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Article

Yves Chartier

(b northern France, c850; d St Amand, June 20, 930). Benedictine monk, theorist, poet, composer, teacher and hagiographer. Though chiefly known as a theorist – ironically for works that have proven not to be his own – he was also a writer (of both verse and prose) and a composer, whose reputation has grown considerably with the progressive discovery of works that can positively be attributed to him. Coming immediately after Aurelian of Réôme (Musica disciplina, ?c840s), he was probably a contemporary of the anonymous authors of the Musica enchiriadis and other related treatises to which his name was assigned (Commemeratio brevis, Alia musica, De modis), composed in the same area at the end of the 9th century. He remains one of the foremost expositors of music theory in the Carolingian era.

Apart from a few sketchy indications found in his own works or in the contemporary ...

Article

Alice Lawson Aber-Count

(b Navalmoral, Toledo, ?1633–43; d Toledo, before July 21, 1713). Spanish harpist, theorist, composer and teacher. Undoubtedly the theorist Andrés Lorente (see Jambou) and the Court harpist Juan de Navas were among his teachers. Huete was the harpist at Toledo Cathedral from 13 October 1681 to 14 June 1710; however he is remembered chiefly for his Compendio numeroso de zifras armónicas, con theórica, y pràctica para arpa de una orden y arpa de dos órdenes, y de órgano (Madrid, 1702–4), which marks the climax of a golden period for the two harp types (single-rank diatonic and two-rank chromatic) predominant in Spain between 1550 and 1700. Part i of the treatise (1702), containing secular pieces, is divided into three books for the beginner, intermediate and advanced player. Part ii (1704), containing sacred pieces, also consists of three books; the first contains 26 pasacalles which demonstrate Huete’s 11-mode system; the second presents the modes in descending and ascending octaves; and the third consists of psalm settings for voice(s), harp and/or organ (the organ is secondary to the harp in the treatise). The ...

Article

Jan Kouba

(b Husinec, Bohemia, ?1371; d Konstanz, July 6, 1415). Czech reformer. He was one of the most influential preachers and teachers at Prague University at the beginning of the 15th century. He was burnt at the stake by order of the Council of Konstanz. He has been associated with a number of Latin and Czech hymns, but there is very little evidence to support his authorship; it seems that he arranged the medieval melody ‘Jesu Kriste, štědrý kněže’ (‘Jesus Christ, thou bountiful prince’) in the Jistebnice Hussite hymnbook, and he may also have arranged or translated the texts of several other hymns, but the best-known one attributed to him, ‘Jesus Christus, nostra salus’, is clearly not by him. Some Czech musicologists (e.g. Nejedlý) have described Hus as the innovator of congregational singing in church, but this practice arose in 15th-century Bohemia only after his death. Hus's aesthetic views on music and singing did not deviate from those of the medieval tradition. Thus musical history was influenced only indirectly by him: the Hussite reformation, of which he was the inspiration, constitutes the first significant chapter in the history of Protestant church music in Europe....

Article

Janna Saslaw

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 13, 1831; d Leipzig, Feb 1, 1902). German composer, theorist, teacher and conductor. He studied first in Breslau and later at the Leipzig Conservatory. He left Leipzig to study the piano with Liszt in Weimar (1849–52); there he heard Wagner's Lohengrin, which greatly impressed him. After returning to Leipzig, he studied with E.F. Richter and privately with Moritz Hauptmann. Jadassohn taught the piano in Leipzig, then conducted the synagogue choir (1865), the Psalterion choral society (1866) and the Musikverein Euterpe concerts (1867–9). In 1871 he was appointed teacher of harmony, counterpoint, composition and piano at the conservatory, and in 1893 named royal professor. His students included Busoni, George Chadwick, Delius, Grieg, Karg-Elert and Felix Weingartner.

Although successful as a performer, theorist and teacher, Jadassohn considered himself primarily a composer. He wrote works for piano, chamber ensemble, orchestra, chorus and solo voices, comprising over 140 opus numbers, but was perhaps best known for his canonic compositions: the Serenade for Orchestra op.35, two serenades for piano opp.8 and 125, the ballet music op.58 and the vocal duets opp.9, 36, 38 and 43. He also edited and arranged works by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, Wagner and others....

Article

John Warrack

(b Berlin, Jan 2, 1809; d Berlin, Aug 8, 1888). German scholar, singing teacher and composer. He studied singing with Charles Detroit and sang as a treble in the chorus of the Royal Opera, studying further with Stümer and Lemm. Deciding against a career as an opera singer, he studied theory and composition with Louis Gorzizky. In 1835 he declined a post as music director in Halberstadt in view of his growing reputation as a singing teacher in Berlin. He founded the Jähnsscher Gesangverein in 1845 and conducted it until 1870, introducing much contemporary music. He was made royal music director in 1849; later he taught declamation at Scharwenka’s conservatory. At the same time, he undertook the work by which he is now best known, the systematic collection, collation and classification of Weber’s works and the publication of a thematic catalogue, Carl Maria von Weber in seinen Werken...

Article

David Scott

(Christopher Banfield)

(b Littlehampton, Sussex, March 8, 1919; d Birmingham, July 7, 1995). English musician and educationist. He received his schooling at Christ’s Hospital where he studied the organ with C.S. Lang. In 1933 he took the ARCO and in 1934 the FRCO (he was then the youngest player to do so). After studying at the Royal College of Music (1936–8), notably with Thalben-Ball, he won an organ scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1938 and became cathedral sub-organist there. He took the BA and BMus in 1940. During World War II Keys served in the East Africa Pioneer Corps. Whilst in Nairobi, Kenya, he conducted and performed in Nairobi Musical Society concerts, and sang and played at Cathedral services and at the 1945 Festival of Sacred Music. Keys led gramophone recitals and joined in the music making at some of Nairobi’s musical evenings. At least six extant compositions date from the war years, comprising a Nocturne for violin and piano, a ballet, and four songs for soprano and piano (Leatherbarrow, ...

Article

Robert Orledge

(Louis Eugène )

(b Paris, Nov 27, 1867; d Le Canadel, Var, Dec 31, 1950). French composer, teacher and musicologist. He came from a rich industrial family; his grandfather, Jean Dollfus, well known for his philanthropic and social activities, had founded the cotton textile firm of Dollfus-Mieg & Cie in Mulhouse. From his ancestors Koechlin inherited what he called his Alsatian temperament: an energy, naivety, and an absolute and simple sincerity that lie at the heart of his music and character. His father, a textile designer, moved to Paris before Koechlin was born and intended his son to become an artillery officer; but Koechlin contracted tuberculosis while at the Ecole Polytechnique and this rendered him ineligible for a military career. During his extended convalescence in Algeria in 1889 he began to study music more seriously, and he entered the Paris Conservatoire in October 1890. Here he studied harmony with Taudou and composition with Massenet. His lifelong interest in the music of J.S. Bach was stimulated by the counterpoint classes of Gedalge, and he retained an interest in modal music and folksong from the history classes of Bourgault-Ducoudray. When Dubois replaced Thomas as director in ...

Article

L.M. Butir

revised by Lyudmila Korabel′nikova

(b Moscow, 18/Sept 30, 1862; d Moscow, Aug 29, 1933). Russian musicologist and composer . He was the son of Ėduard Konstantinovich Konyus (1827–1902), a well-known piano teacher. Georgy was first taught music by his father; he then studied the piano with Pabst, and composition with Taneyev and Arensky at the Moscow Conservatory. Subsequently he taught theory there (1891–9), leaving as a result of his quarrel with the director Safonov, and was professor of composition (1902–6) and director (1904–5) at the music and drama institute of the Moscow Philharmonic Society; he was also professor of composition (1902–19) and rector (1917–19) at the Saratov State Conservatory, a member of the music department of the National Commissariat of Culture (1919–20) and (from 1920) professor at the Moscow Conservatory, dean of the faculty of composition (until ...

Article

Vladimír Zvara

(b Čičmany, central Slovakia, Dec 20, 1913; d Bratislava, March 14, 1986). Slovak musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied composition at the conservatory in Prague with Karel and Novák and read musicology at the university under Nejedlý, Hutter and Zich. From 1944 to 1986 Kresánek taught musicology at Bratislava University (he was appointed professor in 1963), and from 1956 to 1964 he was director of the Institute of Musicology at the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

A scholar of impressive scope, his research concerns phenomenological-structural studies; the sociological interpretation of music; historical musicology; and analyses of works by Suchoň and Cikker. His compositions for the most part are influenced by Slovak folk music, a subject he approached systematically (following the example set by Bartók). Evidence of this influence is found in Kresánek's tendency towards polytonality, as in the Piano Trio (1939), for example, which juxtaposes diatonic melody and chromatic accompaniment, or elsewhere, where triadic harmony is combined with chords comprising 2nds and 4ths. Like Novák, he enjoyed capturing the lyrical or rhapsodic nature of certain folksongs. His output inclines towards cerebral yet playful miniatures, while later works possess an Apollonian sense of peace and subtlety, for example in the Piano Quintet and ...

Article

Jan Fairley

(b Ylivieska, Nov 8, 1943). Finnish composer, performer, teacher and musicologist. A student of Erik Bergman, his early compositions showed modernist inclination until a shift came in the 1970s when he began to study, teach and perform folk music. Between 1974 and 1983 he was director of the influential Folk Music Institute at Kaustinen. In 1981 he was involved in setting up an alternative music teaching project, becoming in 1983 the first head of the folk music department of the Sibelius Academy. Laitinen frequently participates in performances of his own works, from archaic rune singing of the Kalevela, the Finnish national epic, to experimental combinations involving vocal expression and sound processing equipment. He has combined improvised music with the improvised dance of Reijo Kela, and has worked with the musician Kimmo Pohjonen. In 1990 he began an association with the Suomussalmi group, 15 musicians and dancers working on the same improvising principle who have produced ...

Article

John S. Weissmann

revised by Melinda Berlász

(b Budapest, June 30, 1892; d Budapest, Feb 16, 1963). Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist and teacher.

He studied composition at the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music (1909–13) under Victor Herzfeld and the piano with Arnold Székely and Árpád Szendy. Concurrently he read law at the university, where he obtained a degree in 1918. In 1910 he became associated with the folk music movement of Bartók and Kodály and joined their collecting expeditions, which he continued independently. On his early travels he visited Leipzig (1910), Geneva (1910–11) and Paris (1911–13), where his becoming acquainted with some of the leading musicians contributed to the widening of his experience and outlook. In 1913 he joined the staff of the ethnographical department of the Hungarian National Museum. After the war, in 1919, he was appointed professor of composition and chamber music at the National Conservatory in Budapest, of which he became honorary director after World War II....

Article

Paule Druilhe

(François Marie)

(b Monaco, 1741; d Villiers-le-Bel, nr Paris, Sept 20, 1807). French composer, singing teacher and theorist. A scholarship from Prince Honoré III of Monaco paid for his musical education at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples from 1756 to 1764. After managing the theatre and the noblemen’s concerts in Genoa (1764–8), he made a career as a teacher and composer in Paris, where his first works were performed at the Concert Spirituel. Drawn by the theatre, he wrote several stage works, but only two of them were performed. Antiochus et Stratonice, a skilfully orchestrated work, shows early hints of Romanticism. The score of Corisandre demonstrates the composer’s solid technique and characteristic style: highly coloured orchestration and an alternation of action scenes with poetic reflections. Langlé was appointed professor of singing at the Ecole Royale de Chant et de Déclamation at its founding in 1784...

Article

Douglas A. Lee

(Clopton)

(b Macon, GA, Feb 3, 1842; d Lynn, NC, Sept 7, 1881). American poet, writer, flautist and composer. Descended from a family of musicians associated with the English court of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, he became proficient on many instruments as a child, later proclaiming himself self-taught in most musical matters. He graduated from Oglethorpe University in 1860, served in the Confederate Army and then spent several years in business ventures, but ultimately resolved to devote his time and energy to literary and musical pursuits.

Lanier is best known for his sensitive poetry, much of which has been set to music, but he also produced significant books and scholarly essays on music, a translation of Wagner’s Das Rheingold and a libretto for Dudley Buck’s cantata The Centennial Meditation of Columbia (1876), and lectured on music and literature at Johns Hopkins University. As a flautist he was known particularly for his facile technique and skill in sight-reading; his appointment to the Peabody Orchestra in Baltimore, as well as brief visits to New York, introduced him to the repertory and the progressive musical thought of the late 19th century. His compositions are generated more by idiomatic instrumental qualities than by a mature grasp of musical composition....

Article

Sabine Meine

(b Warsaw, Feb 17, 1913; d Paris, Aug 29, 1972). French music theorist, teacher, conductor and composer of Polish-Latvian origin. He spent his early years in Warsaw and, following a stay in Berlin, came to Paris in 1929 or 1930. It was there that he met musicians associated with Schoenberg, including Dessau, Kolisch and Erich Itor Kahn. Leibowitz’s claims of having met Schoenberg and studied with Webern in the early 1930s remain unsubstantiated: it appears that his knowledge of the their music was acquired primarily through intensive study of their scores, an activity he continued throughout the war years, which he spent fleeing the German occupying forces in Vichy France. He made personal contact with Schoenberg in 1945, and with Adorno in 1946.

Leibowitz played a crucial role in the dissemination of the music of the Second Viennese School after its wartime suppression in Nazi-occupied countries. In 1947...

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

(b Legnica, 1464; d after 1546). German humanist, theorist and composer, active in Poland. He belonged to a German family in Silesia and his true name was probably Weihrauch. In 1494 he began his studies at Kraków University, and later went to Cologne for a time before returning to Kraków in 1501. From 1506 he was probably associated with the Gymnasium of the church of St Maria, Kraków, first as a cantor and from 1514 as rector. In 1511, 1513 and 1520 Liban lectured at Kraków University. About 1530 he travelled to the abbey of St Florian, near Linz. Among his many writings are two music treatises: De accentuum ecclesiasticorum exquisita ratione and De musicae laudibus oratio (both Kraków, c1539). There are also passages on music in his De philosophiae laudibus oratio (Kraków, 1537). All three treatises are reprinted in MMP, ser.D, vi–viii (1975–6...

Article

Robert Layton

(b Ullared, Jan 7, 1842; d Stockholm, June 8, 1908). Swedish organist, teacher, composer and scholar. He attended the Swedish Royal Academy of Music from 1860 to 1865, studying composition with the elder Behrens, the piano with van Boom and the violin with Randel. From 1861 he was répétiteur of the Stockholm Opera as well as a singer with the opera chorus, and from 1876 he taught counterpoint at the conservatory; he became a music teacher at the Jacobshögskolan in 1881 and director of the choir of Stockholm Cathedral (Storkyrka) in 1884. In addition to his official duties he was increasingly active from the 1870s as a private teacher of counterpoint and composition. As a musicologist his chief interest was in church music; he edited the journal Tidning för kyrkomusik (1881–2), took part in the preparation of the music for the Swedish church handbook (1895...

Article

Walter Blankenburg

(b Schneeberg, Saxony, April 4, 1515; d Königsberg, Nov 27, 1585). German jurist and humanist. He was one of the children of a Saxon mine inspector. In 1527 he went to school and later to university in Leipzig; in 1535 he took the Master of Arts degree and remained as a teacher at the university until 1550, when he became Hofmeister (private tutor) to two noble students at Leuven University and, from 1551, at the University of Paris. On returning to Leipzig in 1556, he was appointed councillor and chancellor to the Prince of Meissen (Saxony). In 1562 he went to Bologna to study at the university, taking the degree of Doctor of Laws, and in 1563 he was called by Duke Albrecht of Prussia to the chair of law at Königsberg University, where he stayed until his retirement in 1580.

Lobwasser's great achievement was the translation of the Genevan (or Huguenot) Psalter into German, following the original verse forms exactly, in the years immediately after its completion in ...

Article

Álvaro Zaldívar

(b Anchuelo, nr Toledo, bap. April 15, 1624; d Alcalá de Henares, nr Madrid, Dec 22, 1703). Spanish theorist and composer. He was educated in Alcalá from about the age of 12, and entered the university there in 1645, taking the BA in 1650. From 1652 until his death he taught at the same university, possibly acting as assistant in the afternoons to the doctors and graduates who had given lectures in the mornings; from 1696 to 1701 he was dean of the faculty of arts. His university duties left him time to work also as senior organist at SS Justo y Pastor, an important church linked to the university in the provision of canons and prebendariesLorente was known as an expert on organs. He restored the organ of the parish church in his home town in 1664–6, returned there to make some important repairs in 1684–5nd was mentioned as a builder of the organ in the university chapel of S Ildefonso. In addition to his other activities he acted in a limited, presumably honorary capacity as Commissioner of the Holy Office in Quer, the small village near Alcalá where he lived. Probably before that, in ...

Article

Martina Bratić

(b Kuče, Croatia, March 31, 1889; d Zagreb, Croatia, March 16, 1972). Croatian composer, organist, music theorist, and educator. He finished his education in 1909 at the music school of the Croatian Music Institute in Zagreb, where he acquired compositional and theoretical knowledge in music and developed his organ playing skills; he also simultaneously finished teacher-training school. From 1918 to 1927 Lučić was a district prefect of Turopolje County, where he initiated significant cultural and educational progress. He became an organ professor and taught counterpoint at the Zagreb Music Academy (1921–61) and was appointed a dean (1944–5; 1952–61). On his initiative a private music school, called Polyhymnia, was founded in Zagreb and Lučić was named its head principal (1932–41). He occasionally played the organ at the Zagreb Cathedral. Lučić’s oeuvre comprises orchestral pieces, chamber and vocal music, sacred works, and pedagogical instrumental exercises, but his most notable contribution as a composer lies in his organ music, where he presented his mastery of the laws of counterpoint, composing many fugues, fantasias, preludes, and the like. Lučić is also considered to be one of the first Croatian composers (together with Dora Pejačević) to create larger symphonies in a modern sense (Symphony in f-minor, ...

Article

(b Yaroslav (now Jaroslaw, Poland), 24 Jan/Feb 5, 1879; d L′viv, Sept 12, 1979). Ukrainian composer, musicologist and ethnomusicologist. His first music teacher was his mother, who taught him the piano. In 1898 he entered the philology faculty of Lemberg University, graduating in 1901. During this period he studied composition privately with Soltys. He taught Ukrainian in various secondary schools in Lemberg and Peremyshl′, and then completed his military service in Vienna (1903–4). After completing his first ethnomusicological work, the two volume Halyts′ko-rus′ki narodni melodii (‘Galician-Ruthenian Folk Melodies’, published in 1906–8) he returned to Vienna to study composition and orchestration with Zemlinsky and Gredener, and musicology with G. Adler (1907–8); he later continued these studies in Munich and Leipzig with H. Riemann. After receiving a doctorate from Vienna University for a dissertation on programme music, he returned to Ukraine and in ...