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Article

William F. Coscarelli

(Joyce)

(b Wichita, KS, May 1941). American concert organist. At age five she started piano lessons and at age eleven, after hearing Alexander Schreiner play the Mormon Tabernacle organ, she began organ studies. Bish studied organ with Dorothy Addy, Era Wilder Peniston, Mildred Andrews, and Marie-Claire Alain, studied harpsichord with Gustav Leonhardt, and attended classes with Nadia Boulanger. In 1982 she began her own television series The Joy of Music, which continues to reach a vast worldwide audience every week. She also served as organist at the Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for 20 years.

Bish has won several performance competitions and has been the recipient of prestigious awards. In 1963, while a student at the University of Oklahoma, she won the Mu Phi Epsilon student performance competition and later went on to be a national Mu Phi composition winner. In 1989 she was awarded the National Citation by the National Federation of Music Clubs of America. In ...

Article

Hugh Macdonald

(b Bordeaux, ?April 1791; d Paris, Dec 18, 1858). French violinist, composer, dramatist and critic. His date of birth, given as 7 February 1778 in all reference works since Fétis, is contradicted by Blanchard himself in the Revue et gazette musicale (21 January 1838). He was a pupil of Franz Beck in Bordeaux and of Kreutzer (violin), Méhul and Reicha (composition) in Paris. In 1815 he wrote the words and music of a pantomime, Clarisse et Lovelace, and was conductor at the Théâtre des Variétés from 1818 until 1829. There he came into contact with the leading actors and entertainers of the day, and composed a large quantity of vaudeville airs, some of which, for example Tra la la and Guernadier, que tu m’affliges, enjoyed immense popularity. In 1830 he became director of the Théâtre Molière, where a series of his plays appeared, one of which, ...

Article

Mary Cyr

(b Tournon, Sept 10, 1724; d Paris, 1778). French writer. He was the author of a treatise on singing entitled L'art ou les principes philosophiques du chant (Paris, 1756). He was not a musician; he referred to himself as ‘un homme de lettres amateur’. His work is largely concerned with physical aspects of singing, such as sound production and breathing, based upon the earlier work of a physician and anatomist, Antoine Ferrein (De la formation de la voix de l'homme, Paris, 1741). In a lengthy preface he accused the author of L’art du chant (Paris, 1755), Jean-Antoine Bérard, of incorporating his material, and listed corrections to Bérard's work. The two treatises include many passages which are nearly identical (particularly the first and third chapters, ‘La voix considérée par rapport au chant’ and ‘La formation de la voix’), but La Borde discounted the accusation, criticizing Blanchet's work for its ‘balourdises’....

Article

John Edward Hasse

[Rudolph] (Pickett)

(b Guthrie, OK, Jan 21, 1899; d Gilmanton, NH, Aug 25, 1985). American writer on music. He attended Dartmouth College and earned the BS in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1940s he served as jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and the New York Herald Tribune. He wrote a pioneering serious history of jazz, Shining Trumpets (1946), and with Harriet Janis was co-author of the first history of ragtime, They All Played Ragtime (1950). The latter work established him as the leading authority in this field, and eventually prompted a revival of the music. Also with Janis, he founded Circle Records, a small but significant jazz label which became the first to issue the Library of Congress recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. In 1953 they sold Circle Records – apart from the Morton recordings – to Jazzology Records. From 1947 to 1950...

Article

Jack Westrup

revised by Rosemary Williamson

(Walter)

(b Berne, Aug 20, 1888; d London, April 11, 1959). English music critic, writer and editor. He was of Danish and British extraction on his father's side and Swiss on his mother's, and he was educated privately. As a young man, he was employed by the music publishing firm of J. & W. Chester in London. His career as a writer began in 1919, when he was invited by Rosa Newmarch to assist her in providing progamme notes for the Queen's Hall Promenade Concerts. He continued to do this until 1926. From 1923 to 1931 he was London music critic of the Manchester Guardian. In 1931 he was appointed music critic of the Birmingham Post. He returned to London in 1946 to begin work as editor of the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary. Three years later he became music critic of The Observer. In the meantime he had succeeded A.H. Fox Strangways as editor of ...

Article

(b London, July 27, 1929; d Lavenham, Aug 14, 2007). English critic. Educated at Rugby and Oxford, where he studied with Jack Westrup, he began writing criticism in The Times in the early 1960s and later in The Listener and Gramophone, and quickly made a mark as a sure judge of the human voice and performing style. He was an associate editor of Opera magazine (1967–83), and worked as a staff critic for the Daily Telegraph (1977–89). A prolific writer with wide experience, on singers and on opera from Mozart to the present day, Blyth edited discographic reviews of opera (Opera on Record, London, 1979, 1983, 1984; Opera on CD, London, 1992, 2/1994; Opera on Video, London, 1996) and song (Song on Record, London, 1986–8) and wrote Wagner’s Ring: an Introduction (London, 1980) and Remembering Britten (London, 1981...

Article

Calvin Bower

[Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius]

(b Rome, c480 ce; d Pavia, c524 ce). Roman writer and statesman. He was born into one of the foremost patrician families of Rome; following the death of his father in 487 ce he was taken into the home of Symmachus, another patrician. Boethius learnt Greek philosophy and the liberal arts from Symmachus and married his daughter. Both men were colleagues in later senatorial struggles.

Boethius’s erudition in both the practical and speculative arts attracted the attention of Theodoric the Ostrogoth, then ruler of Italy. Through Cassiodorus, Theodoric requested Boethius’s aid in various matters, including the selection of a kitharode for Clovis, King of the Franks. Cassiodorus, writing in his official capacity as quaestor, repeatedly praised Boethius’s learning. Boethius became consul in 510, and in 522 was called to Ravenna to become Theodoric’s magister officium. In 523 Cyprian, Theodoric’s referendary, brought charges of treason against a senator, Albinus, and Boethius argued in Albinus’s defence. Boethius was himself then charged and imprisoned with Albinus in Pavia, and ultimately executed....

Article

L.M. Butir

revised by Lyudmila Kovnatskaya

(b Starozhilovka, nr St Petersburg, July 17, 1903; d Moscow, May 13, 1971). Russian critic and composer. His father was a leading laryngologist and specialist in the teaching of the deaf and dumb. His mother possessed literary gifts, and the whole family took a keen interest in the arts. However, on his father’s insistence Bogdanov-Berezovsky attended the Nikolayevsky military school (1914–17).

He began to compose in childhood, and on the advice of Ziloti, a friend of the family, took lessons with V.M. Belyayev (1918–19). He entered the Petrograd Conservatory in 1919 to study composition with Steinberg and piano with Daugovet. He studied counterpoint first with N. Sokolov and then with A. Lyapunov, and instrumentation with A. Zhitomirsky. His father’s death forced him to discontinue his piano studies at the Conservatory and take a job as a medical orderly on the ship Narodovlets. As a result, in ...

Article

William Ashbrook

[Enrico]

(b Padua, Feb 24, 1842; d Milan, June 10, 1918). Italian librettist, composer, poet and critic. He is best remembered for his one completed opera, Mefistofele, and for his collaborations as librettist with Verdi.

The son of a painter of miniatures and a Polish countess, he was brought up in Venice after his father deserted his wife and two sons. Between the ages of five and ten he received his first musical instruction from Luigi Plet and the brothers Antonio and Giovanni Buzzolla. There being no conservatory at Venice, he enrolled at the Milan Conservatory in 1853; after 1854 his course was subsidized by a grant. At first his teachers found him eccentric and lackadaisical, but when he began his lifelong friendship with another student, Franco Faccio, admitted in 1855, Boito's progress became marked. In September 1860 their joint cantata, Il quattro giugno, was performed at the conservatory. The title referred to ...

Article

Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...

Article

(b Novellara, nr Reggio nell'Emilia, 5 Feb or Nov 1582; d Ancona, March 9, 1659). Italian dramatist. He spent his first years in Novellara with his relative Camillo Gonzaga. He was trained at the court of Ferrara and Modena where he lived with his brother Guidobaldo (a writer of tragedies) and then at the Collegio Borromeo in Pavia. Despite an offer of service with the Este family he established himself in Ancona (c1604), retaining his residency when he entered the service of the Medici in Florence. He was a member of various academies (including the Intrepidi of Ferrara, the Gelati of Bologna and the Umoristi of Rome); in Ancona he founded the Accademia dei Caliginosi (7 Jan 1624) and organized the activities of the public theatre of the ‘Arsenale’.

Bonarelli's works were performed in various Italian cities and in Vienna, for which court he provided opera-ballettos, pastorals, ...

Article

Pavla Jonssonová

[Fišer, Zbyněk]

(b Prague, 20 Jan 1930; d Bratislava, 9 April 2007).Czech philosopher, writer, and poet, and a leading figure of the Czechoslovak underground. Egon Bondy’s legendary career began in 1947, when he briefly joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia only to resign immediately after the party’s takeover in February 1948. For the next ten years Bondy freewheeled on the edge of the law, proto-beatnik style. During those years he gained visibility among members of the underground by cofounding the illegal samizdat review Půlnoc (‘Midnight’). With the 1949 Půlnoc collection Jewish Names he started to use the name Egon Bondy. In 1957 he enrolled at Prague’s Charles University on distance study while working as a nighttime security guard. He received the PhD in 1967 with a dissertation entitled Útěcha z ontologie (‘Consolation from Ontology’). From that year Bondy lived on disability while continuing to write, but other than his study ...

Article

(b Venice, Aug 7, 1673; d Venice, Jan 20, 1731). Italian amateur musician and writer. He published anonymously at Venice in 1730 a detailed catalogue of the operas performed in the city to that time: Le glorie della poesia e della musica contenute nell’estatta notizia de' Teatri della città di Venezia, e nel catalogo purgatissimo dei drammi quivi sin’hora rappresentati, con gl'auttori della poesia e della musica e con le annotazioni ai suoi luoghi propri. Drawing on earlier works by Leone Allacci and Cristoforo Ivanovich, Bonlini provided valuable information about the history of Venetian opera, and particularly about the works of Monteverdi and Cavalli. His work was continued by the Venetian Antonio Groppo, who published in 1745 a Catalogo di tutti drammi per musica recitati ne' teatri di Venezia dall'anno 1637 … fin all'anno presente 1745.

DBI (G. Piscitelli Gonnelli) MGG1 (F. Fano) M.A. Rossi...

Article

Charles H. Kaufman

(b Washington, NC, 1889; d Taormina, Sicily, Dec 8, 1983). American composer and critic. He attended the Peabody Conservatory, Baltimore, where he studied composition with Brockway and the piano with Ernest Hutcheson. He went to England in 1911 and remained there until 1917, when he enlisted in the US Army. After the war Bonner worked in Paris, where he studied conducting under Albert Wolff, 1921–7. He then returned to New York and served as music critic for The Outlook magazine (1927–9) and several newspapers, including the Daily Eagle, Daily Mirror and New York Herald Tribune. In all Bonner composed five orchestral works, four chamber works and five operas. The orchestral piece Whispers of Heavenly Death (1925) and a suite from his opera La comédie de celui qui épousa une femme muette (1923) were performed by the Baltimore SO.

The stylistic ferment in the musical world during Bonner’s lifetime had little, if any, effect on his work. His early compositions carry considerable Puccinian influence, a trait that has never fully left his scores. Although displaying an occasional chromatic tartness, his music for the most part remains conservative. It has been described as delicate and containing a sweetness not uncommon to works of the 18th-century Italian repertory....

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Philadelphia, PA, Sept 18, 1931; d Wynnewood, PA, May 9, 2011). American writer on musical theater. He graduated from Lafayette College (BA) in 1952, then undertook graduate studies at the University of Pennsylvania (MA 1953, PhD 1956). Although he has written on English folklore, his main work has been in the field of the American theater, particularly the American musical. His American Musical Theatre: a Chronicle (1978, 2/1992, 3/2001, 4/2011) is an extensive and exhaustive summary from the origins of the form to 2000, and displays his characteristic chronicling of detail and thorough examination of narrative history. Consequently, his publications have proved invaluable in the early establishment of what is still a developing field of academic study. He has also published biographies of Jerome Kern and Vincent Youmans.

American Musical Theatre: a Chronicle (New York, 1978, 4/2011) Jerome Kern: his Life and Music...

Article

Albert Cohen

(b Pont-de-Vaux, Ain, April 24, 1633; d Paris, May 4, 1691). French lawyer and man of letters. He is often confused with his great-grandson, Charles-Emmanuel Borjon de Scellery (c1715–95). He was active in the law courts of both Dijon and Paris and is known chiefly for his writings on jurisprudence. He also composed poetry (noëls ‘en patois bressan’), published after his death and later set to music, and is credited with Traité de la musette, avec une nouvelle méthode, pour apprendre de soy-mesme à jouer de cet instrument facilement, et en peu de temps (Lyons, 1672, 2/1678/R), which describes an instrument in vogue throughout France at the time and includes examples of music collected by the author.

DBF (M. Prevost) P. LeDuc: Les noëls bressans de Bourg, de Pont-de-Vaux et des paroisses voisines (Bourg-en-Bresse, 1845) C.-J. Dufaÿ: Dictionnaire biographique des personnages notables du département de l’Ain...

Article

Alex Harris Stein

[Bornemann, Ernst Wilhelm Julius ]

(b Berlin, Germany, April 12, 1915; d Scharten, Austria, June 4, 1995). German writer on jazz. As a teenager in Berlin, he studied with the comparative musicologist Erich von Hornbostel, who first introduced him to jazz. In 1933, he fled to London for political reasons. While there, he volunteered for the BBC, wrote radio and television scripts, worked as a dance band musician, studied social anthropology with Bronisław Malinowski, and completed an unpublished work on the origins of jazz. In 1940, he was interned as an enemy alien before being released to work for Canada’s National Film Board. He then continued his studies with Melville Herskovits and Richard A. Waterman at Northwestern University and began writing for Melody Maker and Record Changer, among other periodicals. His book A Critic Looks at Jazz (London, 1946) draws from his 1944 column in Record Changer. Borneman’s writings on jazz were unique in their anthropological orientation, given the period during which they were published. Later, Borneman headed UNESCO’s film division in Paris, worked for Orson Welles on a screenplay for ...

Article

Donald W. Krummel

(b Burton-in-Kendal, Cumbria, March 10, 1872; d Chicago, Sept 6, 1956). American composer, teacher and critic of British origin. He was educated in London and Cologne and began his career in Aberdeen. In 1897 he joined the Chicago Musical College as teacher of the violin, composition and history. He became president of the college (1916–25) and then moved to Northwestern University, first as special lecturer in history and form, then as professor of musicology (1937–42). His books The Standard Operas (Chicago, 1928) and The Standard Concert Guide (Chicago, 1932), republished together in 1936, were expansions of works by George P. Upton, whose role as Chicago’s leading music critic (for the Chicago Tribune) Borowski inherited. He was also responsible for building the music collection of the Newberry Library, beginning soon after his arrival in Chicago and continuing as a part-time staff member (...

Article

Eric Blom

revised by Malcolm Turner and Jean Gribenski

(b Fontenay-sous-Bois, May 4, 1871; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, June 1, 1955). French writer and music critic. From an early age he devoted all his spare time to music, though except for private violin and piano lessons he never studied formally. He was nevertheless a very fine amateur player on the violin and piano. After his baccalauréat (1889) and military service (1889-90), he studied literature at the Sorbonne. On leaving there in 1895, he associated with several people of the Paris literary world (notably Huysmans and E. de Goncourt). In 1897 he completed his first work, Essai sur la crise poétique. At the same time, Boschot began contributing articles on literary criticism, art and music to the Revue bleue and other periodicals; from 1910 he was music critic of the Echo de Paris, and from 1919 of the Revue bleue. He was elected a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts (Institut de France) in ...

Article

(b Kolozsvár [now Cluj-Napoca], Aug 16, 1907; d Tel-Aviv, Nov 5, 1964). Israeli composer and music critic of Hungarian origin. He grew up in a highly religious family – some of his forebears were Hassidic rabbis – which originated from the Moravian town Boskovice. Educated at the Jewish lyceum Tarbut in Cluj during the period in which it briefly flourished before forced Romanization and repression of the Jews in Transylvania, he studied the piano with Hevesi Piroska and then in Vienna with Victor Ebenstein. In 1927 he took advanced studies in Paris with Lazar Levi (piano), Dukas (composition) and Boulanger, which shaped his predilection for French music, in particular Debussy and Milhaud. Back in Cluj, he became, in 1930, one of the conductors of the State Opera and founded a fine Jewish amateur orchestra named after Karl Goldmark. In 1937 he contributed to a volume on Jewish topics with a study of contemporary Jewish music, the revival of which he related to the Russian influence on music after Wagner. He followed Sabaneyev’s example in regarding the collection and publication of Jewish folksong as a prerequisite for the emergence of such a music, stressing the linear, non-harmonic nature of Jewish musical expression. Concurrent with the essay, he composed ...