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Shaena B. Weitz

(b Paris, 21 Dec, 1788; d London, 1849). French pianist, teacher and composer. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in June 1797 and studied with Catel (harmony and counterpoint) and Louis Adam (piano). He received a premier prix for both harmony and piano in 1805. With the exception of his opéra comique Le bouquet, all of his works were written for the piano. They include five sonatas, transcriptions of opera airs, and numerous chansons and character pieces, all published in Paris. Chaulieu was known especially for his didactic works, in particular L'indispensable op.100 (1830) and 63 études spéciales op.130 (1832). L'indispensable is a comprehensive manual of exercises for young pianists which was so successful that a revised version was published five years later. The études touch upon the fundamental difficulties encountered in pianistic writing: trills, repeated notes, scales, arpeggios, 3rds and 6ths, chords and octaves. They are arranged in order of increasing technical difficulty and are designed to bridge the gap between the exercises in the style of Cramer and Clementi and the virtuostic études of Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, Herz and Bertini. Chaulieu's series of ...


Sam Di Bonaventura

(b London, Sept 25, 1898; d Baltimore, July 19, 1981). American composer, violinist and writer on music. He came to the USA as a child and acquired citizenship through his father’s naturalization. He graduated from the Peabody Conservatory in the violin (1917), harmony (1919) and composition (1921) and was appointed to the theory and composition faculty in 1922, having been a violin instructor in the school’s preparatory department for six years; he remained there until his retirement in 1976. In 1964 he was awarded the DMus by the Peabody Institute. For 21 years (1916–37) he was a violinist in the Baltimore SO, serving for five years as assistant concertmaster and conducting his own works on a number of occasions. He participated in H.L. Mencken’s Saturday Night Club from 1928 to 1950.

Cheslock’s compositions have been widely performed. Neo-romantic in style, they contain a rich and varied harmonic language, expansive melodic lines and distinctive rhythms and meters. Although he preferred traditional forms and procedures, from the 1940s Cheslock’s works incorporated jazz elements, whole-tone and polytonal sonorities and aleatory and dodecaphonic techniques. He wrote an ...


Romeo Ghircoiaşiu

(b Roman, 1866; d Bucharest, Dec 29, 1918). Romanian composer, pianist, teacher and conductor. After studying at the Leipzig Conservatory with Jadassohn (1886–91) and in Lwów with Karol Mikuli, he became conductor at the Rostock Opera and in Goslar. He also taught in these cities and at the conservatories of Bucharest and Brunswick, where he became director. He made some appearances in Germany as a pianist. His compositions (some manuscripts of which are in ...


J.M. Thomson

(b Vienna, Feb 27, 1928). Austrian recorder player, conductor, teacher, and composer. He studied the recorder with Hans Ulrich Staeps, Johannes Collette and Linda Höffer von Winterfeld, and keyboard instruments with Eta Harich-Schneider. He took his doctorate in philosophy at Vienna University in 1956. He cultivates a lyrical style of playing and is much attracted by improvisatory techniques in both early and contemporary music. His instrument collection includes a tenor trombone by Georg Neuschel of Nuremberg (1557), one of the oldest surviving specimens.

In 1958 he founded Musica Antiqua, known as the Ensemble Musica Antiqua from 1959. This group performed music of the Middle Ages to the Baroque on authentic instruments. In 1968 Clemencic founded a group known, from 1969, as the Clemencic Consort, an ensemble for the performance of medieval, Renaissance, Baroque and avant-garde music. Based in Vienna, it is notable for its exploration and staging of little-known 17th-century operas (such as Antonio Draghi’s ...


Leon Plantinga

revised by Luca Lévi Sala

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and virtuoso, teacher, music publisher, entrepreneur, and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

The oldest of seven children of Nicola Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena (née Kaiser), Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90), and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...


Guy Warrack

(b Lowmoor, nr Bradford, May 2, 1857; d London, Nov 19, 1931). English pianist, organist, composer and teacher. Cliffe’s musical gifts were evident early in life: he was an accomplished pianist at the age of six and a church organist when he was 11; at 16 he was organist to the Bradford Festival Choral Society. In 1883, after studying at the National Training School of Music, he joined the piano teaching staff of the RCM, where his pupils included John Ireland and Arthur Benjamin. Three of Benjamin’s operas were settings of librettos by Cliffe’s son Cedric (1902–69). Frederic Cliffe also taught at the RAM and travelled extensively as a solo pianist, accompanist and examiner. He was organist to the 1886 Leeds Festival when Sullivan’s Golden Legend was produced and Bach’s B minor Mass was first performed in Leeds, Cliffe having arranged the organ part. In London he was organist to the Bach Choir (...


Dave Gelly

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b South Bend, IN, Nov 28, 1932). Tenor saxophonist, composer, and teacher . He joined Woody Herman’s orchestra in late 1953, interrupting his music studies at Indiana University, and toured with the group until summer 1954; his solo on I Love Paris (1953, Mars 1002) attracted considerable critical acclaim. He recorded in Paris for the Vogue label (1954) and in San Francisco as a leader and with Mel Lewis (both 1956), then worked as a freelance on the West Coast, playing for a brief period with Stan Kenton. His work with college bands led to his becoming a prominent teacher of jazz, and in 1960 he was appointed to the first of several university posts. Coker has written a number of books about jazz and is one of the most highly regarded writers within the field of jazz education; he has also composed for student bands. In the mid-1980s he recorded two new albums as a leader, ...


Franya Berkman

[Sangitananda, Turiya]

(b Detroit, MI, Aug 27, 1937; d Los Angeles, CA, Jan 12, 2007). American jazz pianist, organist, harpist, composer, and spiritual teacher, wife of john Coltrane and mother of Ravi Coltrane. Raised in a musical family in Detroit, she studied piano between the ages of seven and ten, then percussion at North Eastern High School. A keyboard protégée, she played for gospel choirs during her teen years and attended bebop jam sessions with her half-brother, a bass player, Ernest Farrow (1928–69). Early piano mentors include Barry Harris and Terry Pollard.

From 1956 to 1960, she played organ with the Premieres in Detroit and accompanied the saxophonists Yusef Lateef and Sonny Stitt. In 1960, she married the singer Kenneth “Pancho” Hagood and moved to Paris, where she befriended Bud Powell and gave birth to a daughter, Michelle. After returning to New York, she played with Johnny Griffin and Lucky Thompson. Between ...


Marcello Piras

(b Westfield, MA, June 17, 1837; d New York, NY, Sept 5, 1903). American banjoist, composer, and teacher. Born into a musical family, which relocated to Elmira, New York, soon after his birth, he began studying piano at six and was a proficient performer at 12. When he was 14 he heard a banjo “in the hands of a colored man” (George Swayne Buckley) who was playing with thumb and first finger; in 1901 he notated those two tunes from memory thus producing what is possibly the oldest known document of African American banjo music. Despite family opposition, Converse devised a pioneering academic technique for the five-string instrument, both absorbing the “stroke” approach, inherited from slaves, and adapting the fingerpicking method of classical guitar. By 1853 he had started concertizing, touring with minstrel companies, and teaching. He edited Thomas Briggs’s Banjo Instructor (Boston, 1855) and may have had a hand in Phil Rice’s ...


André Barbera

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Norfolk, VA, July 17, 1926; d New York, May 18, 1984). American trumpeter, flugelhorn player, composer, and teacher, father of Keith Copeland. He studied classical trumpet and in his teens played with groups in Brooklyn. After working in New York with Cecil Scott at the Savoy Ballroom (1945) and Chris Columbus at Small’s Paradise (1946) he toured with Mercer Ellington (1947–8) and the Savoy Sultans (i) and recorded with Lucky Thompson (1949). During the early 1950s he worked only part-time as a trumpeter, for Andy Kirk, Lucky Millinder, Sy Oliver, and others. He was featured in the film Kiss her Goodbye (1959), and played bop and swing with Lionel Hampton (recording in August 1956), Oscar Pettiford’s orchestra (at Birdland in 1957), Specs Powell’s orchestra (recording in 1957), Randy Weston (1957–8), and Gigi Gryce and Johnny Richards (both ...


Christopher D.S. Field


(b c?1570–80; d ?London, cJune 1626). English composer, viol player and teacher. Playford referred to him as ‘Mr John Coperario aliàs Cooper’, John Aubrey as ‘Jo. Coperario, whose reall name I have been told was Cowper’, and Roger North as ‘Coperario, who by the way was plain Cooper but affected an Itallian termination’. He himself spelt his name ‘John Coprario’. In a document dated 1617 he is described as ‘John Coperario, gentleman’. Dart (ML, 1961) conjectured that he may have been the John Cowper who became a chorister of Chichester Cathedral in 1575 but this seems improbable. He had already adopted his pseudonym by February 1601, when William Petre made a gift of 10 shillings to ‘Coprario for Lessons hee broughte mee while in London’ ( US-Ws 1772.1; copy in Essex Record Office). Anthony Wood’s notes seem to contain the earliest suggestion that the italianization of his name was a result of a sojourn in Italy, describing him as ‘an English man borne, who having spent much of his time in Italy was there called Coprario, which name he kept when he returned into England’. Such an Italian visit is far from being out of the question, though evidence remains elusive. He was however on the Continent during ...


Donald Thompson

(b New York, Aug 9, 1946). Puerto Rican guitarist and composer. He was brought up from infancy in Puerto Rico; he studied guitar and theory at the Madrid Conservatory (1967–70), the Accademia di S Cecilia in Rome and the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena (1973–4). As a guitarist he has made many recital appearances in Puerto Rico, Europe and the USA, performing Spanish and Latin American music as well as his own works, receiving high recognition and several awards. Since 1971 he has been a member of the faculty of the University of Puerto Rico, teaching both guitar and composition. Cordero composes primarily for guitar. His style is characterized by neo-classical adherence to traditional harmony and forms, with occasional dissonance related to certain aspects of guitar tuning and technique. His music occasionally incorporates rhythmic and melodic elements reminiscent of Puerto Rican folk music.

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Anna Pennington

(b 21 April, 1928, Cleveland, OH). American oboist, teacher, organist, and composer. John Corina earned degrees in music education (BS) and music history (MM) from Western Reserve University. At Florida State University, where he studied with John Boda, he earned a doctorate in composition. In 1966 Corina joined the faculty of the University of Georgia School of Music, where he taught oboe and was a member of the Georgia Woodwind Quintet. He was named professor emeritus upon his retirement. His involvement in church music as organist and choirmaster spanned approximately 50 years. For a time Corina also conducted the Athens Choral Society. He has written many works for the oboe including a ...


Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b Manila, May 15, 1909; d Manila, August 11, 1991). Filipino composer, conductor and pianist. In 1930 he graduated from the Conservatory of the University of the Philippines with teacher’s diplomas in piano and in theory and composition; he then studied at the Chicago Musical College (BMus 1932, MMus 1933) and the Neotarian College of Philosophy, Kansas City (PhD 1947). He taught at the University of the Philippines Conservatory (1930–34) and was director and professor at the Manila (1934–9, 1949–52) and Cosmopolitan College (1948–9) conservatories. During World War II he appeared as a pianist and conductor in the USA, Canada, Europe and Hawaii. He was a state cultural adviser (1958–60) and founder-president of the National Federation of Music. He lectured in humanities at the University of the City of Manila (1968–75), and after 1978 worked mainly in the USA, appearing as a composer-conductor at the Seattle Opera House....


David Nicholls and Joel Sachs

(Dixon )

(b Menlo Park, CA, March 11, 1897; d Shady, NY, Dec 10, 1965). American composer, writer, pianist, publisher, and teacher. Described by Cage as “the open sesame for new music in America,” he was an early advocate for many of the main developments in 20th-century music, including the systematization of modernist techniques, the exploration of timbral resources, and transculturalism.

Many facets of Cowell’s remarkable personality resulted from the unusual circumstances of his upbringing. His father, Harry, had immigrated to British Columbia with his brother after their own father, the Dean of Kildare’s Anglican Cathedral, bought them some land. Finding no satisfaction in farming life, Harry moved to San Francisco in search of a literary career. Henry’s mother Clara (usually called Clarissa) Dixon, a gifted writer, was the daughter of a fundamentalist Midwestern farming family. She had left the church and their community, married, and produced a son called Clarence. After he ran away from home as a teenager, Clarissa fled her stifling small-town life for San Francisco. In the Bay area, she met Harry, with whom she founded a philosophical-anarchist newsletter. As dedicated anarchists, they rejected the heavy hand of government, including what they saw as the homogenizing power of conventional public schooling. They built a little cottage on the still-rural edge of Menlo Park, where Stanford University was being constructed. Henry Cowell was born there, and Menlo Park remained his principal base until ...


Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Lwów, 1837; d Lwów, Feb 13, 1893). Polish composer, teacher and pianist. He received his musical education in Vienna, where he studied composition with Fischhof, Sechter, Hellmesberger the elder and Nottebohm. He studied the piano with Mikuli in Lwów, with Liszt in Weimar and with Jaëll in Paris. From 1857 he appeared as a pianist in Germany, Switzerland and the south of Poland, without much success. He then settled in Lwów and devoted himself to composing and teaching, eventually establishing a school of music; he also became conductor of a choral society. Czerwiński’s compositions include a symphony, a piano concerto, a cello sonata, songs without words, nocturnes, mazurkas and polonaises for piano, an opera, an operetta, a cantata and numerous songs. During his life, only his piano music achieved much popularity, mainly in Vienna, where some of it was published. His song Marsz sokołów (‘March of the Falcons’) was also widely known in Poland. The remaining works, technically defective and rarely performed even in his lifetime, are now completely forgotten....


Kurt Stone

revised by Gary L. Maas

(b Hamburg, June 9, 1912; d Frutigen, nr Berne, Aug 6, 1970). American composer, conductor and pianist of Swedish-German parentage. He began his formal musical education at the Cologne Hochschule für Musik, then fled the Nazi regime to continue his studies in Switzerland at the Zürich Conservatory and the University of Zürich. Later he studied composition with Boulanger in California. Dahl’s professional career began with coaching and conducting at the Zürich Stadttheater. In 1938 he left Europe for the USA and settled in Los Angeles. From then on the range of his musical activities and involvements was immense, including work for radio and film studios, composing, conducting, giving piano recitals and lecturing. He joined the faculty of the University of Southern California in 1945 and taught there until his death. Among his better-known former students is the conductor Michael Tilson Thomas.

In addition to teaching composition, conducting and music history, Dahl directed the university’s symphony orchestra (...


(b London, June 29, 1895; d Woking, March 3, 1984). English musicologist, composer and pianist. Her music studies were pursued privately with York Bowen and Fanny Davies for piano and with Benjamin Dale (whom she later married) for composition. Active as a pianist in the early part of her career, she broadcast frequently during the period 1927–31. From 1926 to 1928 she studied Swedish language and literature at University College, London, and later published translations from that and other languages (e.g. Redlich's Claudio Monteverdi and Reifling's Piano Pedalling). She taught theoretical subjects at the Matthay School (1925–31) and taught and lectured for the Workers' Educational Association (1945–50, 1957). She served on the council of the Society of Women Musicians (1920–25, 1946–9) and acted as Ethel Smyth's musical executor in 1944. Kathleen Dale's work was mainly in the field of keyboard music, though she also wrote a biography of Brahms and personal reminiscences of Ethel Smyth and Marion Scott. She edited Schubert's E minor Piano Sonata ...


Guy Bourligueux

[Salvador-Daniel, Don]

(b Hostalrich, Gerona, April 1, 1787; d ?Paris, c1850). Spanish pianist, organist, teacher, writer on music and composer. A captain in the forces of the liberal party (not the Carlist, as has been thought), he fled Spain and took refuge in France after the absolutist reaction of 1823. He settled in Bourges and, making use of the musical knowledge he had acquired while training for the priesthood, became a piano teacher, organist of the cathedral of St Etienne and a teacher of solfège and harmony at the town's Collège Royal and Ecole Normale. He was still in Bourges in 1847, but apparently settled later in Paris. An excellent violinist and pianist, he also made a serious study of music theory. He supported the Galin-Paris-Chevé method, a simplified method of teaching music which gained popularity and created controversy in Paris in the mid-19th century, and put forward a new application of it in his writings. He composed a mass for three voices, which was published in the second volume of ...