You are looking at  81-100 of 607 articles  for:

Clear All

Article

Atenesu  

K.A. Gourlay

[atenus]

Drum of the Teso people of Uganda and Kenya. In Uganda it was traditionally played only by women (with the flat of the hand), while men played the ideteta, a smaller stick-beaten drum made in various sizes; four ideteta were used with the atenesu to accompany the ajosi dance. In Kenya the ...

Article

Gavin Webb

Bamboo duct flute of Ghana. Its name derives from the roots atente (the type of music played) and aben (Twi: ‘whistle’ or ‘horn’). The famous Ghanaian composer and teacher Ephraim Amu developed the modern atenteben in the mid-1940s, particularly by changing it from a transverse flute capable of playing only five notes to an end-blown vertical flute with a wooden block forming a duct just below a node. He added two fingerholes (making six fingerholes and one thumbhole) to facilitate playing a two-octave diatonic scale. The modern instrument, pitched in B♭ or C, is 40 or 35 cm long. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Nana Danso Abiam, director of the Pan African Orchestra, and Henaku-Pobi, former atenteben instructor at the University of Ghana, developed techniques to increase the melodic range of the instrument and perform chromatic scales in any key through cross-fingering, half-holing, and overblowing to achieve harmonics. The ...

Article

Atoke  

Jeremy Montagu

Article

Michel Domenichni-Ramiaramanana

[atranatrana]

Modern term for a free-bar xylophone found in southeastern Madagascar among the Antandroy, Bara, Mahafaly, Masikoro, Sakalava, and Vezo peoples. The instrument has Southeast Asian origins. It is also known locally as katiboky, kilangay, or valihambalo. It can have up to 12 bars but only five or seven are normally used in a performance. It is played by women. One woman supports the instrument with her legs. She plays a melody while another woman plays an ostinato. The instrument was traditionally used in magico-religious ceremonies, but it is now used for secular purposes, except among the Bara. It is often played at dusk, or to encourage young children to dance....

Article

Jeremy Montagu

[atsimevu]

Single-headed open barrel drum of the Anlo-Ewe people of the southeastern coast of Ghana. Barrel drums from this region are distinct because they are made of wooden staves joined by iron hoops and are always painted red, blue, or green. The atsimewu, 130 cm or more tall and about 40 cm in maximum diameter, is the master drum of an ensemble that includes the ...

Article

Atuamba  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by F.J. de Hen

[tuambi]

Bullroarer of the Kuma of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It consists of a slightly concave ellipsoidal piece of wood measuring 30 × 10 cm along the axes. The instrument is whirled by a cord attached to one end and the sound produced is said to resemble the growling of a leopard. The bullroarer has associations with spirit voices and secret ceremonies such as circumcision, and has restrictions against women and non-initiates seeing it, as is customary for other bullroarers of the Congo. The varied names collected by de Hen suggest an onomatopoeic derivation, for example, the Adoi, Amanga, Andebogo and Andowi kundrukundru, Aimed kunzukunzu, Bagbwa and Mamvu egburuburu and arumvurumvu, and Bangba and Mayogo mbirimbiri. This pattern is not always followed, as with the Mbole inano, Nyali upa and Zande gilingwa.

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 171ff...

Article

Atumpan  

Article

Atumpan  

K.A. Gourlay

[atukpani, atungblan]

Talking drum of West Africa. The atumpan, the principal talking drum of the Akan people of Ghana, is a large barrel drum with a tubular foot open at the base, thus resembling a giant goblet drum. The drums are played upright, usually in pairs (of different tones), by the master-drummer, who uses two angular hooked sticks. They also appear in ensembles as supporting drums. The atukpani is the corresponding drum of the Ewe of Ghana and the atungblan of the Baule people of the Ivory Coast. Atungblan are played in pairs by the chief’s master-drummer, and carry great prestige. On certain days fixed by the chief, the drummer calls to the ancestors by means of rhythmic formulae, and asks them to protect the community. Like other less important talking drums, atungblan are used to summon people to meetings. At public appearances of the chief, they are also used to drum proverbs. They may also be used, with other drums, gourd rattle, and clapperless bells, to accompany the ...

Article

Aulero  

Peter Cooke

Article

Jeremy Montagu

Sanskrit term for ‘tied on’ and thus for drums in general. It is one of the four categ ories of Indian instruments as classified in Assam, the others being ghana (idiophones), su ṣira (aerophones), and tata (chordophones).

D.R. Barthakur: The Music and Musical Instruments of North Eastern India (New Delhi, 2003)....

Article

Axatse  

Article

Azangi  

F.J. de Hen

Article

Aze  

Article

J. Gansemans, K.A. Gourlay and Ferdinand J. de Hen

[babakungbu]

Ground harp of the Mamvu, Apanga, and Mari peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It consists of a flexible stick stuck in the ground with a string tied to its upper end. The lower end of the string is fastened to the bark cover of a nearby pit, which serves as the resonator. The string is plucked with the right thumb and forefinger or hit with a small stick. The name ...

Article

Gerhard Kubik

Modern single-string bass instrument of Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, and adjacent areas. It became popular in the early 1950s with kwela flute (tin whistle) music and is probably derived from the American washtub bass or tea-chest bass. The resonator is usually an empty plywood tea chest, its open end resting on the ground. The string is anchored through a central hole in the top of the chest and its other end is tied to the top of a stick (resembling a broomstick) that stands vertically on the chest, near the side closest to the player (but is not attached to it). With one foot on the chest to steady it, the player holds the top of the stick with his left hand, pulling it towards him with varying pressure to alter the tension of the string as required, to change the pitch, while plucking the string with his right hand.

A. Benseler...

Article

Article

Bagara  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Bagwase  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Bailol  

Jeremy Montagu

Mouth bow of the Fula and Tukulor peoples of Senegal and the Gambia. The left hand presses the string with a small stick to alter the pitch of the fundamental, while the right hand taps the string with a second stick. Overtones are selected by altering the shape of the mouth....

Article

Baka  

Mouth bow of the Gbande people of Liberia. The player taps the string with a stick in his right hand while regulating the vibrating length with a stick in his left. The string passes between his lips; by altering the shape of the oral cavity he can produce different overtones. ...