skënderbeu (1978), Lulushi performed dozens of instrumental iso-polyphony pieces of southeast Albania. His saze was composed of 2 clarinets, 1 violin, 1 quena, 2 lutes, 1 accordion, and 1 frame drum. Lulushi has been appreciated as one of the top folk clarinettists of Korçë folk music. In addition to dozens of great performances already known as ‘…of Lulushi’s clarinet’, he has also contributed to the golden fund of instrumental music, with what is known as ‘Lulushi’s Kaba in Sol’ (...

Article

Eddy Determeyer

[Melvin James ]

(b Battle Creek, MI, Dec 17, 1910; d New York, NY, May 28, 1988). American arranger, composer, producer, bandleader, trumpeter, and singer. Growing up as an African American musician in Zanesville, Ohio, Oliver was self taught as a trumpeter and arranger. After playing in territory bands in and around Zanesville and Columbus, he became a member of Jimmie Lunceford’s orchestra in 1933. His charts for the Lunceford band were distinguished by contrasts, crescendos, and unexpected melodic variations, thereby setting new standards in big band swing and close-harmony singing. His use of two-beat rhythms also set his arrangements apart.

In 1939 Oliver was hired by the trombonist Tommy Dorsey and turned his band into one of the hardest swinging and most sophisticated ensembles of the early 1940s. In 1946 he started his own big band. During the late 1940s and 1950s he mainly did studio work, as a music director for the labels Decca, Bethlehem, and Jubilee. He continued to lead big bands and smaller ensembles, recycling his old Lunceford and Dorsey successes and performing new arrangements. Along with Duke Ellington and Fletcher Henderson, Oliver must be rated one of the top arrangers of the swing era and infused almost every chart with vigor and surprise....

Article

Patrizio Barbieri

(b Amatrice, Rieti, Italy, 17??; d Amatrice, Italy, 16–17 March 1804). Italian amateur flutist, composer, and developer of the flute. Orazi served as an army lieutenant in Naples and Spain and on retirement returned to Amatrice, on the northern border of the Kingdom of Naples. In 1797 he published a short treatise illustrating his invention and fabrication of a new type of transverse flute; printed separately at the same time were two ‘enharmonic’ trios he wrote especially for this instrument, incorporating themes by other composers. His aim was to make the flute more competitive with the violin by extending its range down to g; increasing the upper range and facilitating emission of high notes; and enabling it to perform quarter-tones so that portamento effects could enhance its expressive potential.

The instrument was essentially a normal concert flute in D (‘flauto corista’) equipped with four closed-standing keys (E♭, F, G#, B♭). To it was added an extension partly bent back on itself for more convenient positioning of the keys, allowing one to play chromatically from ...

Article

Michael Baumgartner

(b St. Louis, MO, Aug 3, 1960). American alto and soprano saxophonist. After studying clarinet, flute, and alto saxophone privately, he graduated from Howard University with jazz studies as his major in 1980. He continued his education at the Berklee College of Music in Boston until 1983. After moving to New York in the same year, he played as a sideman with Herbie Hancock, Dizzy Gillespie, Andrew Hill, Muhal Richard Abrams, and Jaki Byard. In 1985 he joined Jack DeJohnette’s group Special Edition. From the same year through the early 1990s he worked with the M-base collective, of which he was a founding member with Steve Coleman and Cassandra Wilson, among others. Having released three albums with the German label JMT, Osby signed a contract with Blue Note Records in 1990, for which he recorded 13 albums as a leader from 1991 to 2005. On several of these he featured Coleman, Jim Hall, and Hill. In ...

Article

John Chilton

[Oran Thaddeus ]

(b Dallas, TX, Jan 27, 1908; d New York, NY, Nov 5, 1954). American jazz trumpeter and singer. He worked as a professional musician in his home state of Texas during the 1920s and later maintained that he learned to play authentic blues by listening to the local performers there. He played with Walter Page’s Blue Devils (1928–30) then with Bennie Moten’s band (1931–3 and 1934). In 1936 he worked briefly with Count Basie’s band as a principal soloist, but left to become a solo artist at the behest of Louis Armstrong’s manager Joe Glaser, a move generally regarded as having crippled a potentially illustrious career. Page gained much publicity during a brief stay with Artie Shaw’s band (1941–2). He also made many fine recordings under his own name (1938–54), often leading bands with some of the finest swing musicians, including Earl Bostic, Don Byas, J.C. Higginbotham, and Ben Webster, among his sidemen. His purposeful, exciting trumpet playing and deeply felt blues singing were probably too rugged to gain widespread favor. Throughout his career he thrived on the atmosphere of impromptu jam sessions, in which his searing tone, dramatic phrasing, and improvised blues lyrics were a source of considerable inspiration to fellow musicians....

Article

Mark Tucker

[Pestritto, Antonio ]

(b Middletown, CT, Oct 26, 1907; d Old Lyme, CT, Oct 31, 1969). American bandleader, singer, and saxophonist. He began playing as a sideman in the orchestras of John Cavallaro, Irving Aaronson, and Vincent Lopez, before joining Artie Shaw’s band (1936), in which he was a tenor saxophone soloist and singer; “Indian Love Call” (1938, B♭) offers a good example of his throaty, somewhat gruff vocal style. After Shaw dissolved the band Pastor formed his own in 1940, taking some of Shaw’s players with him. Many of the group’s arrangements were written by the guitarist Al Avola, although Budd Johnson, Walter Fuller, and Ralph Flanagan also made contributions. Pastor’s singing was greatly influenced, he acknowledged, by Louis Armstrong and was always an important part of his shows. In the late 1940s Pastor also performed with Betty and Rosemary Clooney. He broke up his big band in ...

Article

Edgardo Diaz Diaz

[Ángel ]

(b Humacao, PR, July 17, 1921; d San Juan, PR, June 18, 2002). American saxophonist, bandleader, composer, and arranger. A member of one of Puerto Rico’s most respected musical families, he was trained in the practices of old Spanish military-band traditions by his father, Juan Peña Reyes (1879–1948). After playing in a band led by his cousin Rafael González Peña and another by Armando Castro, he was hired in 1947 as saxophone soloist for the César Concepción Orchestra. Divisions within this orchestra in 1954 led him and fellow members to create the 15-piece Orquesta Panamericana, which performed various Latin American genres. The ensemble also offered an early showcase for Ismael Rivera, who was later known as el Sonero Mayor. Popularly known as La Panamericana, the group conspicuously presented fresh Afro-Puerto Rican sounds on radio and television, helping bomba and plena—genres associated with marginal barrios—to become the most visible musical products of Puerto Rico. Peña’s training in music theory with Amaury Veray and Julián Bautista led to a strong catalog of nationalist compositions, including his ...

Article

John-Carlos Perea

[James Gilbert ]

(b Salem, OR, June 18, 1941; d Portland, OR, Feb 10, 1992). American tenor and soprano saxophonist, singer, bandleader, and composer. Of Native American (Creek and Kaw) heritage, he was raised in Oregon and Oklahoma. Early musical influences included tap dance, big band jazz, Southern Plains powwow music and dance, and peyote music. Pepper moved to New York in 1964 and joined the Free Spirits (1966), an early fusion jazz ensemble featuring Larry Coryell and Bob Moses. After forming the group Everything is Everything (1967) with former members of Free Spirits Chris Hills and Columbus Baker, Pepper recorded “Witchi Tai To,” a composition fusing a peyote song with jazz, rock, and country influences. Released on Everything is Everything featuring Chris Hills (Vanguard Apostolic, 1969), “Witchi Tai To” peaked at number 69 on the Billboard pop charts. By 2011 it had been covered by at least 90 artists ranging from Brewer & Shipley, Jan Garbarek, and Oregon to the Paul Winter Consort and Joy Harjo. Pepper released four albums as a leader: ...

Article

Michael Conklin

(b Florence, SC, Nov 10, 1934). American tenor saxophonist. He studied music informally as a child and took piano lessons with his mother; he later turned to the tenor saxophone. He studied at South Carolina State College and then served in the armed forces during the Korean War. He joined the service band while stationed in West Germany and performed with pianist Cedar Walton and trumpeter Don Ellis. After his military service, Person continued his studies at the Hartt College of Music. His warm, full, soulful sound attracted musicians like organist Johnny Hammond and Etta Jones; he procured valuable experience while working with Hammond from 1963 to 1966. He then made a series of albums, as a leader, for Prestige Records in the 1960s, including his initial release, Underground Soul in 1966 and later recorded for Mercury, Savoy, Muse, and HighNote. He has been active as a sideman for musicians Charles Earland, Ran Blake, Johnny Hammond, and perhaps most notably, pianist and composer Horace Silver. In ...

Article

Bruce Boyd Raeburn

[Crawford, Joseph ]

(b, New Orleans, LA, c1897; d New Orleans, LA, July 4, 1931). American jazz cornetist and bandleader. Buddy Petit began his professional career as a founding member of the Young Olympia Band, formed when Olympia Band cornetist Freddie Keppard left New Orleans to join the Original Creole Band in Los Angeles in 1914. Other members of the Young Olympia were clarinetist Jimmie Noone, trombonist Zue Robertson, banjoist Simon Marrero, bassist John Marrero, and drummer Arnold DePass, and shortly afterward Noone and Petit co-led a band of their own at places such as the Pythian Temple until the clarinetist left to join Keppard in Chicago for the Creole Band’s final vaudeville season in 1917–8. Petit made a short trip to Los Angeles in 1917 to work with Jelly Roll Morton before returning to New Orleans and situating himself as one of the top bandleaders on the regional (Texas-Florida) scene. A photograph taken in Mandeville, Louisiana, ...

Article

Charles E. Kinzer

(Floristan )

(b New Orleans, LA, Oct 19, 1878; d New Orleans, LA, Feb 4, 1961). American jazz clarinetist. A Creole of color, he learned guitar and clarinet as a youth, and began playing clarinet professionally by the age of 16. He was adept at both reading and embellishment-oriented improvising, and moved easily among the brass bands, orchestras, and smaller dance bands of the downtown Creole community, remaining active into the 1930s. His light skin enabled him to work occasionally with white bands. He played B♭ and E♭ clarinets with brass bands, including the Exclesior and Tuxedo bands, and while with the latter is said to have developed an obbligato solo on “High Society” (a swinging paraphrase of the piccolo part from the standard march arrangement) that has since become a celebrated set-piece in the repertory of traditional jazz. During the Depression Picou left music to work as a tinsmith, but with the revival of interest in traditional jazz he returned, recording with Kid Rena in ...

Article

Irina Boga

(b Amara, Cetatea Albă, Ukraine, Oct 10, 1937). Romanian clarinettist and conductor . After studying at the Bucharest Conservatory he continued his studies in Paris and the USA, as well as attending conducting classes with Sergiu Celibidache in Trier. Since 1962 he has been a member of, and soloist with, the George Enescu Philharmonic in Bucharest, and later was conductor of the Marea Neagră Philharmonic in Constanța (until 1991). His repertory comprises the canonical literature dedicated to the instrument, as well as many pieces written for him, and numerous transcriptions and arrangements for clarinet or various instrumental ensembles, as well as his own compositions. He has given the Romanian premières of the music of several 20th century composers, including chamber pieces (Bartók, Stravinsky, Berg, Schönberg, Messiaen, Honegger), concertos (Copland, Hindemith, and Lehmann), the Dance Preludes by Lutoslawski, and Scaramouche by Milhaud, as well as many Romanian pieces. He has toured as a soloist and conductor with the George Enescu Philharmonic, Radio Orchestra, the Constanța Philharmonic, and the Cannes Orchestra. The prizes he won at international contests, including the Prague Spring (...

Article

S. Timothy Maloney

(b Larraga, East Galway, Ireland, Sept 27, 1926; d Hasbrouck Heights, NJ, Sept 13, 2011). Irish flute, tin whistle, and uilleann pipes player. A leading exponent of the East Galway lyrical style, he learned flute and pipes from his father Tom (“Barrel”), local flutists Jack Coughlan and Tom Broderick, and radio broadcasts and recordings of flutists Stephen Moloney and Tommy Whelan of the Ballinakill Céilí Band. He began playing at house parties and dance halls as a youth, and by his late teens was a member of the Ballinakill Traditional Dance Players and the Killimor Céilí Band.

Rafferty immigrated in 1949 to the United States, where he worked in blue-collar jobs and played little music for a decade. In about 1959 he began playing again with other Irish expatriates and was invited to participate in the Smithsonian Institution’s Bicentennial Festival of American Folklife in 1976. Beginning in the late 1970s, he toured with the Green Fields of America, and his playing was included on two albums of field recordings, ...

Article

Yoko Suzuki

[Elvira; Meeks, Elvira; Goldberg, Elvira; Avelino, Elvira]

(b Los Angeles, CA, Sept 20, 1928). American jazz alto and soprano saxophonist, singer, and bandleader. Her father Alton Redd was a jazz drummer from New Orleans. Redd started to sing in church at about age 5 and played alto saxophone at about 12, studying with her great-aunt Alma Hightower, a noted music educator in Los Angeles. In about 1948 she formed a band with her first husband, trumpeter Nathaniel Meeks, and began performing professionally as a saxophonist and singer. She had her first son when she was in her late 20s and her second son a few years later. Between 1957 and 1961 she performed less often and taught at public schools. During the 1960s she performed at the renowned club Ronnie Scott’s for ten weeks and toured with Earl Hines and Count Basie. Leonard Feather produced her two albums, Bird Call (1962) and Lady Soul...