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Article

Wilhelm Pfannkuch

revised by Gerhard J. Winkler

[Carl; Károly]

(b Keszthely, May 18, 1830; d Vienna, Jan 2, 1915). Austro-Hungarian composer.

The son (and one of 20 children) of a Jewish migrant from Western Galicia, his family moved to Deutschkreutz (now in Austria), near Ödenburg (Sopron, now Hungary), in 1834. His father was notary and cantor of the Jewish community there. Goldmark later claimed to be self-taught as a composer and to have learnt to read and write only since the age of 12 (this may refer to German or Hungarian but not the Hebrew literary tradition); however, his first local musical instruction was in 1841. He went to Ödenburg music school in 1842, and in 1844 joined his elder brother Josef in Vienna where he began violin studies. In 1847 he enrolled at the Vienna Conservatory where he studied with Joseph Böhm and Gottfried Preyer. During the revolution of 1848 he returned to Deutschkreutz where he was involved in the Hungarian uprisings. He played the violin in the theatres of Ödenburg and Buda; in ...

Article

Leonardo Manzino

(b Quillota, March 7, 1956). Chilean composer. He studied with Cirilo Vila, Juan Amenábar, Miguel Letelier and Juan Lemann (1974–81) and obtained the licentiate in composition from the arts faculty of the University of Chile (1981). From 1977 he taught music in Chilean schools at elementary and intermediate levels and from 1982 at the University of Playa Ancha and the University of Talca. He has been an associate professor at the Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación since 1987.

González's works have been performed in various places in South America and Europe, and also in Lebanon and Israel. His motet Jesucristo sálvanos earned him third prize in the 1978 Chilean National Choir Federation and Beethoven Association Competition. In 1986 he won the third prize of the Overture Composition Competition of the University of Chile with his Obertura de concerto for orchestra.

L. Manzino...

Article

Alfons Ott

revised by Inge Kovács

(Alexander) [Alfred Grant]

(b Berlin, March 1, 1920). American composer and musicologist of German birth. He received his first music lessons from his father, the music critic Oskar Guttmann. He entered the Stern Conservatory in Berlin in 1938 but was forced to leave after six months because of his Jewish background. In 1939 he emigrated to London and in 1940 to New York, where he arranged music for dance bands and for the popular theatre. During the period 1947–52 he studied composition with Luening and Cowell and musicology with Hertzmann at Columbia University. After receiving the MA he worked as an assistant to his teacher Rudolph Thomas at the same university, and as a lecturer at the Henry Street Settlement; he was also music critic for the newspaper Aufbau. Upon taking American citizenship he changed his name to Goodman. In 1960 he moved to Munich, and began working for Bavarian radio as a composer, broadcaster and (from ...

Article

Richard Wang

[Benjamin] (David)

(b Chicago, May 30, 1909; d New York, June 13, 1986). American clarinettist, composer and bandleader.

Goodman received rudimentary musical training from 1919 at Chicago’s Kehelah Jacob Synagogue and, more importantly, two years of instruction from the classically trained clarinettist Franz Schoepp. He made his professional début in 1921. During his formative years he absorbed the music of the New Orleans musicians; he was particularly influenced by Leon Roppolo, the clarinettist with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings. In summer 1923 he met Bix Beiderbecke whose influence may be heard in Goodman’s on-the-beat attacks, careful choice of notes and across-the-bar phrasing on A Jazz Holiday (1928, Voc.) and Blue (1928, Bruns.) – especially on the latter, where Goodman played solos on both alto and baritone saxophone. In August 1925 Goodman left for Los Angeles to join Ben Pollack. Pollack’s band returned to Chicago in January 1926 and early in ...

Article

Irving Lowens

revised by S. Frederick Starr

(b New Orleans, May 8, 1829; d Tijuca, Brazil, Dec 18, 1869). American composer and pianist. His considerable reputation as a composer of virtuoso piano pieces did not long survive his death, but a renewed interest in his life and works began in the 1930s and he is now generally acknowledged as one of the most significant 19th-century American musicians, and his music as a direct precursor of ragtime.

Moreau (as he was called in the family) was the first of eight children born to Edward and Marie-Aimée (Bruslé) Gottschalk. His London-born, German-Jewish father went to New Orleans in the early 1820s and established himself there as a merchant; his mother was the daughter of a prosperous Catholic baker of French ancestry who had fled from St Domingue in Haiti to Louisiana following the slave rebellion in the 1790s. The child showed an aptitude for music before his fourth birthday, and when he was five his parents engaged François Letellier, organist and choirmaster of St Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, to give him private lessons. By ...

Article

Pamela Jones

[Wilhelm]

(b Vienna, Sept 5, 1914; d Buenos Aires, Jan 22, 1993). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher, later an Argentine citizen. He studied composition with Pisk and Hindemith. In 1939 he emigrated to Argentina, where he lived for the remainder of his life. His early compositions are strongly influenced by Hindemith, but from the 1950s his style evolved beyond that of his mentor into realms of polytonality, atonality and serialism. His music displays a refined sense of orchestral texture and colour. He delved deeply into his Jewish roots (Canciones hebreas, 1940) and also into the indigenous culture of his adopted Latin America (La creación según el ‘Pop wuj maya’, 1989).

As a musicologist Graetzer edited both scholarly and practical editions of early music and directed the Collegium Musicum of Buenos Aires, which he founded in 1946. His philosophy was grounded in a humanist belief in the essential role of music in the development of a fully integrated human personality. He taught advanced students at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and undertook important work in music education for the young. His achievements in this area include an adaptation of Orff’s ...

Article

Thomas L. Gayda

[Will; Williams, Hugh; Milos, André]

(b Vienna, Aug 11, 1894; d New York, Dec 10, 1939). Austrian composer, pianist and conductor. Born into a Jewish family of jewellers, he studied with the operetta composer Richard Heuberger, Robert Fuchs, the musicologist Guido Adler and Franz Schreker. After he left the Vienna Music Academy in 1919, his Zwei phantastische Stücke was given its first performance by the Vienna PO. The following year he received a doctorate in music from Vienna University. While he remained initially faithful to the late-Romantic, Impressionist line, he became the first Austrian composer to introduce jazz idioms into his music. His grotesque ballet-pantomime Baby in der Bar (1928) marked him as one of the prime exponents of the Zeitgeist of the Weimar era.

In 1927 Grosz moved to Berlin and became the artistic director of the new Ultraphon record company, quickly building up its catalogue as a conductor, arranger and pianist. He formed a well-known piano duo with Wilhelm Kauffman and toured Europe as a highly-sought accompanist and conductor. When the National Socialists seized power in ...

Article

Peter Petersen

(b Berlin, Sept 6, 1890; d Tokyo, April 29, 1973). German composer and conductor, cousin of Wilibald Gurlitt. His maternal grandfather was the Swiss sculptor Max Heinrich Imhof and his paternal grandfather the landscape painter Louis Gurlitt. He had his first music lessons at the age of six. From 1907 he studied composition with Humperdinck and conducting with Muck in Berlin. He held the post of Kapellmeister at the Bremen Stadttheater (1914–27) and was promoted to Generalmusikdirektor in 1924. The successful première of his opera Wozzeck took place at the Stadttheater in 1926. In 1927 Gurlitt moved back to Berlin. As a freelance conductor he appeared at the Kroll Oper and Max Reinhardt’s theatre, and was involved in radio broadcasts. He joined the National Socialist Party in 1933, but was expelled in 1937 due to his possible Jewish heritage. He emigrated to Japan in 1939 where he gained recognition as a conductor in Tokyo. He founded the Gurlitt Opera Company in ...

Article

Lubomír Peduzzi

(b Brno, June 21, 1899; d Auschwitz [now Oświęcim], probably Oct 18, 1944). Czech composer. He studied composition at the Brno Conservatory in Janáček's masterclass (1920–22). He worked first in his father's business, then from 1935 as a private teacher of music theory, and finally taught music at the Jewish secondary in Brno. Haas took the style of Janáček as his starting point, and came closer to Janáček's compositional method than any of his other pupils. However, he developed this in his own way and soon achieved a mature individuality in the Wind Quintet op.10, the Piano Suite op.13 and the opera Šarlatán (‘The Charlatan’). During the German Occupation he suffered persecution on account of his Jewish origin, performances of his compositions were banned, and neither he nor his wife were allowed to work. He was imprisoned in Terezín concentration camp (1941–4), where he continued to compose, including two of his best-known works, the Study for Strings (...

Article

Eliyahu Schleifer

(b Budapest, March 5, 1932). Israeli composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist. As a young boy, he survived the Nazi invasion and miraculously escaped deportation. In 1949 he entered the composition department of the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest, where he studied the piano with György Kósa and Erno Szégedi, composition with Endre Szervánszky and Ferenc Szabó, and ethnomusicology with Zoltán Kodály. As a Kodály disciple, he spent two years among the Hungarian gypsies, collecting songs and stories. This resulted in his Gypsy Cantata on poems of Miklos Randoti, which won first prize at the Warsaw International Youth Festival (1955).

Following the failure of the Hungarian uprising, Hajdu escaped to France, where he studied with Milhaud and Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire. At the same time he wrote music for films and conducted youth choirs. From 1959 to 1961 he taught the piano and composition at the Tunis Conservatory and was active in ethnomusicological research there. This period is represented in his ...

Article

Rita Kaizinger

(b Budapest, Sept 8, 1915; d Budapest, Oct 23, 1987). Hungarian composer and pianist. She was born into a well-established Jewish family in Budapest; they owned the city’s ‘English Park’, a famous entertainment park, and her father was a well-known journalist. Hajdú graduated as a piano teacher from the Budapest Academy of Music, where she studied with Zoltán Kodály (folk music) and György Ránki (composition and instrumentation). For more than 40 years she was one of the most successful composers of light music in Budapest. Her song melodies perpetuated in an original manner the typical, operetta-like nostalgic atmosphere of the city. As a pianist she worked with leading Hungarian actors and singers, who generally congregated in the capital. Among her most famous partners were Lili Neményi, Mária Mezei, Hanna Honthy, the Latabár brothers and the opera singers Sándor (Alexander) Svéd and Mihály Székely. Hajdú’s chansons and cabaret songs achieved remarkable popularity. She was one of the founders of Hungarian Television (...

Article

[Fromentin(-Elias)]

(b Paris, May 27, 1799; d Nice, March 17, 1862). French composer, teacher and writer on music. His parents were Jewish; his father, Elias Levy, was a scholar and poet from Fürth, and his mother, Julie Meyer, came from Malzéville, near Nancy. The family name was changed to Halévy in 1807. Fromental’s musical ability was evident very early and in 1810 he entered the Paris Conservatoire. In 1811 he became a pupil of Cherubini for composition, an important step, for Cherubini showed great interest and confidence in Halévy and guided his career with all his considerable influence. Halévy acknowledged a profound debt to his teacher; his brother Léon wrote: ‘The teaching and friendship of Cherubini implanted in Halévy his love of great art and confirmed his instinctive repugnance to everything vulgar or shoddy’. He was also a pupil of H.-M. Berton (for harmony) and Méhul. In 1816 and ...

Article

Christopher Smith

(b Paris, Jan 1, 1834; d Paris, May 8, 1908). French librettist . He belonged to a distinguished Jewish family; his uncle was the composer Fromental Halévy, and his father, Léon, was respected in literary circles. On leaving the renowned Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris he had little difficulty, despite an unimpressive academic record, in obtaining civil service appointments. Plainly he had both ability and the benefits of patronage. His interests, however, lay in the theatre. Initially he adopted the pseudonym Jules Servières, and later, in 1858, when working with Crémieux on the libretto for Orphée aux enfers (with which Offenbach was to have such a significant success), he is said to have insisted that the credit and the royalties should go to his collaborator; at a time when his prospects in colonial administration were especially promising, he was afraid his reputation might be blighted by association with opéra comique...

Article

Frans van Rossum

(b Philadelphia, Nov 12, 1956). American composer. He studied acoustics and composition at the University of Illinois (1975–8), continuing his studies at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague with Louis Andriessen (1978–84). Hamburg’s music is steeped in Jewish culture but does not follow in the footsteps of his traditional musical education. Its fluent and vigorous idiom, whether lyrical or terse, may be inspired by multifarious Jewish musical ‘dialects’ from the diaspora, yet it manifests a profoundly personal texture in the way its harmonies move between tonality and modality, and in the use of an abundance of musical gestures with precision and of a lush, colouristic pallette. Voices and language predominate, and melodic lines, particularly those for the solo voice, are often characterized by the inflections of folk music. Yiddish history and poetry inform much of his work. His chamber opera Esther is based on the biblical story, and the moving song cycle ...

Article

Ronald Earl Booth

revised by Matthias Thiemel

[István]

(b Pest, May 15, 1813; d Paris, Jan 14, 1888). French pianist and composer of Hungarian birth. His parents were of Jewish descent and came from the vicinity of Eger (Cheb, Bohemia). He was first taught music by a regimental bandsman stationed near the Hungarian capital, and then by Ferenc Bräuer, a well-known piano teacher in Pest. He took composition lessons from an organist called Cibulka and then went to Vienna to study with Carl Czerny, but his father soon found that he could not afford the celebrated teacher’s high fees. Stephen became a pupil of Anton Halm, the teacher of Adolf Henselt and other 19th-century virtuosos. Through Halm, Heller met Schubert and Beethoven. In 1828 he made his début, and his success encouraged his father to arrange a concert tour through Hungary, Transylvania, Poland and Germany. It lasted almost two years and ended in Augsburg, where he collapsed from nervous exhaustion; intending to stay only a few weeks to recover, he remained for eight years. During this time he lived in the home of Frau Caroline Hoeslin von Eichthal, a highly intelligent and artistic woman whose son became one of his first pupils. He also came under the patronage and guidance of the cultivated Count Friedrich Fugger-Kircheim-Hoheneck, a gifted musician who encouraged him to study composition under Hippolyte Chelard, the Kapellmeister in Augsburg....

Article

Niall O’Loughlin

(b Vinkovci, Feb 19, 1911; d Belgrade, July 8, 2000). Croatian composer. He studied until 1935 at the Zagreb Academy with Bersa and Odak (composition), Lhotka (harmony) and Dugan (counterpoint). After some years’ teaching, in 1942 he became chorus director of the National Liberation Theatre and in 1945–6 he was adviser to the Education Ministry in Zagreb. He then taught at Belgrade University until his appointment in 1950 as professor at the Belgrade Academy of Music. He was also active as a writer on music.

The roots of Hercigonja’s music are in folksong. As a choirmaster he became familiar with folk music, developing this further by writing numerous partisan songs during and after World War II. With his strong sense of nationalism, he set patriotic historic texts, notably in his major works, those for the stage. The burlesque Vječni Žid u Zagrebu (‘The Eternal Jew in Zagreb’) typifies his dramatic realism and tonal musical language, with its merciless satire characterized by deliberate triviality. This vivid idiom is also found in the comedy ...

Article

Clytus Gottwald

(b Emden, March 13, 1938). German composer. Musically self-taught, he first aroused attention when he won the 1967 Gaudeamus Foundation composition prize. A scholarship took him to the Villa Massimo in Rome (1972–3), and he returned to teach in Delmenhorst. During 1981 and 1982 he gave masterclasses in Israel, the USA, Brazil and Japan. In 1990 he was visiting professor at the Academy of Arts and Music in Bremen, and he became a member of the Free Academy of Arts in Hamburg in 1991. He works as a freelance composer in Ganderkesee near Bremen.

Hespos’s music initially revealed closer ties to Schoenberg than to Webern, especially to Schoenberg’s Expressionism. He differs from Schoenberg, however, in that composing is for him not a matter of the re-ordering of given material, as with serialism, but the creation of sounds. The disjunct nature of Hespos’s work arises from a concentration on the particular sound; each phrase is precisely articulated, often requiring a frankly Expressionist delivery (‘like a scream’, ‘agitated’, ‘mangled’)....

Article

Reinhold Sietz

revised by Matthias Wiegandt

(von)

(b Frankfurt, Oct 24, 1811; d Cologne, May 11, 1885). German conductor, composer and teacher. He was the son of a wealthy Jewish merchant and revealed an outstanding talent for music at a very early age. His principal piano teacher was Alois Schmitt, in his day one of Frankfurt's most discriminating pianists. When he was ten Hiller played a concerto by Mozart at a public concert. Several important artists showed an interest in him, among them Spohr, Speyer, Moscheles and Mendelssohn who became Hiller's closest friend and on whose recommendation he went to Weimar to become one of Hummel's pupils (1825–7). During his stay there he met Goethe, played in concerts at court and at Goethe's home and composed various pieces of incidental music for the Weimar theatres and society. He also accompanied Hummel to Vienna to visit Beethoven on his deathbed. After returning to Frankfurt he continued to study and compose and made occasional concert tours. In ...

Article

Robert Henderson

revised by Thomas S. Hansen

(b Vienna, Feb 1, 1874; d Vienna, July 15, 1929). Austrian poet, dramatist and librettist. If he was not, as has sometimes been claimed, the greatest of librettists, few writers of comparable distinction, and with an already firmly established literary reputation, have applied themselves so conscientiously and over so long a period to the composition of operatic librettos. During the 23 years of his collaboration with Richard Strauss, Hofmannsthal not only restored the words in opera to their former position of creative equality with the music, but wrote librettos which number among the few that can be read with pleasure as literature.

Hofmannsthal was born into a cultured Viennese family of mixed Austrian, Italian, Swabian and Jewish origins. He inherited a naturally cosmopolitan spirit and an instinctive sympathy with all that was best in the arts. A boy of precocious literary gifts and of abnormally sensitive intelligence, by the age of 17 he had astonished artistic circles in Vienna and throughout the German-speaking world with a steady stream of lyric poems displaying a mature beauty and perfection of form that inevitably suggested comparisons with the young Rimbaud. By his mid-20s Hofmannsthal’s seemingly spontaneous poetic flow had run dry, provoking a crisis of intellect and sensibility; rejecting the extreme aestheticism of his earlier poetry, and stimulated by his rediscovery of Baroque theatre, especially Calderón, he emerged from his crisis with a new faith in the ability of drama to fulfil a social and humanizing role. By presenting an experience of life as it ought to be, he believed that poetry, drama and music together could transform the way men lived their lives and provide a cure for the moral ills of industrial society; these ideals lay behind his foundation with Max Reinhardt of the Salzburg Festival in ...

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

(b Berlin, 1923; d Israel, 1985). Israeli composer of German birth. Following the Nazi ascension to power in Germany (1933), he emigrated to Palestine, where he joined the socialist youth movement Hashomer Hatzair, an organization that guided his ideological and professional way of life. From 1943 he belonged to the kibbutz Beit Alpha in the Valley of Jezre’el. His composition teachers included Edel, Rosowsky, Boskovitch and others. After further study at the Juilliard School (1952–4), he completed a degree in physics and chemistry at Hebrew University, where he went on to train music and science teachers in the School of Education. His deep community involvement inspired him to write functional music for kibbutz festivities; he also directed the kibbutz choir and various instrumental ensembles. Ideologically opposed to the avant garde, he wrote communicative and easily accessible music. His style, influenced by Bach, Brahms, Debussy and Hindemith, is based on the meticulous development of motives, sometimes of Jewish traditional or Israeli folk origin. In ...