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(b Bailleul, April 19, 1805; d Lille, Jan 10, 1876). French musicologist. He showed great musical ability as a child, particularly as a singer and pianist, but his professional career was in law. He studied law in Paris from 1825 to 1830, during which time he participated actively in the musical life of the city, attending concerts and private salons, and studying singing with Félix Pellegrini and composition with Jérôme Payer and Reicha. Upon receiving his degree, Coussemaker became a barrister at Douai, where he also studied counterpoint with Victor Lefebvre, produced several compositions and began his musicological studies. He later held various jobs in the legal profession, moving to Bailleul, Bergues, Hazebrouck and Dunkirk, with occasional promotions, and finally becoming a judge at Lille in 1858.

In spite of his busy professional career, he devoted much of his life to musicology. He was one of the first scholars to investigate the music of the Middle Ages, and his numerous books opened paths into the topics of Gregorian chant, neumatic and mensural notation, and medieval instruments, theory and polyphony (which he called ‘harmonie’). His publications are frequently contrasted with those of Fétis, who expressed reservations about Coussemaker’s scholarship: though Coussemaker apparently did not have Fétis’s broad knowledge and ability to synthesize large quantities of information into abstract theories, his approach was more precise, more scientific and less speculative. Using primary sources (many of which he had himself discovered), he presented little more than descriptions based upon careful observations; he has been criticized for this approach by those who think him a good collector of data but an inadequate historian. He demonstrated the value of presenting facsimiles of manuscripts, but also provided his own transcriptions into modern notation. His most important work is probably the ...


Albert Dunning

(b Zeist, June 16, 1890; d Budel, Sept 1, 1974). Dutch music teacher and musicologist. He took lessons in singing, the violin and keyboard instruments; later, as a teacher, he studied the piano with Dirk Schäfer and theory with Johann Wagenaar. As a headmaster in The Hague he was concerned with the problems of musical education and music for young people; this brought him into contact with Fritz Jöde and other like-minded music teachers abroad. His activities as a music educationist include the founding of a society for folk music and folkdancing (1930), and through his work on a state commission for school music teaching (1946–8) he contributed to the renewal of music for young people in the Netherlands after the war.

In 1940 he received the doctorate at the University of Utrecht with a dissertation on Coclico which he prepared under Smijers. On the latter's death in ...


F.E. Sparshott

revised by Naomi Cumming

(b Pescasseroli, nr Aquila, Feb 25, 1866; d Naples, Nov 20, 1952). Italian philosopher, historian and critic. In its original and most influential formulation Croce's aesthetic theory is part of a general philosophy of civilization (largely derived from Vico and Hegel). Croce's view is both ‘idealist’ and ‘historicist’. His idealism is evident when he poses a strong contrast between ‘intuition’ and ‘intellect’, and argues that art is ‘intuition without intellectual relations’ (1915). His emphasis on the intuitive is motivated by a resistance to contemporary positivism, which gave weight to scientific understanding. His ‘intuition’ is a form of non-conceptual, non-experimental activity. It does not, however, consist in introspective knowledge, or vague impressions which can be known apart from any tangible form. Rather, that which is ‘known’ intuitively is grasped only in its expression (‘The spirit only intuits by making, forming, expressing’, 1902, Eng. trans., 1992, 8–9). ‘Expression’ itself gains an unusual meaning by this association with the intuitive. If the act of ‘expressing’ gives content to the intuition, it cannot be claimed that the expression is of something already ‘known’, as if intuition and expression were two separate things. To say that art ‘expresses’ intuitions is to say that it brings a state to clear and explicit consciousness by giving it a material and perceptible form....


Jean Gribenski

(b Dijon, Dec 14, 1884; d Grenoble, Oct 28, 1918). French musicologist. After schooling in Montbéliard and at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris he attended the Schola Cantorum and the Sorbonne, where he was a pupil of Rolland and took his doctorate in 1913 with a dissertation on La Pouplinière and 18th-century chamber music, as well as a subsidiary on the 18th-century orchestra. He was subsequently given a government grant to do research in Italy on opera buffa, but this was interrupted by the outbreak of war, his conscription and his death from influenza at the Grenoble military hospital. He established his reputation as a major scholar of 18th-century music in his many articles, his dissertations and his book on the origins of French comic opera, all based on thorough knowledge and full of detailed information, expressed with elegance and concision. He left an account of 18th-century aristocratic musical life in Italy drawn from documents in Rome, Florence and Naples (...


Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...


Guy Bourligueux

revised by Kristy Barbacane

(b Bourges, Feb 17, 1831; d Paris, May 24, 1871). French musicologist and composer of Spanish descent. He was a pupil at the Ecole Normale in Bourges and studied violin, piano and theory from his father, Salvador Daniel. The father and son team co-wrote a music theory book for children titled Alphabet musical, ou principes élémentaires de la théorie et pratique de la musique in 1843. Salvador Daniel entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1843 and studied with Belgian virtuoso violinist André Robberechts (1797–1860). He wrote several short songs for voice and piano and later joined the orchestra of the Théâtre-Lyrique, where he became friendly with Delibes. He also played the viola with Achille Gouffé in chamber music concerts.

Daniel’s friendship with Félicien David influenced him to go to Algeria in 1853, where he studied Arabic and collected folksongs with the financial and logistical support of the French government in Algeria. He also travelled to Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Spain, and Portugal, and translated Arab music treatises with the help of an interpreter at the Consulate in Tangiers. In Algiers he lived with his sister, a vocal teacher, taught music at the Ecole arabe française and played violin at the Théâtre d’Alger, also known at that time as the Opéra d’Alger. He directed two choral ensembles in Algiers, the Orphéon d’algérien and the Harmonie d’Alger, and founded several others including ...


W.H. Husk

revised by David Johnson and Kenneth Elliott

(b Aberdeen, Oct 27, 1800; d Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana], July 28, 1843). Scottish musical scholar. The son of William Dauney of Falmouth, Jamaica, he was educated at Dulwich College, London, and at Edinburgh University. He was called to the Scottish Bar in 1823. About 1839 he left Scotland for British Guiana, where he became solicitor-general.

Dauney’s importance as a scholar rests on his book Ancient Scotish Melodies from a Manuscript of the Reign of James VI (Edinburgh, 1838/R), which consists of a partial transcript of the Skene Manuscript as well as a lengthy ‘Dissertation Illustrative of the History of the Music of Scotland’ and some historical documents, also transcribed. The manuscript, in mandore tablature, was compiled about 1625 by John Skene of Hallyards, Midlothian. It contains some 115 items of which over half are Scottish native airs, or folksongs, and the rest – Scottish, English, French, Dutch and Italian – comprise ballad tunes, dance tunes and partsong arrangements. In Dauney’s time it belonged to the Advocates’ Library in Edinburgh, now the National Library of Scotland (Adv.5.2.15). Dauney’s transcription was valuable in drawing attention to early, simple versions of such Scottish tunes as ...


John Trevitt

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Brest, Finistère, Nov 19, 1847; d Paris, May 26, 1923). French musicologist and philosopher. He was educated at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and, from 1867, at the Ecole Normale, where he studied philosophy, gaining the agrégation in 1872; in 1878 he took the doctorate with the dissertation Des notions de matières et de force dans les sciences de la nature and in the same year published his first philosophical work. He held a lectureship in the arts faculty of the University of Lyons (1879–81) and then the chair of philosophy at the University of Montpellier. In the early 1890s he became interested in music and the value of musicology as a university discipline, and travelled to Germany (1894) to study methods of teaching music in universities there. In 1895, when he became professor of philosophy at the Sorbonne, he tried to have a chair of music psychology founded there; this attempt failed and instead Dauriac was given the newly created professorship of musical aesthetics (...


Ruth Smith

revised by Stanley Sadie

(b Brighton, Nov 29, 1853; d Hove, Aug 28, 1929). English musicologist and pianist. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1874–7), principally with Jadassohn, Reinecke, Richter and Wiedenbach, returning to Brighton, where he worked as a journalist and taught until 1903. His research was primarily concerned with English music of the 16th and 17th centuries, to which his ...


Patricia Collins Jones

(b London, Jan 1810; d London, Feb 11, 1849). English music theorist. His father discouraged his musical interests in favour of medicine, which according to early biographical accounts he studied in London and Paris, receiving a diploma in homeopathic medicine from Heidelberg. Only his death certificate, which lists his profession as ‘surgeon’, indicates that he actually practised medicine. His only music teacher was W.H. Kearns, but he associated with several talented musical contemporaries; the most important of them was Sir George Alexander Macfarren at whose insistence Day began the preparation of his controversial Treatise on Harmony. Work on the treatise was begun in 1840, the year in which Day became a critic of new music for the Musical World. The periodical’s editor George Macfarren, his good friend’s father, soon became dissatisfied with the ‘laconical bitterness’ of Day’s unsigned reviews and appointed J.W. Davison as his replacement. The publication of Day’s treatise (London, ...


John A. Emerson

(b Chêne-Bourg, nr Geneva, Nov 3, 1840; d Geneva, Jan 17, 1912). Swiss musicologist. He entered the Jesuit order in 1861 and taught music in Paris, philosophy in Vannes and theology at the University of Angers. He was the leading figure among a group of Jesuit scholars including Gerhard Geitmann, Ludwig Bonvin and Alexander Fleury, who supported a modern restoration of Gregorian chant rhythm based on a mensural system of proportional long and short note values. This group strongly opposed the equalist principles of free non-measured rhythm advocated by the Solesmes school under André Mocquereau. Dechevrens’ theories, like those of the Solesmes scholars, relied heavily on the neumatic notation with special signs and letters in the early St Gall manuscripts. He believed that the time value of a note is affected by adjacent notes, and is therefore variable. In Les vraies mélodies grégoriennes he presented both the manner in which he thought that the melodies were originally sung (using bar-lines as a device to mark divisions of the melody; ...


Giorgio Pestelli

(b Naples, April 5, 1883; d Turin, March 12, 1968). Italian musicologist and critic. Self-taught in music, he was professor of music history at the Turin Conservatory (1926–53) and at Turin University (1939–53). His main occupation, however, was journalism. He contributed to various Neapolitan papers from 1906 and was music critic of the Turin paper La stampa (1919–1967), a post to which he brought a professionalism hitherto unknown in Italy.

As a musicologist his chief interest was opera history, and he made valuable contributions to the knowledge of Neapolitan opera, Gluck and above all Verdi: his essays on Aida, Otello and Falstaff (1923–5) enlarged the awareness of the organic unity of Verdi’s dramas to which Toscanini’s reform of interpretation was greatly contributing. In his Toscanini visto da un critico (1958) Della Corte made a study of the concept of interpretation. An advocate of idealism, he produced studies in aesthetics and theory which are collected in ...


Willard Rhodes

(b Red Wing, MN, May 21, 1867; d Red Wing, June 5, 1957). American ethnomusicologist. She received her early musical education at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music, Ohio, where she studied the piano, organ and harmony; later she was a piano pupil of Carl Baermann in Boston and of Leopold Godowsky, and studied counterpoint with John K. Paine at Harvard University. A pioneer in the study of Amerindian music, she became interested in the subject in 1893 after reading reports of Alice C. Fletcher’s work; she pursued this highly specialized field of study with unflagging energy until her death. In 1901 she wrote down for the first time songs from a Sioux woman near Red Wing. In 1904 she studied Filipino music at the St Louis Exposition, and notated the song of Geronimo, the famous Apache chief. In 1905 she visited the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota to observe the Chippewa, and made her first field trip at Grand Portage on the north shore of Lake Superior. In ...


Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune

(b Ribston, Yorks., July 16, 1876; d London, Aug 22, 1957). English musicologist, teacher, translator and critic. He was educated at Eton, where he studied music with C.H. Lloyd, and Cambridge, where his teachers were Charles Wood and Stanford. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, began lecturing on the history of music that year and also taught harmony, counterpoint and composition. In 1918 he left for London, where he worked as a music critic. He returned to Cambridge as professor of music in 1926, when he was again elected to a fellowship at King’s. He occupied the Cambridge chair for 15 years. From his retirement until his death he lived in London.

At Cambridge, Dent completely reorganized the teaching for the MusB degree. He realized that this degree would no longer be taken mainly by church organists but that a Cambridge education in music would produce members of other branches of the musical profession – school and university teachers, composers, critics, BBC staff and so on – and he consistently aimed at giving the curriculum greater breadth as a sound foundation, stressing particularly the study of music history and encouraging the performance of pre-19th-century, especially Baroque, music. He exercised a profound influence on several generations of young musicians, whose subsequent success as composers, teachers, performers or scholars owed much to his teaching and example. He himself composed a small amount of music, mainly of a conservative cast....


Alec Hyatt King

(b Vienna, Sept 5, 1883; d Vienna, Nov 23, 1967). Austrian biographer and bibliographer. Having studied the history of literature and art at the universities of Vienna and Graz, he worked as art critic for Die Zeit (1908–9) and as assistant at the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Vienna University (1909–12). Deutsch’s later special study of the Biedermeier period had been foreshadowed by his early interest in Schwind. Schubert was the subject of the earliest of all his writings: a book and three articles in 1905. His unique biography (1913–14) established him as the leading authority on this composer, although its publication was never completed as originally planned. It was for his distinguished services to the Schubert centenary of 1928 that Deutsch received the title of professor.

After a career of some six years in bookselling, he became music librarian to the collector Anthony van Hoboken from ...


Gaynor G. Jones


(b Berlin, Aug 11, 1801; d Karlsruhe, Oct 4, 1877). German theatre historian, librettist and baritone. Eduard Devrient, nephew of the actor Ludwig Devrient, had two brothers who became actors: Karl (first husband of Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient) and Emil. At the age of 17 he entered the Berlin Singakademie and studied singing and thoroughbass with Zelter. He gave his first solo public performance in 1819 in Berlin in C.H. Graun’s Der Tod Jesu and on 18 April 1819 he sang the part of Thanatos in Gluck’s Alceste; after his performance as Masetto in Don Giovanni, he was engaged as a baritone at the Royal Opera.

In 1822 Devrient went on a tour to Dresden, Leipzig, Kassel and Frankfurt (where he was influenced by J.N. Schelble). Later he visited Vienna to hear the Italian opera in which Lablache and other famous singers were performing under Barbaia’s direction. He met Mendelssohn in ...


John A. Emerson

[Vroye, Théodore Joseph de]

(b Villers-la-Ville, Brabant, Aug 19, 1804; d Liège, July 29, 1873). Belgian music scholar. He studied for the priesthood at the seminaries in Mechelen and Liège and was ordained in Münster in 1828. He served at the church of St Christophe in Liège from 1830 until 1835, when he was appointed to the cathedral as canon and precentor for the diocese of Liège. His many activities within diocesan administration included the restoration of churches which had suffered from recent wars in Europe, the construction of organs and the rejuvenation of religious music. Between 1842 and 1862 he attempted to reform the faulty plainsong melodies which were being used in the Catholic church services throughout the diocese by editing a series of revised liturgical books based on the Medicean editions of Plantin and of Plomteux. Devroye’s editions demonstrate his theory promoting precise correspondence between melodic and prosodic accents. He was president of the church music congresses held in Mechelen in ...


Ferruccio Tammaro

(b Naples, March 12, 1860; d Naples, April 5, 1934). Italian poet, novelist, playwright, writer on music and theatre historian. In 1880 he gave up studying medicine to become a journalist, and contributed to the Corriere del mattino, Corriere di Napoli, Pungolo and Pro patria. Besides his work as director of the Lucchesi Theatre library and inspector of the library of S Pietro a Majella, Naples, he organized the Filippini Archives and indexed the Girolamini Music Archives; he was also artistic director of the Collezione Settecentesca, published by Sandron of Palermo. In 1929 he was awarded the title Accademico d’Italia.

Di Giacomo was an outstanding historian of Neapolitan vernacular culture, especially that part of it centred on the Piedigrotta district. In his musical research he concentrated on opera and particularly on musical life in Naples from the 16th century to the 18th; his book on the four Neapolitan conservatories remains a standard reference work. His literary writings, admired by Croce, are characterized by vivid realism and spontaneity of expression; they chiefly depict small-scale but highly emotional situations. Those that provided inspiration for musical settings include his collections of poems ...


Ian D. Bent

(Christian Ludwig)

(b Biebrich, nr Wiesbaden, Nov 19, 1833; d Seis, nr Bozen [Bolzano], Oct 1, 1911). German philosopher and writer on music. He studied theology at Heidelberg for one year, then philosophy at the University of Berlin (Habilitation 1864), with the classical philologist P.A. Boeckh, the historian Leopold von Ranke and the philosopher F.A. Trendelenburg. He was professor of philosophy at the University of Basle (alongside Jakob Burkhardt, 1867–8), at Kiel (1868–71), Breslau (1871–82) and Berlin (1882–1905). Dilthey contributed to metaphysics, moral philosophy and the theory of knowledge; he wrote on the Renaissance, the Reformation, the German Enlightenment and German Idealism, and his studies of poetry influenced 20th-century literary criticism.

Whereas his writings on German composers and music are primarily of historical interest, his contributions to hermeneutics, including his essay ‘On Understanding Music’ (c1906), are highly significant for musicology. Moreover, the resistance to positivism in late 20th-century thought, not least in music, has its roots in Dilthey’s general philosophy, making it of compelling interest today....


Carolyn Gianturco

revised by Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Trent, Feb 16, 1887; d Milan, Jan 22, 1969). Italian engraver and musicologist. After studying music and art at Trent and the University of Vienna, he took the chair in engraving at the Accademia Brera, Milan (1931), and taught at the Scuola di Paleografia e Filologica Musicale at Cremona (1950–53). He was famous for his engravings and watercolours of Tuscany and Umbria, and also became known for his research in the history of instruments and instrumental tablature. His editions of frottolas by Bossinensis are important studies of the early history of accompanied song, as are his several introductory chapters.

‘Di alcuni strumenti di Stradivari tuttora esistenti in Italia’, RMI, 41 (1937), 300–05 ‘Il più antico esemplare esistente di strumento ad arco’, RMI, 42 (1938), 294–308 ‘Un’aria di danza a ritmo ambiguo in un affresco del Cinquecento’, RMI, 44 (1940), 31–3 ‘Pratica e tecnica della lira da braccio’, ...