81-100 of 122 results  for:

  • 15th c./Early Renaissance (1400-1500) x
Clear all

Article

Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller and Jeffrey Dean

[Václav]

(b Neuhaus [now Jindřichův Hradec], c1480; d after 1532). Bohemian theorist. His textbook Musicorum libri quatuor, compendiose carmine elucubrati (Vienna, 1512) arose out of his studies and lecturing at the University of Vienna in the years immediately preceding its publication. The whole of music theory is set forth in elegant Latin hexameters, showing a humanistic influence that is also demonstrated by the dedicatory verses, for instance the one by Joachim Vadian. The mnemonic value of writing in verse had been invoked by Guido of Arezzo, but was almost unique in the Renaissance. The structure of the book was also original: the first two sections are on the conventional cantus planus and cantus figuratus (pitch and rhythm respectively), but before turning to counterpoint and composition in the last section Philomathes inserted a section on ‘direction’ (regimen) and voice-production. The textbook had a wide resonance. It was reprinted not only in Vienna in ...

Article

[da Ferrara]

(b Piacenza, c1400; d ?Ferrara, c1476). Italian dancing-master, dance theorist and composer. He taught dancing to Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro and to Antonio Cornazano, who referred to him as ‘mio solo maestro e compatriota’ in his Libro dell’ arte del danzare. As far as is known, Domenico spent the years of his youth and early maturity in Piacenza. His first contact with his future patron, the Marchese Leonello d’Este, appears to have been made on the occasion of the prince’s wedding to Margherita Gonzaga, in Ferrara in 1435, which Domenico is said to have attended. He is then cited in the registers of the mandati of the Este court in 1439, 1441, 1445, 1447 and 1450 as ‘spectabilis miles’ and ‘familiaris noster’; Guglielmo Ebreo and Antonio Cornazano refer to him as ‘dignissimo cavaliere’ and ‘cavagliero aurato’, probably in acknowledgment of his having been made Knight of the Golden Spur. After a five-year interval, centred mainly on the Sforza court in Milan, Domenico returned to Ferrara; in ...

Article

Frank A. D’Accone

(b Florence, Oct 12, 1490; d Rome, Jan 23, 1548). Italian composer, singer and classical scholar. He may have acquired the name ‘Pisano’ as a result of having spent some time in Pisa. Trained at the cathedral school in Florence, he also sang in the chapel of the church of the SS Annunziata as a student. In 1511, after being ordained a priest, he was appointed master of the choristers at the cathedral school and a singer in the chapels at the cathedral and the baptistry. He became master of the cathedral chapel less than a year later. Evidently he obtained the post through the good offices of Cardinal Giovanni de’ Medici, whose family had recently been restored to power in Florence.

Shortly after the cardinal’s election to the papacy as Leo X, Pisano went to Rome, where on 20 August 1514 he was appointed a singer in the papal chapel – a position he retained until his death. Leo also gave him several ecclesiastical benefices, among them canonries in the cathedrals of Segovia and Lerida and a chaplaincy in the Medici family church of S Lorenzo in Florence. From ...

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

( b ?Płock; fl 1st half of the 16th century). Polish music theorist . He was educated at the monastery of St Mikołaj, Danzig [now Gdańsk], and was probably taught music by the organist Stanisław Krawczyk. In 1514 he entered a Dominican monastery in Kraków, becoming cantor there in 1517. He was probably associated with the Dominican theatre, which in 1518 staged the mystery play Ścięcie Św. Jana Chrzciciela (‘The beheading of St John the Baptist’), containing an important song, Pieśń Herodiady pląsającej (‘The song of Herodias dancing’). He also preached, and he took part in preparing evidence for the beatification of Jacek Odrowąż.

Marek’s only extant work is his treatise Hortulus musices, written in 1518 (the extant manuscript of it, found in the Franciscan monastery at Wschowa, is probably a copy made in Silesia). The treatise is entirely about Gregorian chant, and is preceded by a lengthy introduction in which the author discussed the place of music in the system of ...

Article

Pyrros Bamichas

[Joseph of Methone]

(b Crete, ?1429; d Methone, Aug 9, 1500). Composer of Byzantine chant, theologian, music theorist, domestikos, diplomat, calligrapher, and scribe. His last name indicates his birthplace was Prousia (or Plousia), a village near Chandakas. His father George was probably his first music teacher. During his youth Plousiadenos lived in Constantinople until sometime before its fall in 1453 where he must have been a student at the city’s famous University (Mega Didaskaleion). Upon his return to Crete he probably met Manuel Chrēsaphēs and became his student. He also spent over two decades in Italy, mostly in Venice (1472–c. 1492, 1497–8). In 1455 he joined the priesthood. During the years 1482 to 1486 he appears to have been abbot at the convent of St Dēmētrius in Chandakas and in 1492 he was ordained bishop of Methone, taking the name Joseph. He was one of the many casualties after the capture of Methone by the Turks....

Article

F.J. León Tello

[Despuig, Guillermo ]

( fl late 15th century). Spanish priest and music theorist . Born possibly in Valencia or Tortosa, he is usually identified with the Guillermo de Puig who was curate of S Catalina, Alzira, from 1479 to 1488. A Guillermo Molins de Podio held a benefice at Barcelona Cathedral, and was a chaplain to John II of Aragon in 1474. The relationship between these two clergymen has not been established. The theorist wrote Ars musicorum (Valencia, 1495/R; ed. A. Seay, Colorado Springs, 1978) and In enchiridion de principiis musicae (MS, I-Bc ; ed. Anglès); the latter, apparently intended for Spanish students at Bologna, may be evidence that Podio visited that city. The first treatise comprises eight books and sets out to be exhaustive; an expanded treatment of part of it appears anonymously in In enchiridion. Podio’s musical aesthetic was based on the ideas expounded by Boethius; thus, he regarded music as a mathematical and physical science, integrated into the Quadrivium according to the Pythagorean system. He classified musicians as theoretical or practising exponents, the former, as was customary, being regarded as superior. On several important points he opposed Ramis de Pareia's innovations, particularly in his discussion of the sizes of intervals, where he adhered to Pythagorean arithmetic. In the same way, he retained and discussed the use of Guidonian solmization, rather than adopt Ramis’s syllabic notation. Podio attributed the growth of Roman chant and its relationship to polyphony to Pope Vitalian. ...

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

( fl ?15th century). Polish theorist . He studied in Paris and was the author of Tractatus musicalis ad cantum gregorialem brevis et utilis ( A-Gu 873), a concise introduction to the art of singing. Reference to his nationality and studies in Paris is found in a colophon to the treatise. Attempts to identify him with the composer Mikołaj Radomski remain unsubstantiated....

Article

Margaret Bent

[LionelLyonelLeonellusLeonellePolbero]

(d Canterbury, 5 June 1445). English composer and theorist. He shared with Dunstaple the leadership of English style in the influential decades between 1410 and 1440. Somewhat overshadowed in reputation by his probably younger contemporary, Leonel (as the sources usually name him) shows a similarly high level of musical craftsmanship and originality in an output only slightly smaller.

The first dated reference to Power (see Bowers, 1975) records him as instructor of the choristers and second in the list of clerks of the household chapel of Thomas, Duke of Clarence (d 1421), brother of Henry V and heir apparent. The next records his admission to the fraternity of Christ Church, Canterbury, on 14 May 1423. This fraternity included distinguished lay friends of the priory as well as regulars and other ecclesiastics. The suggestion (in MGG1) that Power may have been master of the choir that was maintained to sing services outside the monastic liturgy in the nave or Lady Chapel has been confirmed by the discovery of his name in this context between ...

Article

F.J. León Tello

[Didacus a Portu ]

( fl early 16th century). Spanish theorist . He studied in Salamanca, where he became cantor at the Colegio Mayor de S Bartolomé and curate at the church of Laredo. He wrote Portus musice (Salamanca, 1504/R; ed. Rey Marcos), published in Latin with marginal annotations in Spanish. The last pages, including details on the tuning of the vihuela, are also in Spanish, and the treatise is probably the first Spanish publication to contain polyphonic music. Del Puerto was more concerned with practical than theoretical aspects of music and his definitions are concise with few digressions. He presented a personal interpretation of the theory of the three genera, which he called diatonic, chromatic and compound. He criticized Guidonian hexachordal theory because of its inadequacies as a training system, but offered nothing better in its place, merely remarking that the use of letter-names was to be preferred; in this respect he was closer to Ramos than many Spanish theorists. He expounded mensural notation effectively, and his treatise is particularly noteworthy for its explanation, often in markedly aesthetic terms, of techniques of composing in three and four parts....

Article

Joseph S.C. Lam

(b 1378; d 1448). Chinese musician and theorist . Born the 17th son of Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Quan was a prince of many talents and interests. In Chinese music history he is remembered as the author of two most important documents, the Shenqi mipu (Wondrous and secret notation, preface 1425), and the Taihe zhengyin pu (Song register of great harmony and accurate tones, preface 1398). Two music dramas by Zhu have also been preserved.

The Shenqi mipu is the earliest known extant anthology of qin music. In addition to the notated music of 64 qin compositions from the Song, Yuan, Ming and earlier dynasties, the preface describes how Zhu Quan spent 12 years compiling the document, collecting ancient scores, selecting music from a repertory of over 1000 pieces, and writing informative programme notes about individual works. Zhu himself is thought to be the composer of ...

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

[Eijcken, Simon van; Eyken, Simon van]

(b ?Brabant; fl early 16th century). Netherlandish music theorist. He was a singer in the chapel of the Duke of Milan, and in 1508 went as tutor to the imperial court in Vienna with Duke Lodovico Sforza's two sons. Quercu wrote a treatise on music, Opusculum musices (Vienna, 1509); several copies of each of the four editions survive. It was probably used in the musical education of the duke's sons. The first part, ‘Musica plana’, deals with the modes, intervals, note names, solmization and solmization syllables, and mutation. The second part, ‘Musica mensuralis’, deals with note lengths, rests, ligatures, mensuration signs, alteration, imperfection and mensural proportions. The third part, ‘Contrapunctus’, considers consonances, dissonances and polyphonic writing. His teaching is illustrated with many music examples, though no authorities are named. Quercu also published a book of prayers and monodic liturgical songs of the Paduan rite, Vigiliae cum vesperis et exequiis mortuorum annexis canticis...

Article

[BartolomeoRamos de Pareja, Bartolomé]

(b Baeza, Andalucía, c1440; d ?Rome, after 1490). Spanish theorist and composer active in Italy. His life is undocumented; all that is known about him comes from his own testimony or that of later writers. His first teacher was one Johannes de Monte. He claimed to have lectured at the University of Salamanca for a time, though his position (as later in Bologna) may have been unofficial. While there he wrote a treatise in Spanish (perhaps the one he elsewhere referred to as Introductorium seu Isagogicon) and a mass, both now lost. He went to Italy in the 1470s; his extended residence in Bologna is the best-recorded period of his life. There he lectured publicly on music (though not under the auspices of the university) and had private pupils, including Giovanni Spataro. His important Musica practica (ed. J. Wolf, Leipzig, 1901/R; ed. C. Terni, Madrid, ...

Article

Gordon A. Anderson

revised by Bonnie J. Blackburn

(fl mid-15th century). Theorist. A Carmelite, he is known only by a brief treatise on proportions, copied into the Faenza Codex ( I-FZc 117) by Johannes Bonadies at the Carmelite convent in Reggio nell' Emilia on 14 September 1474. His treatise is one of the earliest to apply the theory of proportions to mensural music, which he illustrated with two-part examples....

Article

T. Herman Keahey

[Reischius, Georgium]

(b Balingen, nr Tübingen, c1465–70; d Freiburg, May 9, 1525). German scholar and music theorist. He studied at Freiburg University, becoming magister in 1489, and at Ingolstadt University, and then entered the Carthusian order. He was prior of the monasteries of Klein-Basel (1500–02) and Freiburg (1503–25). He was in close contact with the best humanists of his time, was one of Johannes Eck's teachers, and was considered one of Germany's most learned men; Erasmus referred to him as an ‘oracle’ among the Germans.

Reisch's Margarita philosophica (Freiburg, 1503) was an enormously popular Latin dialogue textbook and was frequently reissued; its last edition appeared in 1600. (It is unlikely that there was an edition produced at Heidelberg in 1496; contrary to MGG1, the textbook is not the same as S. Hawes's The Passetime of Pleasure, London, 1509.) The fifth book is divided into two parts, concerning the ‘principles’ and ‘practice’ of music, and cites such authorities as Pythagoras, Plato, Augustine, Boethius and al-Fārābī. On the whole it is a typical Renaissance didactic treatise, dealing with definitions and origins of music, divisions into ...

Article

Don Harrán

(ben Isaac )

(b Rieti, 1388; d Rome, after 1460). Italian philosopher and poet . Known in his time as the ‘Hebrew Dante’, he composed, in verse, a large compendium of scientific and religious knowledge under the title Miqdash me‘at (‘The Lesser Sanctuary’, 1412). The work survives in 15 manuscript sources and was published for the first time in Vienna in 1851 (see Goldenthal). In the first part, Rieti discusses Maimonides's 13 principles of faith and the sciences as they are surveyed by Aristotle (in his Book of Categories), Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sīnā, al-Fārābī and Maimonides, while in the second part, he describes the ‘Celestial Court’ (possibly after Dante's Paradiso). Music forms the subject of a single stanza. In accordance with al-Fārābī and Ibn Falaquera (c1225–95), Rieti considers music a mathematical science, with two divisions: practical and theoretical. Under the theoretical division, Rieti recognizes the basic principles: intervals, instruments, rhythmic modes and the composition of melodies to metric poetry (...

Article

Margaret Munck

(d Lauder Bridge, Scotland, July 22, 1482). English courtier and musician, active in Scotland. According to Ferrerio he was one of an embassy sent to Scotland by Edward IV to negotiate a 20 years' peace; he was so delighted with the music there that he remained in Scotland for the rest of his life. He was perhaps the William Roger Esquire ‘of the realm of Scotland’ who on 13 November 1470 was granted a safe conduct pass to come and go between England and Scotland for a year. In 1467 Roger was clerk of the Chapel Royal at the court of James III, and was awarded lands at Traquair in November 1469, resigning them after the general revocation of 1476. As one of the king's familiars, he would have had an official position in the royal household; he was probably the clerk of spices whose own clerk was paid for receiving spices in ...

Article

Anna Maria Busse Berger

[Christianus]

(b 1410; d 1490). South Netherlandish theorist. He was a monk at the Benedictine abbey of St Andrew's, Bruges, and wrote the Tractatus modi, temporis et prolationis (c1470, pr. in CoussemakerS, iii, 264) which survives in I-Bc B/2 together with treatises by Tinctoris. The first part of the treatise describes the five intervallic proportions in simple Boethian terms. This is followed by an equally elementary commentary on the first section of Johannes de Muris's ...

Article

Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller

[Malcior de Wormatia]

(b Worms, c1480). German theorist. He studied at Cologne University from 1496 to 1497, and was a member of the ‘bursa montana’, where later the theorists Cochlaeus, Glarean and Bogentantz also studied. Schanppecher taught Wollick and wrote the third and fourth parts of the latter’s treatise, Opus aurem musicae (Cologne, 1501).

In 1502 Schanppecher studied in Leipzig, but by 1505 he was back in Cologne, where he obtained the degree of Master of Arts and where, in 1506, he published an elementary treatise on astronomy. Schanppecher’s section of Wollick’s treatise shows the influence of humanism, which caused practical music to become a subject for university study instead of medieval speculative theory. He discussed the notation of mensural music, and provided rules for composition. This became the first of many textbooks on composition in Germany. The treatise is based on counterpoint, and distinguishes between ‘compositio’ and ‘sortisatio’. ‘Compositio’ meant the act of musical composition, which is then fixed in musical notation. ‘Sortisatio’ meant the improvisation of several parts to a plainchant cantus firmus. According to other sources of about ...

Article

(d c1453). Persian scholar. Educated in Samarkand, he later moved to Anatolia, settling in Kastamonu. His output consists largely of commentaries on religious and scientific works, but also includes a treatise on music theory, the Majalla fī 'l-mūsīqī (‘Codex on music’). It survives in two forms, the second much enlarged by quotations from the Timurid theorist Periodicals, al-Marāghī, whose work was presumably unknown or unavailable to him when the first version was written. The Majalla lies squarely within the Systematist theoretical tradition ( see Arab music §I 4., (i) ). It is indebted in particular to Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Urmawī, although it adds to his definitions of the intervals of the gamut, based on a circle of 5ths, a more recent method which proceeds by dividing a string into 256 parts, the first fret being set at 243, thus yielding a limma. In addition to intervals, it covers the standard topics of modal and rhythmic structure, to which the enlarged version adds form, and it points out incidentally one or two regional differences of terminology. It is alone among theoretical works in that it explicitly eschews any treatment of instruments on religious grounds....

Article

F. Alberto Gallo

[ Nicolaus de Senis ]

( b ?Siena; fl late 14th century–early 15th). Italian theorist . He was a friar of the Servite order, and was the author of a brief treatise entitled Regule in discantu, copied at Verona in the early 15th century, and containing rules for composition in two voices (named tenor and discantus). Four fundamental consonances are recognized; the 5th, octave, 12th and 15th, of which the latter two are reducible to the former two. The treatise has two sections, both provided with musical examples; in the first, Nicola discusses note-against-note discant, and in the second, counterpoint with several notes (minims and semiminims) from the discantus to one in the tenor....