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Murray Lefkowitz

(fl c1610–67). English maker of string instruments. He was one of the earliest and best English makers and the first of several generations of makers by that name. He had his workshop in Southwark, London, where he made treble, tenor and bass viols and also lutes and pochettes. Jaye is mentioned in Thomas Mace's Musick's Monument (1676) as being one of the best of the older generation of viola da gamba makers, and in the list of instruments left by the small-coal merchant Thomas Britton one of the viols is described as ‘the neatest that Jay ever made’. Jaye's instruments are finely cut, light in construction and of small dimensions (see Viol). Beautifully executed heads and open scrolls are usual, the varnish is often a dark cherry, and an ornamental oval rose hole is sometimes carved in the belly. The tone is soft and velvety. The earliest extant example of Jaye's work known, a bass viol that formerly belonged to Galpin, is in the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague. Its label reads ‘Henrie Jaye in Southwarke....

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Michael Gillingham

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Laurence Libin

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Laurence Libin

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Laurence Libin

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Barbara Owen

(b Chémery-sur-Bar, Ardennes, 1635–40; d Narbonne, Aug 15, 1698). French organ builder. He was trained in Paris, but his organ-building career was largely in the south of France. Several of his contracts survive: these testify to his having introduced to the region such recent Parisian developments as a new type of bellows and the use of the Grosse Tierce in the chorus of 16′ organs. He also served as organist of St Nazaire, Carcassonne. Among his more notable instruments were those in St Nazaire, Béziers (...

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Charles Mould

(b ?Sydenham, Oxon, c1640; d after 1719). English virginal, spinet and harpsichord maker. He was apprenticed from 1662 to the virginal maker Gabriel Townsend for seven years, and became a freeman of the Joiner's Company (and, in 1704–5, its Master). Keene was obviously an able teacher of his craft, for at least three of his apprentices, Edward Blunt (bc1678; d before Dec 1718), Charles Brackley (bc1688) and Thomas Barton (b 1685; d before 1736), pursued successful careers as makers of spinets, virginals or harpsichords, while both Brackley and Blunt were taken into partnership with Keene.

Keene’s surviving instruments include two fine English virginals, one dated 1668 and the other 1675, both showing Townsend’s influence. In addition, nearly 30 bentside spinets by Keene have survived; those with dates on the nameboard span the years 1685 to 1711. These are all superficially similar: Keene's spinets have a short octave compass of G′/B′–d‴, although, a few have a broken octave with the C♯ and D♯ split. Many have a distinctive marquetried panel above the keyboard bearing figures of birds and flowers, while the keyboards have black naturals (variously reported as being made from snakewood or ebony) with embossed paper or vellum keyfronts, and ivory sharps....

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Albert Cohen

(b Chaumont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, c1581; d c1650). French mathematician, engineer and inventor. He lived in Toulouse and Paris. His widespread interests led to the development of novelties in such diverse areas as architecture, language, mnemotechnics and typography. In music he is credited with devising an equal-tempered scale, with adding a seventh syllable (za) to the hexachordal solmization system, with constructing a new type of lute (the Almérie – an anagram of his name), and with proposing a novel musical notation (‘musique almérique’). Although Mersenne (MersenneHU, and in his correspondence) strongly supported Le Maire's ideas, others did not, and controversy regarding his inventions spread throughout France and elsewhere in Europe.

A. Pirro: ‘Jean le Maire et l'Almérie’, BSIM, 4 (1908), 479–82 C. de Waard, ed.: Correspondance du P. Marin Mersenne (Paris, 1932–), esp. ix (1965), 563–9 A. Cohen: ‘Jean Le Maire and La Musique Almérique’, ...

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John Morehen and Stephen Bicknell

(bap. Barnstaple, Aug 25, 1616; d Exeter, April 8, 1681). English organ builder and virginal maker. He was the son of Samuel Loosemore, also an organ builder, and a brother of George and Henry Loosemore, both organists and composers. The earliest references to John Loosemore are in connection with the organ at Hartland, Devon, where he carried out work between 1635 and 1638. A house organ built for Sir George Trevelyan survives in the minstrels’ gallery at Nettlecombe Court, Somerset (c1665). His most important organ was built in about 1665 for Exeter Cathedral; the case remains. This instrument was heard by Francis North, 1st Lord Guilford, in 1675, during his circuits as Lord Chief Justice. His verdict suggests that in some respects it was more pleasing to the eye than to the ear. A chamber organ of six stops formerly in the Exeter Cathedral choir school was destroyed about ...

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John Bergsagel

[Johan]

(b Grimma, Saxony, c1580; d Elsinore, bur. June 18, 1650). Danish organ builder of German origin, father of Johann Lorentz (ii). He studied organ building with Nikolaus Maass in Stralsund before settling down as a master builder in Flensburg in 1609. In 1616 or 1617 he was brought to Copenhagen by Christian IV and in 1639 he received the royal privilege as builder of organs in Denmark and Norway. He built and repaired many notable organs, for example those at the Trinity Church, Kristianstad (Skåne, now part of Sweden); St Marie, Elsinore; St Nikolai and St Petri, Copenhagen; S Nikolai, Nakskov; and in Odense and Sorø. The instrument in Kristianstad is the best surviving example of his work.

DBL3 (O. Olesen) B. Lundgren: ‘Nikolaj-organisten Johan Lorentz i Köpenhamn’, STMf, 43 (1961), 249–63 N. Friis: Orgelbygning i Danmark: renaissance, barok og rokoko (Copenhagen, 1949, 2/1971) O. Schumann...

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Hans Klotz

( d Copenhagen, 1615). German organ builder . He was active in central and northern Germany and in Denmark from 1584 to 1615, and came perhaps from Saxony; the supposition that he was from Brabant is not borne out either by Praetorius, who is a major source of information about him, or by the style of his work. Maass worked in 1584 and 1598 on the organ of the Marienkirche, Prenzlau, built by F. Petersen in 1567, and from 1599 to 1603 on another of Petersen’s organs, that of St Nikolai, Greifswald (1575). He was granted citizenship in Stralsund in 1592, where in 1592–4 he built a large organ (three manuals, 43 stops). He built another in the region, in the Marienkirche at Barth, in 1597, and he worked in Grimma, Saxony, at some time before 1598. Maass settled in Copenhagen in autumn 1603 as organ builder to the royal Danish court. He built a large organ in the Nikolaikirche, Flensburg, ...

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Charles Beare

revised by Ugo Ravasio

(b Botticino Sera, nr Brescia, bap. Aug 25, 1580; d Brescia, ?1630–31). Italian violin maker. The best-known maker of the Brescian school, he was a pupil of Gasparo da Salò. Whereas Gasparo is chiefly noted for his tenor violas, Maggini’s output reflected the increased popularity of the violin. His instruments influenced the work of many later makers (including at times Stradivari and Guarneri).

Maggini moved to Brescia between 1586 and 1587, where he became Gasparo’s pupil. His presence there is documented from 1598 to 1604, and in 1606 he bought a house with a workshop near Gasparo’s first home, in the front of the Palazzo Vecchio del Podestà. He married Anna Foresti in 1615 and had ten children, although only four survived. A dowry document shows that Giacomo Lafranchini, ‘magister a violinis’, lived with the Maggini family. Evidence of his family and business life is documented in two tax returns (...

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