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Heinrich Hüschen

[Borckhart, Burchard, Burckhart, Burgardus, Purckhart; Ulrich]

(b Waischenfeld, c1484). German music theorist and theologian. He attended the cathedral school in Bamberg and in 1500 entered Leipzig University where he became Bachelor of Arts in 1507, Master of Arts in 1511 and from 1513 until 1515 taught as Master of Law. In 1515 he joined the theology faculty, but left Leipzig in 1516 and returned to Bamberg, where he was court chaplain until 1527 and served the prince-bishops Georg III of Limburg and Weigand von Redwitz. In Bamberg he got to know Tilman Riemenschneider and Albrecht Dürer and in 1517, 1518 and 1520 had contact with von Hutten. The publication of Burchardi’s Ein schöner Dialog von dem christlichen Glauben (Bamberg, 1527), in which he presented a German translation of his treatise Dialogus de fide christiana (Bamberg, 1522), a work in the spirit of Erasmus’s reforming zeal, led to his dismissal from the service of the prince-bishops. He resumed his teaching at Leipzig University and in ...


Paula Morgan

(b Chapel Hill, NC, June 17, 1954). American musicologist. He received the AB in music from Earlham College in 1975. He continued his studies at the University of Chicago, where he took the MA in 1980 in composition and music history and theory with Ralph Shapey and Shulamit Ran; he took the PhD in 1983 in musicology with Robert P. Morgan and Howard Mayer Brown. Burkholder began his teaching career at the University of Chicago in 1979. He joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1982, chairing the musicology area, 1987–8. In 1988 he was appointed associate professor of music at Indiana University; he was named associate dean of the faculties in 1995 and professor of music in 1996. He became president of the Charles Ives Society in 1992.

Burkholder’s research interests include modernism and meaning in music and musical borrowing and quotations. He has focussed these interests particularly on the compositions and ideas of Charles Ives, but he has also written on Brahms and Berg and authored the study and listening guides for the fifth edition of Grout’s ...


Benito V. Rivera and Martin Ruhnke

(b Lüneburg, 1564; d Rostock, March 5, 1629). German theorist, composer and teacher. He was one of the leading German theorists of his time and one of the most influential, especially for his work on rhetorical figures in music.

Burmeister studied music at the Johannisschule, Lüneburg, under the Kantors Christoph Praetorius and Euricius Dedekind and the vice-Rektor Lucas Lossius, who particularly impressed him with his textbooks on rhetoric and dialectic. In 1586 he matriculated at Rostock University, where his academic teachers included, among other widely educated humanists, the mathematician and professor of medicine Henricus Brucaeus. He took his master’s degree in 1593. From Easter 1589 he was on the staff of the Rostock town school and was Kantor, first of the Nikolaikirche, then, from the autumn of that year, of the principal church, the Marienkirche; from 1593 until his death he was regular teacher (collega classicus)....


Trena Jordanoska

(b Skopje, Aug 8, 1952). Macedonian composer, pianist and scholar. He studied piano and composition at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Music, in Skopje before attending the Faculty of Music of Belgrade (MA in composition, 1976); he defended his doctoral dissertation on the aesthetics of music at UKIM Faculty of Philosophy in 1984. He has twice been a Fulbright Scholar in the USA (1985–6 and 1999–2000).

His catalogue includes symphonies, concertos, oratorios, operas, ballets, song cycles, and sonatas for different instruments. He defines his compositional approach as polystylistic: using mainly multi-movement orchestral forms in the manner of the European music tradition from the 17th century to the 20th and incorporating elements of folk, jazz, and rock. He is among Balkan pioneers in the use of electronic music instruments – live synthesizer performances (in the ballet Vozovi [Trains], 1984); music notation software (Third Piano Sonata, ...


Adam Adrio

revised by Clytus Gottwald

[Kalwitz, Seth]

(b Gorsleben, nr Sachsenburg, Thuringia, Feb 21, 1556; d Leipzig, Nov 24, 1615). German music theorist, composer, teacher, chronologist and astronomer. He was one of the most influential German theorists of his time and prominent in the musical and intellectual life of Leipzig.

After attending schools at Frankenhausen and Magdeburg, Calvisius began his studies at the University of Helmstedt in 1579 and continued them from Easter 1580 at the University of Leipzig, where he had matriculated in 1576. In 1581 he became Kantor at the Paulinerkirche, Leipzig, only to move in November 1582, on the recommendation of the Leipzig theologian Nikolaus Selnecker, to Schulpforta as Kantor of the Fürstenschule. He spent 12 fruitful years there not only as an inspiring teacher but also in the study of history, chronology and music theory. In May 1594 he was recalled to Leipzig as Kantor of the Thomaskirche in succession to Valentin Otto. For a short period in about ...


Gerald Abraham

(b Marseilles, Oct 2, 1877; d London, Feb 1, 1944). Critic and musicologist of Greek parentage, French birth and English adoption. Calvocoressi studied classics at the Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris, and entered the law faculty but soon abandoned law to study harmony with Xavier Leroux at the Conservatoire. Here he formed a lifelong friendship with Ravel. In 1902 he embarked on a career as critic and also as music correspondent of English, American, German and Russian periodicals. He was a remarkable polyglot, and from 1904 he specialized in the translation of song texts, opera librettos and books – ultimately from languages as unfamiliar as Russian and Hungarian, and into both French and English. He also began to champion Russian music, particularly Musorgsky's, but his earliest book was on Liszt. From 1905 to 1914 he lectured at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales, mainly on contemporary music. Calvocoressi was principal French adviser to Diaghilev when the latter was introducing Russian orchestral music, opera and ballet to Paris (...


Shelly C. Cooper

(b Cleveland, OH, May 3, 1950). American music educator and scholar. She earned music degrees from Ohio University (BFA 1972), University of Akron (MM 1975), and Kent State University (PhD 1981). She has held teaching positions in Ohio public and private schools (1975–9), and at Washington University (1981–6), Butler University (1986–9), University of Washington (1989–), and University of London (visiting fellow, 2003–4). She has held board positions with the College Music Society (1992–5), Society for Ethnomusicology (1993–6; 1999–2002, vice president 2009–), International Society for Music Education (1994–8), and Smithsonian Folkways (2006–8, 2009–). Her editorial work includes the Music Educators Journal (1986–92), Psychology of Music (1992–), Research Studies in Music Education (1994–), Journal of Research in Music Education (1994–2000, 2008–), and ...


Patrick Warfield

(b Buffalo, NY, Dec 5, 1930). American musicologist, conductor, and educator. Camus attended Queens College, CUNY (BA 1952), Columbia University (MA 1956), and New York University (PhD 1969, with a dissertation on military music in the US Army prior to 1834). Joining the 42d Infantry (Rainbow) Division Band in 1945 (New York National Guard), Camus was commissioned as an army reserve bandmaster (warrant officer) in 1957, a position from which he retired in 1974. Following several years working in music publishing and teaching in New York public schools, Camus joined the faculty at Queensborough Community College, CUNY in 1969. He retired as emeritus in 1995. While at Queensborough, Camus founded and directed the Queens Symphonic Band (1970–96).

Camus has long been a vigorous advocate for the study of American music in general, and bands in particular. One of the founding members of the Sonneck Society for American Music in ...


Jere T. Humphreys

(b Pasco, WA, Feb 11, 1927). American music educator and psychomusicologist. He attended Whitworth College (BA 1950), the University of Washington (MA 1958), and Northwestern University (PhD 1962). He taught music in the public schools of Washington and Oregon, and at Whitworth College (1954–63) and the University of Connecticut (1963–7). He then taught at the University of Washington for 25 years (1967–92), where he established and headed a program in systematic musicology, was an adjunct professor of psychology, and twice served as interim head of the music education division. He, along with Arnold Bentley (United Kingdom) and Bengt Franzén (Sweden), organized a research seminar held in Reading, England (1968), which became the Research Commission of the International Society for Music Education (ISME). He served as chair of that commission and was made Honorary Life Member of Research Commission Seminars in ...


Gerald R. Benjamin


(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...


Paula Morgan


(b New York, Feb 24, 1926). French-American musicologist. She took the BA at Hunter College in 1945, then did graduate work under Alfred Einstein at Smith College (MA 1946). In Paris she studied the violin at the Ecole Normale de Musique and worked with Norbert Dufourcq at the Conservatoire. Returning to America, she undertook further graduate studies at Columbia University, taking the MS in library science (1959) and the PhD in musicology (1961). She also studied at the Sorbonne with Paul-Marie Masson and at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes with Solange Corbin.

Isabelle Cazeaux worked at the New York Public Library as a music cataloguer from 1957 to 1963. From 1963 until her retirement in 1992 she was a member of the music faculty of Bryn Mawr College, holding the chair there from 1978; she also taught at the Manhattan School of Music from ...


Vilena Vrbanić

(b Zagreb, Oct 29, 1964). Croatian ethnomusicologist. She studied ethnomusicology with Jerko Bezić at the Zagreb Music Academy (BA 1990, MA 1993), and completed the PhD in ethnology and cultural anthropology at the Zagreb Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences with a dissertation on the history and ethnography of public practice of traditional music in Croatia (1998). Since 1990 she has worked in the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research in Zagreb (since 2008 as a research advisor). Additionally, she teaches ethnomusicology at the Music Academy and occasionally at the Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb (since 1999). In the International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM), she serves as a member of the Executive Board (since 2011) and a representative at UNESCO (since 2012). She was one of the editors of Narodna umjetnost: Croatian Journal of Ethnology and Folklore Research...


John Tyrrell and Geoffrey Chew

(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.

Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...


(b Prague, Dec 11, 1924; d Prague, July 10, 2011). Czech musicologist. He studied music education at the Prague Conservatory (1945–9) and musicology and music education under Sychra and Plavec at Prague University, where he took the doctorate in 1951 with a dissertation on questions of party allegiance and scientific truth in the concept of music education. After working as an assistant lecturer in music history in the music department of the education faculty of Prague University (1949–53) he became a research student and later research fellow in musicology at the music faculty of the academy under Sychra (1953–62). He later joined the Institute for Musicology (later the Institute for the Theory and History of Art) of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences as a research fellow. He gained the CSc in 1962 with a work on Dvořák. He left the academy in ...


Katy Romanou

(b Athens, Greece, May 5, 1969). Greek musicologist specialising in Byzantine music, university professor, cantor, and choir conductor. Chaldaeakes studied theology at the University of Athens. Due to his musical talent and vast knowledge of church music, he was employed in 1992 in the newly established music department of the same university, to assist professor Gregorios Stathis, the first teacher of Byzantine music in the department. In 1998 he earned the PhD in musicology there, and in 1999 he was elected a faculty member of the music department.

He is a diligent and ingenious researcher, with over 150 publications in Greek and other languages on Byzantine and post-Byzantine music and musicians. His scientific competence is well represented in the voluminous collection of Stathis’ writings that he edited in 2001. Aiming at closer communication between Greek and Western musicologists, he has collaborated with musicologists in the USA, England, Austria, Denmark, and Russia. As of ...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Kristina Yapova

(b Varna, Dec 14, 1875; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1941). Eminent Bulgarian composer, music theorist, conductor, and pedagogue who left an immense creative heritage in music as well as in musicology. After completing his secondary education he became a primary school teacher in his native town Varna (1894). Co-founder and conductor of the Musical Society Gusla (1899), he was at the same time conductor of the choir at the church Sveto Uspenie Bogorodichno [The Assumption]. During the years 1900–03 he studied composition in the class of Antonin Dvořák at the Prague Conservatory. In 1907 he won a first prize in the contest dedicated to the opening of the National Theatre in Sofia, with the Festive Overture Ivailo. From that year on he set up in Sofia as a secondary school teacher, as a teacher in the Private Music School, a director of the State School of Music (...


Svetlana Savenko

(b Yeysk, Krasnodar district, Jan 29, 1924; d Moscow, March 22, 1990). Russian composer, musicologist and teacher. In 1940 he enrolled at the Moscow Conservatory in Shebalin's class and in 1941 joined the volunteer corps, but was soon discharged on health grounds. In 1943 he returned to the conservatory, studying with Shostakovich (1946–8), and graduating from Shaporin’s class in 1953. In 1947 he began teaching at the Gnesin Academy of Music, and in 1952 at the Gnesin State Institute for Musical Education, from 1967 as senior lecturer. In 1979 he became a senior lecturer at the Moscow Conservatory.

Chugayev’s creative interests became apparent even during his years of study at the conservatory. For many years his idol was Shostakovich, whose traditions he developed in his own works. He also acknowledged J.S. Bach as a source of inspiration, in particular his polyphonic art; it was to this that Chugayev devoted his chief musicological studies. However, Chugayev did not try to recreate the style of Bach, even to the degree that Shostakovich did: the neo-Baroque remained alien to him. Far more important to Chugayev was the continuation of the Russian polyphonic tradition, brought to fruition above all in the creative work of Sergey Taneyev and the composers of his school. Chugayev's music relies on the classical principles of tonality and is characterized by its strong melodies, thematic richness and the well developed use of polyphonic devices. Like that of many Soviet composers of his generation, it is traditional in its approach to form and genre. His works were rarely performed, and this may possibly account for his small output. The Violin Concerto and the two chamber works with piano – the trio and quintet – are considered to be his finest works....


Paula Morgan

(b Brooklyn, Aug 19, 1925). American musicologist. He studied at the University of California, Berkeley, under Bukofzer, Kerman, David Boyden and Lowinsky, receiving the BA in 1950, the MA in 1955 and the PhD in 1961. He taught at the University of Southern California from 1959 to 1963. Since then he has been on the faculty of New York University, where he was made professor in 1968; he was also the chairman (1967–70) and acting chairman of the department of music (1966–7; 1981; 1986–7) and associate dean of the graduate school of arts and science (1970–72). In 1976 he was appointed director of the American Institute for Verdi Studies at the university.

Chusid’s principal fields of research are the operas of Verdi and the music of Schubert. In addition to his articles on tonality in Verdi’s operas he has contributed A Catalog of Verdi’s Operas...


Paul Ulveling

(b Diekirch, July 7, 1922; d Aix-en-Provence, Sept 29, 1989). Luxembourg composer, musicologist and teacher. He studied piano, harmony and composition at the Zürich Conservatory with Paul Müller and Rudolf Mittelsbach (1946–52), at the Cologne Musikhochschule with Hans Mersmann, Philippe Jarnach and Rudolf Petzold (1952–5) and in Paris with Max Deutsch and André Jolivet (1955–6). He graduated at the Luxembourg Ecole Normale in music education with his thesis Das Lied als Ausgangspunkt und Mittelpunkt der Musikerziehung in der Normalschule (1956). He was professor of musical education at the Institut Pédagogique (1964–85) and lecturer in music history, analysis and harmony at the Luxembourg Conservatoire (1954–87). He was elected a member of the Grand-Ducal Institute in 1962, and two years later he was invited by the government to prepare a syllabus for music teaching in primary schools.

Though not numerous, his works represent a turning-point in Luxembourg music history, and he taught most of the new generation of Luxembourg composers (Jeannot Heinen, Claude Lenners, Johny Fritz, Marcel Wengler and Henri Rodesch). His preference was for chamber music, and his essentially personal style cannot be assigned to any particular school. He worked mainly within a polyphonic, polytonal or polymodal idiom in which melody is the point of departure and which is characterized by whole-tone, tetratonic and pentatonic scales and chords....