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Wayne D. Shirley

(b Norwich, VT, March 5, 1854; d Boston, MA, Nov 30, 1934). American music critic. After graduating from Yale (1876) he studied in Europe with Carl Haupt, Bargiel, Rheinberger and Guilmant (1882–7) and settled in Boston in 1889. He was music critic for the Boston Post (1890–91) and Boston Journal (1891–1903), Boston correspondent for the Musical Courier (1892–8), music and drama critic for the Boston Herald (1903–33) and editor of the Musical Record (1897–1901), the Musical World (1901–2) and the two-volume collection Modern French Songs (Boston and New York, 1904).

Hale is best known for his programme notes for the Boston SO; written between 1901 and 1934, these are scholarly, witty and ample, and became the model for American programme annotators. His insistence on evaluating each work as it appeared to him, and the quotableness of his negative opinions (he once said of Beethoven's Fifth Piano Concerto that ‘the finale, with the endless repetitions of a Kangaroo theme, leads one to long for the end’) have caused him to be represented as a crabbed reactionary, cringing at Brahms. In reality he was a fair-minded and forward-looking critic, one of the first American champions of Debussy and an often shrewd evaluator of later music. Selections from Hale's criticism and programme notes were published as ...


Thomas S. Grey

(b Prague, Sept 11, 1825; d Baden, nr Vienna, Aug 6, 1904). Austrian music critic, aesthetician and historian. Sensing his vocation as a critic and writer on musical topics early on, he became one of the first widely influential music critics in the modern sense; he was also among the first to receive an official university appointment in music, as professor of the history and aesthetics of music at the University of Vienna, in 1861. His early treatise on questions of musical form and expression (Vom Musikalisch-Schönen, 1854) challenged a long tradition of aesthetic thought that located the essence and value of music in a loosely defined ‘expression of feelings’, and it has remained a touchstone in musical-aesthetic debates to the present day. As a critic he covered a huge cross-section of musical life in the second half of the 19th century. His journalism – trenchant and entertaining in style – remains of great interest for the historical as well as critical insights it offers....


George J. Buelow

(b Quedlinburg, Saxe-Anhalt, bap. June 2, 1611; d Sülzhayn, Harz Mountains, July 31, 1673). German theologian and writer on music. He was educated in the schools of Quedlinburg, including the Lateinschule, where he studied with Henricus Baryphonus. A scholarship from the town enabled him to enrol at the University of Helmstedt, where he spent three years studying theology. In 1634 he became Kantor at Schwanebeck (south of Helmstedt), thus beginning a long career as Kantor and minister in a number of Protestant churches in the Harz Mountains region, including periods as Kantor at Einbeck (1635–43) and Osterode (1643–4), rector and later vicar at St Alexandri, Einbeck (1644–57) – from 1647 he was simultaneously pastor at neighbouring Negenborn (Holzminden) – and finally as pastor at Sülzhayn (see Liebminger for additional biographical details). He wrote his only known work, Gründliche Einführung in die edle Music oder Singe Kunst...


John Bergsagel

(b Copenhagen, April 5, 1903; d Copenhagen, Nov 27, 1989). Danish writer on music and educator. After taking an organ diploma at the Royal Danish Conservatory (1924), he studied musicology at the University of Copenhagen (MA 1928). He taught music at the Copenhagen Choir School founded by Mogens Wöldike (1929–48), then at Aurehøj Gymnasium (1948–9) and at the College of Further Education for Teachers (1941–73), where he was appointed professor in 1969. Heerup was an active force in music education in Denmark in a variety of capacities: as author and editor of music textbooks and articles, as a member of the editorial board of the Folke- og Skolemusik series (1934–72), as a founder and chairman of the Danish Society for Music Therapy (1969) and as a member of numerous committees and governmental commissions. He was editor of ...


(b Langenwiesen, nr Ilmenau, Feb 15, 1746; d Aschaffenburg, June 22, 1803). German aesthetician and writer on art and music. As a youth he was a mediocre student, but he eventually pursued law at the universities of Jena and Erfurt. At Erfurt he studied with the aesthetician F.J. Riedel and made the acquaintance of Wieland, who recommended him to Gleim at Halberstadt. With the sponsorship of Gleim he became a private tutor and freelance writer at Quedlinburg. In 1774 he collaborated with the Jacobi brothers on the magazine Iris at Düsseldorf. He began a three-year trip to Italy in 1780, staying mostly in Rome, where he immersed himself in art and translated Orlando furioso and Gerusalemme liberata. Back in Düsseldorf, he wrote on the aesthetics of art in the novel Ardinghello (c1784–5), but his interests soon returned to music. Entering the service of the Elector of Mainz, Heinse became lecturer in ...


(b c1000–02; d Füssen am Lech, Bavaria, 1083). Writer on music. He was probably born in Bavaria, and later became a canon of Augsburg Cathedral; by the middle of the 11th century he was acting as scholasticus in the cathedral choir school there. In 1083, as the result of a conspiracy, Henricus was expelled from Augsburg at the same time as his bishop, Wigold. He sought refuge in the monastery of St Mang in Füssen, where he died and was buried. There is insufficient evidence to confirm his identification with Honorius Augustodunensis (see Flint).

Henricus's teachings on music are assembled in a treatise entitled De musica. This survives only in a south German manuscript ( A-Wn cpv 51), which has a lacuna at the end of the treatise. The work is set out in the form of a dialogue between pupil and teacher, a very popular literary technique used two centuries earlier by the author of the ...


Anna Amalie Abert


(b Chur, Switzerland, Jan 27, 1877; d Leipzig, July 9, 1934). German musicologist and critic. From 1896 to 1898 he was a student at the Stuttgart Conservatory; subsequently he attended the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst and studied at Munich University. From 1899 to 1902 he was a pupil of Kretzschmar at the University of Leipzig, and took the doctorate in 1903 with a dissertation on the instrumental music of Monteverdi’s Orfeo and the Venetian opera sinfonia. From that time on he worked principally as a music critic, for the Signale für die musikalische Welt (1902–5), the Leipziger Volkszeitung (1905–12) and the Leipziger Zeitung (1912–18). In addition he was editor of the Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft (1904–14) and the Zeitschrift für Musik (1921–9).

Heuss’s lively intellect was turned both to questions of general criticism, whether of his own time or of earlier periods, and to more specific scholarly problems, which he pursued with characteristic vigour and enthusiasm. The starting-point for all his observations was the concept of music as something to be listened to, not merely seen on paper. This is understandable, since he was himself a composer. His general approach was a brilliant application of the interpretative analytical methods of his teacher Kretzschmar, and this often led him to arrive at highly idiosyncratic results on the basis of the most minute detail (e.g. the minor 2nd in Mozart’s G minor Symphony), so that the chief fascination of his conclusions consists not infrequently in the enthuthiasm with which they are propounded. As a composer he devoted himself principally to song, a genre with which he also felt close sympathy as a scholar. He played a prominent part in German musical life of the 1920s, and strongly opposed the modern school of the time. As president of the Verband deutscher Musikkritiker he concerned himself, in a wide variety of publications, with contemporary musical matters of every sort....


Nicole Labelle

(Charles Ernest)

(b St Gilles, Brussels, April 16, 1897; d Paris, June 3, 1986). Belgian composer, critic and musicologist. He was the great-grandson of Jacobus Hoérée (1773–1859), maître de chapelle at St Walburge, Oudennarde. He studied the organ and music theory at the Brussels Conservatory (1908–12) and at the Institut Musical in Anderlecht (1914–16), then attended the Ecole Polytechnique in Brussels (1916–19) from which he graduated as a qualified engineer. At the same time he continued his musical studies, and in 1919 he settled in Paris where he completed his training at the Conservatoire (1919–26) with Paul Vidal (fugue and composition), Vincent d'Indy (conducting), Joseph Baggers (percussion) and Eugène Gigout (organ). In 1922 he won the Prix Halphen with his Heures claires, performed by the soprano Régine de Lormoy (who was later to become his wife) and in 1923 his ...


John S. Weissmann

revised by Melinda Berlász

(b Budapest, Jan 30, 1920; d Budapest, July 29, 1966). Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist and critic . He began his musical studies as a violinist in Rome at the age of eight and continued his lessons in Budapest with Ilona Votisky. In 1936 he entered the Liszt Academy of Music, where he studied the violin with Zathureczky until 1940. He studied composition privately with Bárdos (1934–8) and then with Kodály at the Academy of Music (until 1942). Concurrently he attended Budapest University, where he took the doctorate in 1943 with a dissertation on the secular music of the Kide Magyars.

A member of Kodály’s youngest generation of pupils, Járdányi was the last prominent figure to continue his teacher's programme for the development of music education in Hungary. He taught composition, theory, solfège and folk music at the Liszt Academy (1944–59), and in 1948 joined the folk music commission (headed by Kodály) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Taking as his starting-point the work of Bartók and Kodály, Járdányi developed a new system for classifying Hungarian folksongs, the method of which was first published in ...


Arthur Jacobs

(b London, March 13, 1863; d London, May 17, 1933). English translator. He was one of the first British champions of Richard Strauss, with whom he became personally acquainted at the first performance in Berlin of Feuersnot (1912). His translation of Der Rosenkavalier, published in the vocal score and first performed in Birmingham in ...


Yelena Vladimirovna Orlova

revised by Iosif Genrikhovich Rayskin

(b Pavlovsk, 5/Sept 17, 1875; d Leningrad, Dec 23, 1925). Russian music critic, historian and composer. He graduated from the department of physics and mathematics at St Petersburg University in 1897, and then worked as a chemist for the naval department. However, his interest in music (which he had formed in early childhood) and his close friendship with the members of the Belyayev circle encouraged him to abandon this career in 1907 and to take up music criticism. From 1897 until 1902 he had studied composition with Nikolay Sokolov at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and by 1906 he was already publishing articles on music in various periodicals. He was one of the organizers of the Vechera Sovremennoy Muzïki (Evenings of Contemporary Music, 1910–12) and one of the founders (in 1923) of the Assotsiatsiya Sovremennoy Muzïki (Association for Contemporary Music). From 1916 until his death he lectured on music history and aesthetics at the Petrograd Conservatory, and also conducted courses in art criticism at the Institute for the History of the Arts. From ...


Philip Brett


(b London, April 3, 1924; d Berkeley, CA, March 17, 2014). American musicologist and critic. The son of an American journalist, he was educated at University College School, London, took the AB at New York University (1943) and the doctorate at Princeton University (1950), where he studied under Oliver Strunk, Randall Thompson and Carl Weinrich. After teaching at Westminster Choir College, Princeton (1949–51), he joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley (assistant professor 1951, associate professor 1955, professor 1960), serving as chairman of the music department (1960–63, 1991–4). In 1971 he was appointed Heather Professor of Music at Oxford, returning to Berkeley in 1974. He has held Guggenheim and Fulbright fellowships, and visiting fellowships at Princeton (1956), All Souls, Oxford (1966), Cornell (1970) and Clare Hall, Cambridge (1971). He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Fairfield University, Connecticut (...


Igor′ Bėlza

(b Kars, Turkey, 26 April/May 9, 1902; d Moscow, Nov 6, 1981). Russian musicologist and critic. After completing his studies at the Moscow Conservatory (1926–31) he worked on the editorial staff of Pravda as a consultant musical sub-editor (1934–57) and held various important posts on the board of the Soviet Composers’ Union; he was also editor of the journal Sovetskaya muzïka (1952–7). He then published several significant works, which appeared after years of exhaustive research; his monographs on Bach and Khachaturian, for instance, developed essays that he had published before the war. In his books on Borodin, Musorgsky and Khachaturian he examined the oriental motifs in Russian classical and Soviet music in detail.

A.P. Borodin (Moscow, 1933)Sebast′yan Bakh (Moscow, 1937, enlarged 4/1963)‘Pyataya simfoniya D. Shostakovicha’ [Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony], SovM (1938), no.3, pp.14–28Aram Khachaturyan: ėskiz kharakteristiki [Aram Khachaturian: a character sketch] (Moscow, 1939)...


Travis D. Stimeling

[ard ]

(b Greensburg, PA, March 1, 1951). American country music critic and historian. An occasionally controversial journalist and tough critic, Kienzle’s work challenges notions of genre that are often used to separate country, jazz, pop, and rock into discrete categories, instead arguing for a holistic approach that is more representative of the diverse musical interests of recording artists. After graduating from the University of Pittsburgh (BA, English, 1973), he sold his first reviews to Country Music Magazine and, over the next 25 years, served as a columnist, critic, and contributing editor for the publication. His contributions to Guitar Player and Vintage Guitar have documented the lives and careers of numerous country and jazz guitarists, while his reviews and articles for No Depression helped to shape the alternative country movement’s view of country music history. To date, he has contributed liner notes for more than 370 CD reissues of country, pop, and jazz records, including several notable releases for Sony Legacy and Bear Family Records. In ...


Andreas Giger

(b c1215; d Viterbo, Sept 10, 1279). English theologian and scientist. He was a teacher of arts in Paris (c1237–45), noted for his extensive knowledge of Aristotle and for his numerous writings on subjects ranging from the liberal arts to religion. He later joined the Dominicans and was provincial prior of the order in England between 1261 and 1272. In 1273 he was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury and in 1278 was named Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina. His introduction to all sciences (including music), De ortu scientiarum (ed. A.G. Judy, London, 1976), was possibly written about 1250, some time between his entry into the Dominican order and the completion of his theological studies.

In De ortu scientiarum Kilwardby synthesized musical ideas by earlier scholars, especially Boethius, reinterpreting some aspects on the basis of the intensive reception of Aristotle’s works. The central problem of defining the essence of music and its relationship to the other sciences was not, however, resolved satisfactorily: typically for his time, the author wavered between a Neoplatonic interpretation of music as a mathematical science and an Aristotelian one based on principles of logic and empiricism. The increasing influence of Aristotle apparent in ...


Paula Morgan

(b New York, March 4, 1857; d Babylon, NY, July 27, 1918). American writer on music. After studies in Wiesbaden and New York he attended Columbia University, graduating from the School of Arts in 1877 and the School of Law in 1879. From 1879 to 1880 he was editor of the Musical Review. Beginning in 1880 he was music critic for a series of New York papers, The Sun, The World, the Mail and Express, and The Herald; he was music and art critic for The Herald at the time of his death. In 1883 Kobbé was sent to Bayreuth by The World to report on the first performance of Parsifal.

A prolific writer, he is chiefly known for his Complete Opera Book (1919), a collection of opera plots and analyses, which has become a standard work of reference; he also published books on Wagner and other composers, opera singers, and works on the pianola and the Aeolian pipe organ....


Peter Branscombe

(b Weimar, May 3, 1761; d Mannheim, March 23, 1819). German dramatist, diplomat and man of letters. His adventurous career included appointments as lawyer and theatre secretary, Russian court councillor and editor, poet and Russian consul. His satires, his quarrels, and above all his duty to report to the Tsar of Russia on all affairs of interest in Germany and France, made him many enemies, and he was assassinated in 1819 by a student who suspected him of being a traitor and spy.

Kotzebue’s immense output of plays includes a majority of ephemera, yet he dominated the repertory of German and Austrian (and many foreign) theatres for a considerable part of the 19th century, and the best of his comedies (including Die deutschen Kleinstädter, the first of a prodigious number of plays set in the self-important country town of Krähwinkel, the German equivalent of Gotham) are still effective. Beethoven wrote music for his ...


Lada Brashovanova

revised by Milena Bozhikova

(b Dupnitsa, Bulgaria, Sept 22, 1919; d Sofia, Bulgaria, May 21, 2015). Bulgarian musicologist and critic. He graduated from the State Music Academy in Sofia in 1943 and carried on further studies in music history at the Institute of the History of Arts in Moscow (1948–9). Greatly influenced by Soviet musicologists of the 1930s and 40s, Krăstev returned to Sofia in 1949 to hold office in the Committee for Science, Art, and Culture (1949–52), and he held a senior position in the Ministry of Education and Culture (1958–63); for many years he was also secretary of the musicologists’ section of the Union of Bulgarian Composers. He was chief editor of Muzika Journal (1951–2). After holding positions as assistant lecturer (1948) and lecturer (1953) in music history at the State Music Academy in Sofia, he started working for the Institute for Musicology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in ...


Horst Seeger

revised by Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(b Dresden, May 28, 1911; d Berlin, Aug 8, 1997). German music critic. He studied the violin and piano at the Hoch Conservatory and musicology with Gerber, Adorno and Gennrich at Frankfurt University (1932–6). He began his career as a music critic on the Frankfurt General-Anzeiger (1934) and then worked in Dresden, first for the Dresdner Nachrichten (1939–41) and later as arts editor of the Sächsische Zeitung (1946–50); having moved to Berlin he joined the Nationalzeitung, Sonntag, Theater der Zeit and Musik und Gesellschaft. His comments on East German musical life also appeared in numerous foreign journals. His book on Richard Strauss, which was translated into seven languages, established his reputation as a Strauss specialist in the Dresden tradition and as a writer capable of fusing scholarly insight with an essayist's fluency. A specialist in opera, his comprehensive guide, Oper von A–Z...


Bojan Bujic

revised by Vjera Katalinic

[Xaver, Žaver]

(b Osijek, Croatia, Nov 20, 1834; d Zagreb, Croatia, June 18, 1911). Croatian ethnomusicologist and music critic. He studied privately with Thern at Leipzig in 1856 and in the same year with Liszt at Weimar; he then studied for a short time with Czerny in Vienna. He gave piano lessons in Osijek (1858–71), then moved to Zagreb in 1871, where he was music critic for the papers Narodne novine and Agramer Zeitung. He lost this position in 1874 following the demands of the Opera management, who disliked his harsh tone. From 1872 he taught music theory and piano at the Croatian Music Institute, but left in 1876, disapproving of its pro-German orientation.

Kuhač was a pioneer of ethnomusicology in Croatia. Over a number of years he made regular excursions into various Slavonic provinces in the Balkans, both within and outside the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The folksongs he collected were first published in ...