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Article

Robert L. Doerschuk

revised by Mark Gilbert and Barry Kernfeld

(b Kōbe, Japan, March 25, 1961). Japanese pianist. The son of a jazz pianist and organist, he was a reluctant student of classical piano as a child. At first, under the influence of Jimmy Smith, he would only play jazz on the Hammond organ, but after attending a concert by Oscar Peterson at the age of 12 he took up jazz piano and transcribed some of Peterson’s solos. From 1980 he attended the Berklee College of Music, where he quickly assimilated new ideas through his work with Gary Burton and from the playing of such musicians as Chick Corea. Ozone recorded albums in a duo with Phil Wilson (1982), a faculty member at Berklee, and in a quartet led by Bobby Shew. More significantly, after graduating he joined Burton’s band and in 1983 made a world tour; he also began to give performances as an unaccompanied soloist. In ...

Article

Katy Romanou

(b Ortaköy [Ortakioi], Bithynia [now Geyve, Turkey], 1869; d Constantinople, July 23, 1915). Greek ethnomusicologist, musicologist, music teacher, and composer. He was taught Byzantine music as a child in Ortaköy, finished the Varvakeion school in Athens, and studied philology at the University of Athens, and music in the Odeion Athinon (‘Athens Conservatory’). In 1895 Pachtikos settled in Constantinople, and was involved in the leading cultural institutions of the Greek Orthodox community, such as the Ellinikos Filologikos Syllogos (‘Greek Literary Society’) and the Ekklisiastikos Mousikos Syllogos (‘Ecclesiastical Music Society’). He also composed music for and staged performances of ancient Greek tragedies and comedies, collected folk music, and, in 1912–15 edited Mousiki, a monthly music periodical with polyethnic collaborators (from Turkey to the USA), in which over 180 of his own articles were published.

Through these activities, Pachtikos contributed to the growing interest among the literati Greeks in Constantinople – immersed in the study of Byzantium – in ancient Greek culture. He was well informed on the studies of ancient Greek music in Western Europe, while his own work was presented in important editions, such as the ...

Article

Bonnie C. Wade and Inderjit N. Kaur

(b Kurundwad, 1872; d 1931). North Indian (Hindustani) classical music vocalist. He was the son of a kīrtankār (performer of religious discourses) in Kurundwad and was educated in an English-medium school. In 1887 his eyesight was damaged by firecrackers and he was removed from school to begin musical training with Balkrishna Buwa of the Gwalior gharānā. He became sensitized to the difference between his social status and that of his teacher and was determined to improve the status of musicians.

In 1897 Paluskar advocated public performance in order to make classical music widely accessible and to provide a means for musicians to earn a livelihood independent of rich patrons. In 1901 he founded the Gandharva Mahāvidyālaya in Lahore, the first Indian music institution underwritten by public sources. To support it Paluskar lectured and gave concerts, tailoring performances to include patriotic songs, folksongs, and devotional compositions, along with classical vocal music. As part of his educational endeavors he wrote ...

Article

William Y. Elias

[Ödön]

(b Budapest, Oct 1, 1907; d Tel-Aviv, July 6, 1977). Israeli composer, string player and teacher of Hungarian origin. Born to an assimilated Jewish upper middle class family, he was a child prodigy and studied the violin with Ormandy. Hubay heard him play the violin at the age of eight and took him as a pupil at the Budapest Academy of Music, where he also studied composition with Kodály. After graduating from the academy in 1924, he was leader of the Lucerne Stadtsorchester (1924–6) and the Budapest Konzertorchester (1926–7). In 1927 he moved to Germany, working as a soloist, and in 1933 he became first violinist of the Jewish Cultural Centre. At the end of that year he returned to Hungary, moving then to Baku to teach the violin and composition at the conservatory (1935) and returning to Budapest as leader of the Konzertorchester (...

Article

Franki Raden

(b Medan, Sumatra, 1956). Indonesian composer . Beginning his musical career as a drummer in a rock group, he studied ethnomusicology at the University of North Sumatra. He also studied music at Marymount College in Tarrytown, New York, and composition with Alvin Lucier at the Wesleyan University in Middletown, Conneticut. After studying in America he produced many works for electronic media alone and in combination with acoustic instruments. A member of the Batak people, he has studied and absorbed many elements of their traditional music into his own work. This bringing together of two very different musical worlds has made his compositions highly distinctive. His use of ritual forms is a characteristic feature: in Nerhen Surasura (1992) for tape and instruments the players are required to be in a state of trance before beginning to perform. A composition teacher and dean of the arts faculty at the Huria Kristen Batak Prostestant Nommensen University in Medan, Pasaribu is an active and influential figure in the contemporary music scene in north Sumatra. His percussion group Medan Percussion Ensemble appears annually at the popular International Jakarta Percussion Festival....

Article

Nikos Maliaras

(b Nigde, Kappadocia, Turkey, ?1892; d Athens, Aug 1977). Greek composer. He attended school in Istanbul (Zografeion High-school, Robert College), and took lessons in the piano and harmony. In 1911 he went to Paris to study law and politics but interrupted his studies and volunteered for Greece during the Balkan Wars (1912–13). Upon returning to Paris he dedicated himself to music. He was a person of great education and spoke many languages. He worked as a music columnist and reviewer for several British journals (Musical Times and Esperia, London), an American newspaper (Christian Science Monitor, Boston), and prominent Greek newspapers (Vima, Proia, and Kathimerini), contributing exceptionally clear-sighted, well-aimed, and comprehensive articles. He lectured on Greek folklore and music at King’s College, London, and taught Greek at the Sorbonne, Paris.

Although he worked with the conductor Albert Wolff and the composer Albert Roussel for short periods, in regard to music Petridis considered himself self-taught; he acquired most of his knowledge by studying and copying the works of great composers, especially J.S. Bach (...

Article

Joseph S.C. Lam

[given name, Ping; style, Ji′an]

(b ?1895; d 1967). Chinese qin zither master. Born to an artistic family, Guan started to learn qin and painting from an early age, studying first with his father and (after his death when Guan Pinghu was 13) with his father’s friend Ye Shimeng. He became accomplished in both qin and painting. He went on to learn from the leaders of three different qin schools, Yang Zongji (1865–1933), Qin Heming, and Wujing Laoren. Synthesizing the strengths of the three schools, Guan forged a personal style distinguished by a controlled sense of rhythm and a grandeur of expression. In 1952 he was appointed a teacher and a researcher at the Central Conservatory of Music, where he taught a number of students and wrote several articles including a treatise on qin technique.

He was also at the forefront of the 1950s dapu movement to recreate qin pieces preserved in early notation. Through his interpretations ancient pieces such as ...

Article

Joyce Lindorff

(b Yantai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China, Jan 23, 1935). Chinese composer. Her desire to forge her own unique style rooted in Chinese tradition is evident in works for orchestra, chorus and many film scores. The early instruction she received after joining an army art troupe at the age of 12 inspired her first interest in musical structure. She later studied Chinese traditional folk music, Western music theory and composition as a prizewinning student of Ding Shande at the Shanghai Conservatory. After graduation (1960), she joined the composition faculty there and was appointed associate professor in 1986. In 1959 she began a 20-year series of travels to Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Fujian and Hainan Island collecting folksongs, which have inspired many of her compositions. A member of both the Shanghai and the China musicians’ associations, she retired from teaching in 1991 to compose full time in Hong Kong. Her later work incorporates the languages of folk music, painting and weaving....

Article

William Y. Elias

[Shosh ]

(b Cyprus, April 10, 1948). Israeli composer, teacher and stage director . She was born while her parents were in Cyprus en route to Israel. First taught music at the Tel-Aviv Conservatory and Telma Yalin Music High School, she graduated in 1970 from the Tel-Aviv Academy of Music, where her main study was the piano (she was a pupil of Madeleine Aufhauser); she also completed a degree in philosophy. During her period of compulsory military service, from 1970 to 1972, she was responsible for classical music at Galei-Zahal, the radio station of the Israeli Defence Forces, and wrote on music for Bahmane, the IDF’s weekly magazine. From 1973 to 1974 she studied composition with Hans Heimler in Guildford, England.

After Riseman’s return to Israel, her song cycle Eize yom yafe (‘What a Beautiful Day’) for male voice and chamber ensemble was recorded; a further cycle, Nine Haiku Songs, received its première at the Israel Festival in ...

Article

Hormoz Farhat

(b Tehran, 1902; d Tehran, 1957). Iranian violinist, composer and teacher. He was a competent performer on many instruments including the setār, the santur, the kamāncheh and the tombak, but in later life was identified above all as the foremost violinist of his time. He began his musical training when only six years old. His earliest teacher was Mirza Abdollah, who is credited with the definitive organization of the dastgāhs of Persian classical music.

In 1924 Saba enrolled in Ali Naqi Vaziri’s newly established music school, where he learnt about the theory of Western music and was attracted to Vaziri’s ideas for a reform of Persian music on European lines. In 1927 Vaziri founded a branch of his music school in Rasht in the Gilan Province and installed Saba as its principal. During his three years in Gilān, Saba collected folksongs from that region which he submitted to Western notation; he was the first Iranian to do research on the folk music of his country....

Article

Şahan Arzruni

( fl early 8th century). Armenian hymnographer, poet and pedagogue . Sister of the music theorist Step‘annos Siwnec‘i, she was an ascetic who lived in a cave in the Gaṙni valley (near Erevan) and produced ecclesiastical poems and liturgical chants. Srp‘uhi Mariam (‘Saint Mary’), consisting of nine stanzas in acrostic formation, is her only verse to have survived. Reportedly, many of her šarakaner (hymns) were devoted to the Mother of God (akin to the theotokion in the music of the Byzantine rite) and helped to shape the development of the genre during subsequent centuries. Seated behind a curtain, as the mores of the period required, Sahakduxt taught sacred melodies to clerical students and lay music lovers.

S. Ōrbelyan: Patmut‘yun nahangin Sisakan [History of the Province of Sis] (Tbilisi, 1910), 139 Archbishop Covakan Norayr [Połarian]: Sahakduxt Siwnec‘i ev Srp‘uhi Mariam [Sahakduxt of Siunik and Saint Mary], Hask (Antilias, 1951), 366–7 M. Ōrmanian...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Rostov-na-Donu, Sept 30, 1920; d Yerevan, May 27, 1998). Armenian composer and teacher. He was the son of the painter Martiros Saryan who moved with his family to Yerevan in 1921. Ghazaros Saryan studied composition with Barkhudarian and Talian at the Yerevan Conservatory (1934–8) and then with Anatoly Aleksandrov and Shostakovich at the Moscow Conservatory (1945–50). He then taught composition and orchestration at the Yerevan Conservatory (from 1972 as professor), also serving there as rector (1960–86) and head of composition (from 1986). His pupils include Tigran Mansurian. He was chairman of the board of the Armenian Composers' Union (1955–6) and received many official awards including the State Prize of Armenia (1983, for his Symphony) and People’s Artist of the USSR (1990). His works have been performed internationally. His musical orientation is broadly programmatic. In his early works national colouring and elements of folklore are combined to create a picturesque but sometimes ascetic thinking; the orchestral suite ...

Article

Regine Allgayer-Kaufmann

(Hubertus )

(b Beuel am Rhein, June 23, 1953). German ethnomusicologist. He studied musicology with Josef Kuckertz at Cologne University, with German language, Malaysian studies and dramaturgy as secondary subjects (MA 1979). He took the doctorate in comparative musicology in 1988 at the Freie Universität Berlin, where he taught comparative musicology (1980–86), he also lectured at the Musikhochschule in Hanover (1987–9) and at Kiel University (1985). He was appointed professor at Berlin in 1990, and later professor and head of the ethnomusicology department at Cologne University in 1994. He is president of the Maria Laach Institute for Hymnology and Ethnomusicology in Cologne and general secretary of the European Ethnomusicological Seminar (from 1997). In 1995 he was awarded the Jaap-Kunst prize for his musicological research in Java and Bali. Schumacher has carried out fieldwork in Java (1977 and 1990) and Bali (...

Article

Tony Gould

[Robert Alexander ]

(b ’Akko, Palestine [now in Israel], Aug 24, 1943). Australian pianist. As a small child he lived in England, where he first studied piano. His family moved to Melbourne, Australia, in 1950 and during the 1960s he gained experience with various ensembles there. He performed and recorded with Ted Vining (from 1969), Alan Lee (1972–3), and Brian Brown (from 1974), and accompanied such visiting Americans as Dizzy Gillespie, David Baker, Phil Woods, Jimmy Witherspoon, Milt Jackson, and Lee Konitz; he toured Scandinavia with Brown in 1978. In 1984 he formed the group Blues on the Boil, which was influenced by the blues styles of Chicago and the Mississippi Delta; he also played with Onaje, a group led by Allan Browne. He is a member of the faculty of the Victorian College of the Arts in Melbourne, where he teaches in the improvisation department....

Article

Reem Kelani

revised by Alyson E. Jones

(b Tarshiha, Galilee, Israel, 1955). Palestinian ‘ūd player, violinist, composer, and teacher, active in the United States. He began learning ‘ūd at the age of five with his father, the renowned musician Hikmat Shaheen. At the age of seven he entered the Rubin Conservatory in Haifa to study violin and Western classical music. He graduated from the Jerusalem Rubin Academy of Music and Dance in 1978 and remained there for two years as an instructor in the performance and theory of Arab music.

In 1980 Shaheen moved to New York, where he studied at the Manhattan School and later at Columbia University. He performed as a soloist and as a member of the Near Eastern Music Ensemble, which he founded in 1982. During that time he also began presenting workshops and lecture-demonstrations about Arab music in schools and universities. Since 1994 he has produced the Annual Arab Festival of Arts in New York, and since ...

Article

Hormoz Farhat

(b Tehran, 1897; d Tehran, 1985). Iranian tār player, composer and teacher. He came from a family of celebrated musicians. His father was Aqa Hossein Qoli and his uncle Mirza Abdollah, both highly respected tār and setār players. He studied the tār with his father from the age of eight and, on his father’s death in 1915, he continued further training with his uncle. He was 14 when he made his first recording, accompanying the singer Jenab-e Damavandi. Other recordings, both as a solo tār player and as an accompanist to singers, followed. By the early 1920s he was widely recognized as the country’s foremost tār virtuoso.

In his maturity, Shahnazi developed a highly colourful and dramatic style of tār playing. He favoured strongly delineated dynamics; his plectrum strokes were clear, rapid and diversified. Many of his broadcast performances are preserved in the archives of Tehran Radio; the Iranian Ministry of Culture also holds a recorded collection of his rendition of all the ...

Article

Barbara Mittler

[Chew Shyh-Ji]

(b Taipei, July 29, 1957). Taiwanese composer and teacher. She studied composition with Hsu Tsang-houei and took piano lessons before her family emigrated to Canada in 1974. Pan pursued further composition studies with Robert Turner at the University of Manitoba (1976–80) and with Chou Wen-chung at Columbia University, New York (1980–88). Her interest and expertise in traditional Asian music, stemming from her contact with Chou's music and her work at the Columbia Center for Ethnomusicology, distinguishes her from her contemporaries in Taiwan, where training in ethnomusicology is rare. After her return to Taiwan in 1988, Pan became a professor of composition at the National Academy of the Arts. Asian influence is evident in many of her compositions, for example in her use of Chinese instruments in the series Configuration – Transformation – Shape or of Asian poetry in Paiju sanshou (1991) and Three Songs...

Article

Barbara Mittler

[Ma Shui-Long]

(b Jilong, July 17, 1939). Taiwanese composer and music educator. He studied composition with Xiao Erhua at the National Institute of the Arts (1959–64). As a member of the Sunflower Group (1967–71) he was active in the early promotion of contemporary music in Taiwan. He took up graduate studies in composition with Oskar Sigmund at the Regensburg Kirchenmusikschule (1972–5). In 1981 Ma became head of the music department at the newly founded National Academy of the Arts in Taipei, creating there a much-emulated programme which offers students a grounding both in Western and East Asian music.

The combination of traditional Asian idioms and materials with Western techniques is the most distinctive trademark of his creative output, which has developed from a more conservative idiom to a distinctly experimental and contemporary one. In Yugang sumiao (1969) he translates the techniques of several Chinese instruments for the piano. The striking use of pizzicato, especially in the first movement of his String Quartet no.2 (...

Article

Robyn Holmes, Peter Campbell and Judith Crispin

[Lazarus]

Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell, revised by Judith Crispin

(b Tianjin, China, Sept 10, 1934). Australian composer, pianist, and musicologist. Born to Russian-Chinese parents, he emigrated to Australia with his family in 1951. He studied the piano at the NSW Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, where his teachers included Winifred Burston (1952–8), and in San Francisco with Egon Petri (1959–61). On his return to Australia, he taught at the Queensland Conservatorium (1961–5) and lectured on contemporary composition at the University of Queensland. In 1965 he assumed the position of Head of Keyboard at the newly founded Canberra School of Music (now part of the Australian National University), where he became Head of Composition and Head of Academic Studies in 1978, and Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in 2005.

Sitsky first came to prominence as a composer at the inaugural Australian Composers’ Seminar (Hobart, Tasmania, ...

Article

(b Lwów [now L′viv], July 13, 1938). Ukrainian composer and teacher. Skoryk entered the L′viv Music School in 1945, but in 1947 he and his family were deported to Siberia and were not permitted to return to Ukraine until 1955. He entered the L′viv Conservatory where he studied composition with Lyudkevych and Simovych among others; he then studied with Kabalevsky at the Moscow Conservatory (1960–64). He then joined the staff of the L′viv Conservatory and in 1967 that of the Kiev Conservatory, where he remained until 1988 teaching composers who include Balakauskas, Karabyts and Stankovych. He has occupied posts within the Ukrainian Composers' Union, has won the Shevchenko Prize – in 1985 for his Cello Concerto – and holds the title People's Artist of Ukraine. He is also active as a musicologist and editor of music publications. Unlike many of his countrymen who adopted an avant-garde stance in the 1960s, from around that time Skoryk largely relied on Carpatho-Ukrainian folklore in his works, firstly attracting attention with the ...