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John Koegel

(b Guadalajara, Mexico, July 5, 1843; d Los Angeles, CA, June 28, 1900). American guitarist, composer, and music teacher of Mexican birth. He began his musical studies at the age of 15 in Guadalajara, where he was active in musical circles and where he also probably helped establish the Sociedad Filarmónica Jalisciense (founded 1869). Arévalo left Mexico for San Francisco in 1870, moving permanently to Los Angeles the next year. He became the preeminent guitarist in Los Angeles and Southern California, and was active there through the 1890s. Arévalo was also a teacher of guitar, voice, and piano, and a composer for the guitar. He played in many recitals, society musicales, club events, and other contexts throughout Southern California, and the Spanish- and English-language press frequently mentioned him and favorably reviewed his performances. At least two of his students achieved prominence, including guitarist Luis Toribio Romero and pianist María Pruneda. Arévalo’s guitar works are in the standard European and American salon styles of the day, though he also wrote “Latin-tinged” pieces (e.g. his guitar duet ...


Alicia Valdés Cantero

( b Havana, Oct 28, 1856; d Havana, June 30, 1930). Cuban composer, pianist and teacher . She studied first of all with her father, the pianist and composer Fernando Arizti (1828–88), and continued more formally with Francisco Fuente and Nicolás Ruiz Espadero. In 1887 a number of her piano works, including Danza, Mazurka and Reverie, were published in New York. She taught the piano privately and at Peyrellade’s Conservatorio de Música y Declamación, Havana, and gave recitals in Cuba and, in 1896, New York; she also wrote a manual of piano technique. In addition to several piano works, her compositions include violin pieces, two works for small band, and a piano trio (1893, the first chamber work to have been written by a Cuban woman); written in a traditional harmonic language, they are marked by melodic beauty and careful formal construction. Her piano writing shows the influence of Chopin. In ...


Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...


Bernarr Rainbow

(b Norwich, Aug 15, 1836; d Durham, Feb 10, 1908). English cathedral organist, teacher and composer. After training as a chorister at Norwich Cathedral (1846–8) and at Rochester Cathedral (1848–50) Armes became pupil-assistant to J.L. Hopkins at Rochester (1850–56). He was subsequently organist of Trinity Church, Gravesend (1855–7), St Andrew’s, Wells Street, London (1857–61), Chichester Cathedral (1861–2) and Durham Cathedral (1862–1907). He took the Oxford BMus in 1858 and DMus in 1864. He was resident examiner in music at the University of Durham from 1890 and became its first professor in 1897; he was examiner at Oxford from 1894. During the 1880s Armes collated and indexed the four sets of manuscript partbooks surviving at Durham. These contained the service music together with separate organ parts of a wide repertory from Tallis to Purcell, formerly used in the cathedral. He composed three oratorios, various anthems, services and other church music....


Greg A. Handel


(b West Hempstead, NY, April 26, 1956). American music educator, choral arranger, editor, and conductor. He was a member of the American Boychoir (1969–71), and received degrees from St Olaf College (BM 1978), the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (MM 1980), and Michigan State University (DMA 1987). He was on the summer faculty of the American Boychoir School and now serves on the Board of Trustees. He taught at Calvin College (1980–90) before becoming the fourth conductor of the St Olaf Choir and the Harry R. and Thora H. Tosdal Endowed Professor of Music (1990–). Armstrong is the editor for Earthsongs publications and co-editor of the St. Olaf Choir Series. He chronicled the history of the St Olaf Choir in his doctoral dissertation. He is featured on an instructional video for adolescent singers, Body, Mind, Spirit, Voice (2002...


Jennifer Spencer

revised by Robert W. Oldani

(Karlovich) [Jurig von]

(b St Petersburg, 1/Nov 13, 1811; d Karakesh, nr Simferopol′, Crimea, 8/July 20, 1898). Russian writer on music, teacher and composer. His father was a state councillor. After studying political economy at the German University of Dorpat in Estonia, he served in the army during the Polish campaign (1831–8). On resigning his commission he decided to make a career in music, studying harmony with Johann Leopold Fuchs and counterpoint with Joseph Hunke. In 1839 his cantata Svetlana, to words by Vasily Zhukovsky, was awarded a Philharmonic Society prize and subsequently performed in tableaux vivants in both St Petersburg and Moscow. He was a friend of the leading Russian musicians of his day, and his memoirs, published in three volumes in 1892–3, are a valuable record of 60 years of Russian musical life. From 1841 he contributed criticisms and reviews to a number of journals (the ...


Alan Walker



John Koegel

[y Ansola ]

(b Tolosa, Guipúzcoa, Spain, July 25, 1847; d Oakland, CA, Jan 27, 1915). Spanish-Basque composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher. Born into a family connected to the manufacture of berets, he studied solfège with the director of the Tolosa municipal band, and began piano and organ lessons with his parish organist. Arrillaga later studied at the Real Conservatorio de Música in Madrid—solfège with Hilarión Eslava (author of the famous solfège method), harmony with Rafael Hernando, and piano with Manuel Mendizábal. After receiving gold medals at the Madrid Conservatory for harmony and piano in July 1867, presented to him by Queen Isabel II, later in 1867 he began piano studies with Antoine-François Marmontel at the Paris Conservatoire. Around 1869, he traveled throughout Latin America, performing and teaching in San José, Costa Rica from 1870 to 1875. He moved to California in 1875, first to Los Angeles, and then soon thereafter permanently to San Francisco. He was noted for his work as a piano accompanist, performing with musicians such as singer Carlotta Patti and San Francisco guitarist-composer Manuel Ferrer. Arrillaga composed numerous instrumental and vocal works, including several for piano on Spanish themes (e.g., “Zortzico” and ...


(b Oporto, Oct 4, 1861; d Colares, May 18, 1930). Portuguese composer of Spanish descent. A politician and member of the Coimbra University law faculty, he practised music as an amateur. His most significant work, the drama lírico in three acts Amore e Perdizione, is based on Camilo Castelo Branco's Portuguese novel Amor de Perdição. First performed at the S Carlos, Lisbon, in 1907, it was later translated into German as Liebe und Verderben for a Hamburg performance of 1910. The second act of Arroio's second drama lírico, the four-act Leonora Telles to his own libretto, was performed posthumously in 1941 and four years later the entire opera was staged, in a Portuguese version. Dramatically, Arroio's operas are similar to the nationalist operas of his compatriots Keil and Ferreira Veiga. At a stylistic level, however, they attempt to escape from the Italian style prevalent in Portugal through an intensive use of chromaticism (particularly in ...


Mikhail Grigor′yevich Byalik

(b nr Vorkuta, Russia, Aug 3, 1944). Russian composer . He trained in Leningrad as a violinist and composer at the Special Music School attached to the Conservatory (1958–63) and then at the Conservatory itself (1963–8; postgraduate studies 1968–71) in the composition class of V. Salmanov. He has taught in both establishments. In 1974 he moved to France where he studied composition with Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire (1974–8), and at the musicology faculty of the Sorbonne (1984–5). Since 1991 he has been Professeur-animateur of the national music school at Notre Dame de Gravenchon and since 1994 he has also taught analysis at the Rouen Conservatoire.

A prolific composer, Arzumanov’s moral and religious quests are reflected in his continuous search for new styles and genres. He has studied the music of Mahler, Shostakovich and the Second Viennese School, the music of ancient civilizations, pop music, and the church canticles of the Orthodox tradition, and willingly uses their forms and devices in his works in his efforts to find a spiritual kinship with distant epochs and peoples. The piano cycle ...


Larisa Georgievna Danko

[Glebov, Igor′]

(b St Petersburg, 17/July 29, 1884; d Moscow, Jan 27, 1949). Russian musicologist, composer and critic. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory from 1904 to 1910 with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, and graduated in 1908 from the faculty of history and philology of the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 he worked as a repetiteur; from 1916 edited and composed ballet music and from 1919 was a member of the board of directors and repertory consultant at the Mariinsky and Mikhaylovsky Theatres. In 1919 he became head of the Central Library for State Musical Theatres. In the same year, in association with Lyapunov and Bulich, he organized the music department at the Petrograd Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts); he was its director from 1921. Between 1922 and 1925 he was responsible for the organization there of concerts of contemporary music. He was made a professor at the Leningrad Conservatory in ...


Amanda M. Burt

revised by Thorkell Sigurbjörnsson

(b Ísafjörður, Oct 11, 1928). Icelandic composer, teacher and critic. He graduated in 1955 from the Reykjavík College of Music, where he studied the piano with Árni Kristjánsson and theory with Victor Urbancic. Further composition studies were undertaken at the RSAMD in Glasgow (1955–6) and at the Guildhall School of Music in London (1965). In 1961 he received a teacher's diploma from the Reykjavík College of Music. Ásgeirsson has conducted various choirs, and became the principal music critic of Morgunblaðið in 1970. Formerly president of the Icelandic Composers' Society, he has taught at various institutions and is currently professor at the Icelandic Teachers' College.

His works are mainly traditional in style though he has written a few serial compositions. He is particularly interested in reviving Icelandic folksongs and dances and has set related folk poetry found without music; he has also served as music director for productions of the ancient dances by the National Dance Company. In ...


Katherine K. Preston

revised by Barry Schrader


(b New York, May 13, 1933). American composer, jazz researcher and teacher. He studied composition with E.B. Hill and Richard Hoffmann at Oberlin College (BA 1958, BM 1958) and with Sessions, Earl Kim and Babbitt at Princeton University (MFA 1960, PhD 1971). He began his teaching career at Princeton (1961) and held positions at Oberlin (1961–5) and several other schools before joining the faculty of UCLA in 1967. In 1969 he became coordinator of the UCLA electronic music studio and in 1980 he was made a full professor. Since 1952 he has been active as a producer of New Orleans jazz recordings. His writings include contributions to Perspectives of New Music (on Schoenberg), The Music Review (on Beethoven) and The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. Ashforth has received particular notice for his electronic works. Byzantia: Two Journeys after Yeats (1971–3) is panoramic in dramatic effect, with mosaic-like juxtapositions of electronic, acoustic (voice, traditional instruments) and natural (flowing water, bird calls) sounds....


Lewis Foreman

(Bennet Langton)

(b Durham, Dec 9, 1859; d London, April 10, 1937). English composer and teacher. He spent his childhood in Leipzig. Ashton studied music under Franz Heinig and Iwan Knorr, and subsequently at the Leipzig Conservatory, with Jadassohn, Richter and Reinecke (theory and composition) and with Papperitz and Coccius (piano). In 1879, having won the Helbig composition prize, he briefly returned to England. He became a pupil of Raff. In 1885 he was appointed to teach the piano at the RCM, where he remained for 25 years.

Ashton’s compositions cover most conventional forms except for opera, but he was best known for his piano and chamber works; they include a series of 24 string quartets (now lost) in all the major and minor keys. His published music exceeds 160 works. In 1898 Hofbauer issued a catalogue of the first 100 opus numbers (published by a variety of German and British publishers); they include works for solo piano, piano trio, piano quartet and quintet, short choral works and songs. Ashton’s orchestral music, which includes five symphonies, overtures, an orchestral suite, a Turkish March, and violin and piano concertos, made no impression. They are believed to have been lost in World War II....


James Chute


(b Seattle, June 27, 1953). American composer and conductor. He studied composition with Stephen Albert, Ronald Perera and Randall McClellan at Hampshire College (BA 1975). His teachers at Yale University (MM 1977) included Druckman and MacCombie (composition), and Arthur Weisberg (conducting). He also studied composition with Schuller at the Berkshire Music Center (1979) and with Yun at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1980). He served on the faculty of the Oberlin Conservatory from 1980 to 1986. A UK Fulbright Arts Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship (1987–8) enabled him to work in London from 1986 to 1988, where he was a visiting lecturer at City University. He joined the faculty of the University of Arizona in 1988. He has conducted the university-based Arizona Contemporary Ensemble, founded and co-directed the New York contemporary music ensemble Musical Elements (1977–) and served as composer-in-residence for the Phoenix SO (...


Michael B. Bakan

[Gedé ]

(b Kaliungu Kaja, Denpasar, 1955). Balinese composer, performer, teacher and musicologist. Born into a musical family, he is the brother of I Komang Astita and the cousin of Wayan Sadra and I Wayan Yudana, all well-known composers. He has taught composition and gamelan performance at the Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia and Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia in Bali since 1981. He is a graduate of these same institutions (1974 and 1980 respectively) and also holds a graduate degree (SSKar) from the Institut Seni Indonesia in Yogyakarta, as well as an MA in ethnomusicology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he wrote his thesis on Balinese gambuh drumming under the direction of Mantle Hood (1991). He directed the Balinese gamelan programme at the University of Maryland while a student there (1988–91), and since that time has taught gamelan at the University of Montreal (...


Michael Nicholas


(b Birmingham, Oct 5, 1938). English composer and teacher. He studied at the Birmingham School of Music, at the University of York as a postgraduate, and privately with Mellers for composition. He was appointed lecturer in music at York in 1964 and became professor of music at the University of East Anglia in 1974. While pursuing his academic career he has directed the Tudor Consort (which he founded), the English Baroque Ensemble, the York University Choir and Chamber Choir, and the Aldeburgh Festival Singers (1975–88). He has appeared as a guest conductor at several choral festivals in the USA and Italy.

Aston's compositional output is dominated by his church music. However, it was with Five Songs of Crazy Jane (1960) that he first attracted attention. During the following decade he set secular texts for chorus and composed a children's opera, Sacrapant the Sorcerer (...


Angelina Petrova

(b Pazardzhik, Bulgaria, Oct 27, 1952). Bulgarian composer, pianist, harpsichord player, and pedagogue. He graduated in piano (under Prof. Sturshenov) in 1977 and in composition under Prof. Hadzhiev. He continued with postgraduate studies under Yvonne Lefébure, Zuzana Růžičková (1983), and Milan Schlechta (1977). He is a prize winner from the A. Casagrande International Piano Competition in Terni, Italy (1976), and holder of the third prize in the piano duo category (1980). He is a keen performer of 17th- and 18th-century music as well as of 20th-century works.

He is a professor of composition (2000) and has also served as Dean of the Faculty of Instrumental Music at the National Music Academy in Sofia (1993–9). He is a composer with an individual style in the sphere of tonal and modal experimentation that combines folklore and features of the contemporary instrumental score. His Piano Concerto no.2 was awarded a prize at the New Music Festival in St Petersburg (...


Patricia Brown


(b Liverpool, Feb 17, 1950). Australian performer and composer, of English birth. After studying English at the University of New South Wales (1969–77) he worked as a solo and ensemble player on a wide range of medieval, Renaissance and Baroque string, wind and percussion instruments; he also specialized in folk instruments from a variety of countries. This instrumental ability led him to work with cross-cultural groups such as Sirocco, Southern Crossings (a world music quartet founded by Atherton in 1986), and Ariel (a quartet founded in 1995 to explore new music for shakuhachi, didjeridu, percussion and electronics); he has toured and lectured widely with these groups in Australia and abroad. He has also worked as a music therapist, and was curator of instruments at the Australian Museum in Sydney (1993 and 1998). In 1993 he was appointed foundation professor of music at the University of Western Sydney, Nepean. His interests include urban ethnomusicology, organology and Korean music. His work as a composer, arranger and improviser includes film scores, and choral and chamber works....



Roger J.V. Cotte

[Atis; first name unknown]

(b St Domingue [now Haiti], April 18, 1715; d Paris, Aug 8, 1784). French creole flautist, composer and teacher. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts. His compositions, all published in Paris, are primarily intended for amateur flautists: they include duos ‘en forme de conversation’ op.1 (...