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Article

Chunggo  

Robert C. Provine

Obsolete large barrel drum of Korea (chung: ‘centre’; go: ‘drum’). It closely resembled the kyobanggo except that the body was about twice as deep. The last surviving traditional chunggo, long out of use, was destroyed in the Korean War (1950–53), and current examples are reconstructions based on memory and photographs. The ...

Article

Chwago  

Robert C. Provine

Korean barrel drum, suspended in a wooden frame (chwa: ‘seat’; go: ‘drum’). Of medium size, it has two tacked heads of cowhide, and the depth of the wooden body is about half the diameter of the heads. The heads are decorated with a yin/yang symbol in the centre and a multicoloured pattern around the edge; the body is also brightly painted in several colours. The drum hangs (with the heads vertical) from three metal rings set in a wooden frame with two support posts and a cross-member. The player sits and strikes the drum on one head only, with a large soft-headed mallet. The sound is loud and deep with a comparatively long reverberation.

The chwago is not mentioned in the official history of the Koryǒ dynasty (918–1392), or in the standard treatise Akhak kwebǒm (1493), and it is therefore thought to be a fairly recent addition to Korean ensembles. It appears in an 18th-century painting depicting folkdancing, but its chief use in recent times has been in court music. At present it is used only in court and aristocratic music, especially in dance accompaniment; it is found in versions of the chamber ensemble suite ...

Article

Da-man  

Mireille Helffer

[lda-man]

Paired copper kettledrums of the be-da musicians of Ladakh. They are joined together with a leather strap to facilitate carrying and are struck simultaneously with wooden sticks (dam-shing) held by a single player. Some sources report that both drums are carried by one person, one slung before, the other behind the bearer, who beats the front drum while a following person beats the other. The heads are laced on to the bowls, and their tension is adjusted by a metal ring at the base. They are tuned in 5ths and accompany an oboe (sur-na or ha-rib) on festive occasions such as weddings and at polo games, horse races, and archery contests; they also accompany dances and songs. The da-man is said to have been introduced to Ladakh from Baltistan in the 16th century and was initially associated with the royal palace in Leh.

See also Damāhā ...

Article

Henry Johnson

[daibyōshidaiko]

Drum of Japan. Dai means ‘big’ and byōshi/hyōshi means ‘rhythm’. It is a double-headed, rope-tensioned cylindrical drum with a head diameter of about 24 to 60 cm. The body, made from wooden planks, is usually about 45 to 50 cm long, although larger instruments are sometimes made. When the head diameters exceed 60 cm the instrument is usually called okedōdaiko, although some smaller instruments are also sometimes called by this name. The heads, which are made from horse or cattle hide, extend about 6 cm beyond the rim, and each is sewn to a hoop; the hoops are roped together and, as the ropes are pulled tight, the extended part of the head bends very little, as the skins have been hardened at this part and are able to withstand a great deal of tension. The instrument is usually placed on a stand at the desired angle for playing, and the player strikes one head with two long beaters. The ...

Article

Alastair Dick

[ḍāk, ḍākki, ḍäkki, ḍāklu]

Medieval Sanskrit term for a waisted or hourglass drum. Drums of this type, either gently waisted or with the hourglass shape proper (with a very narrow waist and two hemispherical chambers) have been traced in ancient Indian sculpture from about the 2nd century bce, the latter type having some priority. Mostly laced, they were played in various ways: held by a shoulder strap or the hand and beaten with the hand or sticks on one or both heads, or held in the armpit or hand and pressed in the middle for variable tension (for the latter type, see Paṇava; for another prominent Indian type, the pellet drum, see ḍamaru ).

The ḍakkā is described by Śārṅgadeva (13th century) as about 24 cm long, with a diameter of 16 cm at the heads and somewhat less in the middle; it is thus of the gently waisted type. The shell is about 1 cm thick; the structure of the heads is not described. Each head, under the skins, has a snare device of two crossed strings attached to four copper nails inserted around the head; a blade of grass is inserted under the strings ‘to increase the sound’. The ḍakkā is played with a crooked stick (...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval drum of India. It was only about 10 cm long and 8 cm in diameter and was made of bell metal, cow horn, or ivory. Two thin animal skins covered with a paste of beeswax were stretched on metal hoops and braced with cotton lacings, with a central cross-lacing. The drum was held between forefinger and thumb, and the ring finger was curled under the cross-lacing....

Article

Daluka  

Goblet drum of Sudan. It is traditionally made of clay and played by women, notably by the main singer during spirit possession ceremonies. The Arabic name daluka, of Nubian origin, denotes a small drum beaten by the hand; in a bowl excavated from Tumulus VI at Hobagi, Meroe, one such drum is shown hanging from the drummer’s neck....

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Damba  

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Dambak  

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Trân Quang Hai

Vietnamese single-headed flat drum. The name of the instrument has varied according to its use: it was called trống cái in the folk orchestra of the 18th century, cái cồ in the 18th-century court orchestra; ba ̾ng cồ or trồng ba ̾ng in the royal orchestra of the Nguyển dynasty (...

Article

Dang  

Root term in the Chadic and Adamawa language groups for double-headed cylindrical drums of north-eastern Nigeria. Examples are the dang (Fali, Sukur, Jen, Gola, Munga, some Wurkun groups, and Kilba peoples), danga (Bata, Gudu), dangga (Mboi), and idara (Libo). Little is known of these drums, though it may be assumed that in construction, method of performance, and use they bear some relation to the Kilba ...

Article

K. A. Gourlay

Large, slightly barrel-shaped, double-headed drum of the Kilba people of north-eastern Nigeria. It is approximately 75 cm long and 45 cm at its widest diameter. The drum is distinguished by having two snares on the upper head and bracing cords arranged in sets of three, without a central ligature. It is used on both ceremonial and social occasions, being the principal instrument in all death-dance ceremonies and for the communal bearing of a corpse to the grave. It is also played with the ...

Article

Open, variable-tension hourglass drum of the Kilba people of Nigeria. It is played under the arm and struck with a hooked stick. The narrowest part of the waist is nearer the head than the open end. The dang fokku is traditionally associated with the warrior class and used only in their dances and those of the hunters; it allegedly has the power both of inspiring courage and of enticing leopards out of hiding....

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Article

Ḍaph  

Alastair Dick

[daf, ḍaff]

South Asian name for the frame drum. It derives from the Arab daff and is found in various Indianized forms, such as ḍaphrī (ḍaph ṙā), ḍh ȧplā (ḍaphlī), damphu, and ḍamphā. The name, and a frame drum of Middle Eastern type, entered India with the Muslim Turko-Afghans who established the Delhi sultanate in the late 12th century (it is mentioned in the works of the 13th-century court poet Amir Khusrav). This type, a medium-size shallow frame drum about 30 to 60 cm in diameter, can be found with or without jingles (interior metal rings or bronze discs set into the frame), with the skin pasted or tacked to the frame (without lacings), and played by hands or sticks; it is common in many parts of the subcontinent. The Middle Eastern pattern linking this instrument either with women or with Muslim dervishes and mendicants (faqīr) can also be seen in this area. In court musical scenes in Mughal miniatures the tambourine is usually played by women, while in South Asia both Muslim and, especially in the north-west, Hindu mendicants play it. In Indian folk music generally, however, it is not specially linked with women players. This type is especially common in north India and Pakistan (where it is also called ...

Article

Jonathan Katz

[dimaḍī]

Small wooden frame drum of Gujarat and Maharashtra, western India. Like the larger ḍaph it has jingling metal discs suspended on pins in slits in the frame, which is about 15 cm in diameter. A head of lizard skin is stretched on one side. The ḍaphrī may be held with one hand and played with any part of the other, or it may simply be shaken; it is used in accompanying folk song and dance. The ...

Article

Daula  

Natalie M. Webber

[davula, davul]

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Sri Lanka. It is suspended horizontally from a hemp sling around the player’s waist and beaten with one hand and a stick. The body of the drum is made from jak, or some other hardwood, usually painted red and gold. The length varies, but is usually about 51 cm, and the diameter is 38 to 46 cm. The heads are made from deerskin or calfskin, secured by cane hoops. Hemp braces are stretched between the two hoops, passing through 12 sliding thongs, or metal rings, which are used for tuning. The curved stick, formerly of ivory, is now made from the hardwood shrub ā ṭṭēriya, similar in texture and colour to ivory. It can be used in either hand.

The instrument dates back at least 400 years in Sri Lanka. The death of a Sinhalese monarch was marked by an 11-day relay of solo daula players, garbed in black and standing on a heap of paddy as protection from the ‘evil’ music they were playing. Its use as a signalling instrument of a more general kind continued after the end of the monarchy in ...

Article

Natalie M. Webber

[davunde]

Double-headed hourglass drum of Sri Lanka. It is somewhat similar to the u ḍākki, but longer and without the snare. Sliding leather thongs, used for tuning, encircle the tensioning braces. The drum is slung from the left shoulder so that it hangs vertically and it is played with a stick and the flat of one hand, on the upper head only. The ...

Article

Alastair Dick

revised by Andrew Alter

[ḍaũr]

Small, shallow hourglass drum of Uttarakhand in northern India. Like many other hourglass drums in India, the ḍauṅr is associated with the god Shiva. For this reason it is often equated with the ḍamaru, though the instruments are of different sizes and are played differently. The ḍauṅr is usually found in the western area of Uttarakhand (Garhwal) where it is used almost exclusively for indoor shamanic rituals. It is about 16 cm tall and has a diameter of 20 cm at the heads and 13 cm at the waist; its body is made of copper, brass, or wood. The goatskin heads are lapped on hoops and braced by cotton V-lacings tightened at the waist with a cross-lacing. The bracing is not used to vary the tension of the heads during performance. The musician plays while seated, holding the instrument between his knees or under his leg; the right/upper face is struck with a curved stick, the left/lower with the hand and fingers. Thus the playing technique resembles that of the much larger ...

Article

José Maceda

Goblet drum of the southern Philippines. The heavy wooden coconut palm or jackfruit tree body, more than 60 cm high and 30 cm in diameter, is often elaborately carved. The head of animal or snake skin is tightly lapped on wire and rattan hoops. It is played with a pair of light bamboo sticks. Among the Maguindanao people it is known as ...