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Jerome Roche


(b Veringenstadt, nr Sigmaringen, 1585; d Rottenburg am Neckar, 1654). German music editor, singer, teacher and composer. He studied at the University of Dillingen, one of the main cultural centres of south-west Germany, and in 1610 took a post as singer at St Martin, Rottenburg. This carried with it duties as a schoolteacher: in this capacity he became Rektor of the school in 1622 and in his musical capacity Kapellmeister of the church in 1627.

Donfrid is chiefly interesting as an editor who saw it as his task to propagate in Catholic southern Germany the best and most popular church music by Italian composers of his day. To this end he published five large anthologies at Strasbourg in the 1620s: the tripartite Promptuarii musici, consisting of motets arranged in a liturgical cycle, as had been done by other editors, such as Schadaeus, before him; the Viridarium, devoted to Marian pieces; and the ...


Diana Poulton

revised by Robert Spencer

(b ?London, c1591; d London, Nov 28, 1641). English anthologist, composer and lutenist, son of John Dowland. From the dedicatory letter to Sir Robert Sidney in A Musicall Banquet (RISM 161020) we learn that Sir Robert was Dowland's godfather. According to the dedication of his Varietie of Lute-Lessons (1610²³), to Sir Thomas Mounson, he received part of his education in Mounson's household while his father was abroad. Between May 1612 and January 1616 Robert was employed by William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire. In February 1613 he was still in England; his name appears among the lute players who were engaged to play in Chapman's Masque of the Inner Temple and Lincoln's Inn, given at Whitehall as part of the marriage celebrations of Princess Elizabeth and Frederick, Elector Palatine. At some time in the early 1620s he was travelling on the Continent with a group of English actors who sought permission on ...



(b Villers-Cotterêts, Aisne, July 24, 1802; d Puys, nr Dieppe, Dec 5, 1870). French dramatist and novelist. By his own account the least musical man of his acquaintance, unable to tune a violin after three years of lessons, Dumas’s place in the history of 19th-century music remains contradictory. At a purely social level, he was prominent in the music-loving literary community in 1830s Paris, both as contributor and member of the editorial board on Schlesinger’s Revue et gazette musicale (1835–8). He was present at many of the defining moments of French musical Romanticism, from the première of Berlioz’s Lélio (1832) to the imaginary performance of Beethoven by Liszt pictured in Josef Danhauser’s famous painting, ‘Souvenir de Liszt’ (1840). Having moved to Paris in 1822, Dumas earned his reputation overnight with the success of Henri III et sa cour at the Théâtre Français (...


Robert M. Copeland

revised by Dale Cockrell

(b Parsonfield, ME, Aug 3, 1820; d Hyde Park, MA, Sept 29, 1915). American composer, editor, music educator, and conductor. He attended Parsonfield Academy and Effingham Union Academy (NH) as a boy, then matriculated at Dracut Academy (MA), intending to become a physician. His father, a prosperous farmer, had taught him to play the cello, and that sparked an abiding interest in music. He moved to the Boston area in 1841, where he attended singing schools under Benjamin F. Baker and George F. Root. In 1844 he began more formal musical training with Isaac B. Woodbury in Boston, studying voice, piano, organ, and music theory. Emerson moved to Salem, Massachusetts, afterwards, where he taught music privately, was involved in local school matters, and directed a choir. He was later the organist and music director at Bullfinch Street Church, Boston, for four years, then at Second Congregational Church, Greenfield, MA for eight years, while teaching concurrently at Powers’ Institute in Bernardstown. By the 1870s he was devoting himself full time to editing, composing, compiling, and conducting (some 350 festivals and musical conventions); he also sang and was known widely as a lecturer....


Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...


Ruth M. Wilson

revised by Stephen L. Pinel

(b Philadelphia, PA, Aug 16, 1771; d Brooklyn, NY, Apr 30, 1861). American organist, church musician, teacher, instrument-maker, tunebook compiler, and composer. In addition to serving as the organist of Trinity Church, Peter Erben was a prominent church musician, organ builder, and music teacher in antebellum New York.

Peter was the son of Johann Adam Erben (d c1781), a Philadelphia distiller. By 1791 he was in New York working as a tanner, but turned his attention to music after a bankruptcy in 1796. He was successively the organist of Christ Church (1800), the Middle Dutch Reformed Church (1806), St. George’s Chapel (1808), St. John’s Chapel (1813), and ultimately Trinity Church (1820–39). From about 1800 he was also the founder and director of the Society for Cultivating Church Music and frequently presented public concerts with the charity children. Between ...


Gaynor G. Jones and Michael Musgrave

(b Wetzlar, Jan 6, 1807; d Berlin, Nov 25, 1883). German editor of folksongs, teacher, choral director and composer. He received his first musical training from his father, Adam Wilhelm Erk, who was Kantor, cathedral organist and teacher at Wetzlar. In 1813 the family moved to Dreieichenhain in Hesse-Darmstadt where Erk took piano, organ and violin lessons. After his father’s death in 1820, he went to Offenbach, where he entered J.B. Spiess’s educational institute (at which he taught from 1824). His music teachers at Offenbach were the composer Johann Anton André, the violinist C. Reinwald and the organist J.C.H. Rinck. In 1826 he was offered a temporary appointment at the teachers’ seminary at Moers on the lower Rhine; he founded and directed many music festivals in this area (including the Remscheid, Ruhrort and Duisburg festivals), and also performed as a piano soloist and in ensembles. He accepted a teaching appointment at the Royal Seminary in Berlin in ...


(b Burlada, Navarre, Oct 21, 1807; d Madrid, July 23, 1878). Spanish writer on music, editor, teacher and composer. He entered Pamplona Cathedral as a choirboy at the age of nine, and at 17 served as a violinist. He studied the piano, organ and violin with Julián Prieto and composition with Francisco Secanilla. In 1828 he became maestro de capilla at Burgo de Osma. In 1829 his appointment as maestro de capilla was frustrated at Seville Cathedral apparently by local intrigues, and at the royal chapel in Madrid by his youth. However, he was called to the post at Seville in 1832 and at the royal chapel in 1844. At Seville he took holy orders and soon met with ecclesiastical opposition to his secular operas. These three opere serie (all lost) were all written to Italian librettos and in the Italian style. Nevertheless, Eslava founded with Arrieta, Barbieri, Basili, Gaztambide, Salas and Saldoni La España Musical, a group whose aim was to foster Spanish opera. In ...


Paul Morrison

(b Eresing, Jan 5, 1788; d Munich, May 16, 1847). German composer and editor. His musical education began at the Benedictine monastery at Andechs, where he was introduced to the musical style of Palestrina through the Gradus ad Parnassum of Fux. Ett continued his training at the Gregorianum in Munich, where his instructors included Joseph Schlett (organ), Joseph Graetz (composition) and his eventual mentor, Johann Baptist Schmid (singing). Upon graduating from the Gregorianum, Ett worked independently in Munich as a teacher and participated in the publication of two collections of sacred songs for use in Bavarian schools. In 1816 Ett became organist at St Michael, a position he held for the rest of his life.

A prolific composer, Ett wrote nearly 300 works for use at St Michael. These ranged from collections of simplified Gregorian chant for voice and organ, such as Cantica Sacra (1827), to larger ...


Harry Eskew

(b Virginia, 1828; d nr Nashville, TN, Sept 1875). American composer, teacher and tune book compiler. He and his brother L.C. Everett (b Virginia, 1818; d Elmira, NY, April 1867) studied music in Boston. After a brief period as a teacher in Virginia he went to Leipzig to study for a further four years. On his return he and his brother developed the ‘Everett System’ for elementary class instruction in music. R.M. McIntosh became associated with them in the L.C. Everett Company, which was located first in Richmond, Virginia, and later in Pennsylvania; before the Civil War the firm employed more than 50 teachers of vocal music in the southern and middle Atlantic states. A.B. Everett was assisted by another brother, Benjamin Holden Everett, in the compilation of his most significant collection; unlike most contemporary southern tune books, The Sceptre (New York, 1871) was published in round- rather than shape-note notation. A.B. Everett’s most popular tunes include those of the hymns ...


Gilbert Chase

revised by Neely Bruce

(b St Paul, April 23, 1872; d New York, Jan 20, 1952). American composer, critic, editor and proponent of community music. As a boy he took violin lessons but had no thought of devoting himself to music. He prepared for a career in electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from which he graduated in 1893. Meanwhile the experience of hearing the Boston SO and the influence of Rudolph Gott, an eccentric musician, convinced him that music should be his career. He studied with Norris and Chadwick in Boston, and was encouraged by MacDowell. He then went to Germany for further study with Humperdinck and Pfitzner (1897–9); he also studied briefly with Guilmant in Paris. Returning to the USA he accepted a lectureship at Cornell University (1899–1901), but his ambition was to be free of academic obligations. His failure to find a publisher for his ...


Paul C. Echols

American family of musicians, composers, and music publishers active in Ohio during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Augustus D. Fillmore (1823–69) was a frontier preacher in Illinois before settling with his family in Cincinnati during the 1840s. He composed hymn tunes and revival songs and compiled a number of tunebooks using both shape-notes and a numerical notation system of his own invention; the most widely circulated were The Christian Psalmist (Cincinnati, 1847), edited with Silas W. Leonard, and the Harp of Zion (Cincinnati, 1865). Three of Fillmore’s seven children took up music as a profession, jointly founding in the 1870s the publishing house of Fillmore Brothers, which specialized in educational, band, and church music (the firm became Fillmore Music House about the turn of the century and was acquired by Carl Fischer in 1951). The eldest and most prominent of the three was James Henry Fillmore (...


Paul E. Bierley

(b Cincinnati, Dec 3, 1881; d Miami, Dec 7, 1956). American composer, arranger, bandmaster and publisher. He graduated from the Miami Military Institute in 1901, studied briefly at the College of Music in Cincinnati and then worked as staff arranger and composer in his father’s religious music publishing house, Fillmore Brothers (later Fillmore Music House). He first gained fame as a conductor with the Syrian Temple Shrine Band of Cincinnati (1921–6), which enjoyed a reputation as the United States’s leading fraternal band, and then organized his own professional band; this gained considerable renown through its radio broadcasts. After 1938 he became an influential figure in the growth of school bands in Florida. He was president of the American Bandmasters Association from 1941 to 1946.

Fillmore composed at least 256 miniatures and arranged at least 774 others. He wrote under his own name and seven pseudonyms: Gus Beans, Harold Bennett, Ray Hall, Harry Hartley, Al Hayes, Will Huff and Henrietta Moore. Although known for his works for band, he also composed numerous pieces of church music, including hymns and children’s cantatas. His most popular pieces are marches, such as ...


John Warrack

revised by Cecelia H. Porter

(b Sulza, Thuringia, March 7, 1783; d Leipzig, Aug 27, 1846). German critic, editor, theologian and composer. The son of a Reformed pastor, Gottfried was a chorister at Naumburg. In Leipzig he studied music and theology (1804–9) and served as a Reformed pastor (1810–16), establishing and directing a theological seminary (1814–27). He also composed many songs and in 1808 began writing for the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, of which he succeeded Gottfried Christoph Härtel as editor (1827–41). He taught at the Leipzig Conservatory (1838–43) and was briefly its director in 1842.

Fink was initially neutral in the controversy between Classicism and Romanticism, and was friendly with Weber, who gave his Sechs Lieder (1812) a warm review in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and printed one song, Die Liebenden, in full. However, Fink later took up a stubborn stand against the younger Romantics. He published only half of Schumann's enthusiastic review (...


(b Cologne, Germany, Sept 30, 1875; d New York, Jan 14, 1942). American composer, lyricist and publisher. His parents, Max and Theodora Breitenbach, were Americans. He ran away from home at the age of 13, enlisting in the German navy and in the French Foreign Legion before coming to the USA in 1900. Fisher began composing in 1904; he also wrote the words for his first big success, If the Man in the Moon were a Coon (1905). In 1907 he started his own publishing business, in which the lyricist Joseph McCarthy was briefly a partner; this was remarkably successful. Fisher composed music for silent films and in the 1920s moved to Hollywood, where he wrote songs for films such as Hollywood Revue of 1929 and Their Own Desire (1930). He returned to New York in the early 1930s.

Early in his career Fisher concentrated on ethnic songs; later he made something of a speciality out of geographical topics, as in ...


Kurt Gudewill

(b Amberg, Upper Palatinate, c1510; d Nuremberg, Nov 12, 1568). German editor and composer. While a chorister at Elector Ludwig V’s court in Heidelberg around 1521, he began to study ancient languages at the university, receiving the BA in 1528. Together with his colleagues in the electoral choir, Caspar Othmayr, Jobst vom Brandt and Stephan Zirler, he received instruction in composition from the Kapellmeister Lorenz Lemlin. Forster’s years in Heidelberg were decisive, for during this time he started to collect songs.

He moved to Ingolstadt in 1531 where he studied medicine. From 1534 until 1539 he continued his studies at Wittenberg. He pursued his interest in literature under Philipp Melancthon’s tutelage. Luther included him among his dinner-table companions and encouraged him to compose settings of biblical texts. It is very likely that in selecting pieces for the first and second parts of the Frische teutsche Liedlein, Forster followed Luther’s wishes. Furthermore, Forster may have had a close relationship with the Wittenberg printer Georg Rhau, who published most of his 18 sacred compositions....


Ivana Vesić

(b Plzeň, Sept 29, 1882; d Iriški Venac, March 27, 1938). Yugoslav music publisher, conductor, composer, violinist of Czech origin. After working as a freelance musician in Sofia, Bulgaria (1897–1903), he settled in Belgrade in 1903 where he took the post of concertmaster in the National Theater (1904–09) and temporarily in the Orchestra of ‘Kraljeva garda’ [King’s guards]. He was also the conductor and director of several singing societies (‘Lira’ [Lyre], ‘Harmonija’ [Harmony], etc.) as well as of his own salon orchestra which performed regularly in the hotel ‘Moskva’ [Moscow] (1908–14). He was a founder and owner of the publishing house ‘Edition Frajt’, (1921–41), which was dedicated solely to music publishing. It released more than 800 volumes consisting mostly of the works of Austrian, Yugoslav, German, Russian, Czech, and Hungarian composers. The largest part of the collection comprised arias from operettas and operas, arrangements of folk songs and folk dances, salon lyrical character pieces, and popular songs and dances. In addition to the works of established Serbian composers from the 19th century (Davorin Jenko, Stevan Mokranjac, Josip Marinković), Frajt`s catalogue included the works of many Yugoslav composers of his time (Petar Krstić, Stevan Hristić, Mihovil Logar, Marko Tajčević, etc.). Among them were the numerous popular songs based mostly on the rhythm of popular social dances of that period and arrangements of folk songs and dances composed by Frajt himself. Frajt was also the author of several pieces for orchestra (‘Srpska igra’ br. 1 i 2 [Serbian dance no.1 and 2]), vocal-instrumental ensemble (‘Misa u B-duru’ [Mass in B Major]), solo songs, and works for violin solo and violin and piano....


Richard Crawford

(b Stoughton, MA, July 15, 1754; d Simsbury, CT, May 1817). American composer, tunebook compiler, and singing master. He was an older brother of Edward French (1761–1845), a miller by trade, who was noted as a singer and also composed. Jacob was a member of a singing-school taught by William Billings at Stoughton in 1774. Between 1775 and 1781 he served in the Continental Army, and his military records describe him as a soldier, a Stoughton resident, and a “husbandman” (farmer). He presumably became a singing master after the Revolutionary War. He lived in Medway, Massachusetts, in 1789, and in July 1795 a legal document described him as a “Teacher of Musick” living in Uxbridge, Massachusetts. He is also known to have organized a singing-school in Providence (1795–6), and Genuchi reports (without documentation) that after the turn of the century he taught singing-schools in the wintertime (...


Martin Ruhnke

revised by Dorothea Schröder

(b Klein Eichstedt, nr Querfurt, 1584; d Rostock, Sept 23, 1638). German composer, writer on music and music editor. He left home as a boy to earn his living as a Kurrende singer and later as a member of a chorus symphoniacus. After a short stay at Querfurt, he went to Eisleben, where he met the local Rektor with whom he moved to Gerbstedt in 1598. According to Rhane, he received composition lessons there from Valentin Hausmann, who, being thoroughly acquainted with Italian secular music and poetry, probably introduced Friderici to the Italian madrigal style. Friderici stayed in Gerbstedt for four years and then went, via Salzwedel and Burg, to Magdeburg, where he encountered his second principal teacher, the Kantor Friedrich Weissensee. As the latter was one of the most important German exponents of the Venetian polychoral style, Friderici acquired a knowledge not only of the current Dutch and German motet repertory but also of the latest developments towards a new international style....


Horace Clarence Boyer

(b Fayette, MS, Sept 10, 1899; d Chicago, IL, Aug 26, 1963). American gospel pianist, composer, and publisher. He sang in local choirs before settling in Chicago in 1927. There he joined the Ebenezer Baptist Church and became co-director of its junior choir with Thomas A. Dorsey. With Dorsey he organized in 1931 the first known black gospel chorus. In 1932, with Dorsey, Sallie Martin, and Magnolia Lewis Butts, he formed the National Convention of Gospel Choirs and Choruses, and the same year he and Roberta Martin, pianist for his junior choir, founded the Martin–Frye Quartet (renamed the Roberta Martin Singers in 1935). In the late 1940s Frye began an association with Mahalia Jackson, and it was for her that he surreptitiously secured the song “Move on up a little higher”; her recording in 1947 was a great success, selling over a million copies. Frye later published this composition as his own (he opened a publishing house in the early 1950s), without crediting its rightful composer, William Herbert Brewster. He did, however, compose several well-known gospel songs, including “I am sending my timber up to heaven” (...