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Viorel Cosma

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Bucharest, Romania, Oct 1, 1890; d Bucharest, Jan 19, 1951). Romanian composer, conductor, music critic, teacher, and violinist. Along with Alfred Alessandrescu and Ion Nonna Otescu, Nottara was among the first disciples of the renowned composition professor Alfonso Castaldi from the Bucharest Conservatory. First under the influence of French impressionism, then of Italian verismo, Nottara’s work then gradually integrated with the tendency of forming a Romanian national style in the first half of the 20th century.

He studied at the Bucharest Conservatory (1900–07) with D.G. Kiriac (music theory and solfège), Alfonso Castaldi (composition), and Robert Klenck (violin); he continued his studies under George Enescu and Berthelier (violin) in Paris (1907–9), and under Klinger (violin) and Schatzenholz (composition) at the Königliche Akademie der Künste, Berlin, (1909–13). His career as a violinist included orchestral playing in the Bucharest PO (1905–7, 1918–20), leading a string quartet (...




Albert Mell

(b Breslau, Oct 3, 1807; d Florence, Nov 18, 1887). German singing teacher, violinist, composer and critic. He studied singing with the Kantors Strauch and Förster, and learnt the violin with Joseph Mayseder. His initial career was as a violinist. About 1834 he settled in Paris, as a performer, critic and composer, and editor of and contributor to the new Gazette et revue musicale; he was also a correspondent for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He was a prolific composer for the violin and of solo songs. After 1840 Panofka’s interest turned towards the art and techniques of the great singers he heard in Paris. He studied the methods of Marco Bordogni, and went to London in 1847 and directed the chorus of the Royal Italian Opera under Lumley. He met Jenny Lind there and studied her vocal techniques, as well as those of Lablache, Fraschini and Staudigl. In London he was esteemed more as a singing teacher than as a violinist. His first didactic work, the ...


David J. Smith

(b North Mimms, Herts., 1578; d ?London, c 1644). English author and musician . He graduated MA from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1598, and spent most of his career as a schoolmaster in Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, Lincolnshire and London, except for a period between 1613 and 1615 when he travelled in France, Germany and the Low Countries. The last known reference to him is a poem that he contributed for an engraving by Wenceslaus Hollar in 1644.

Peacham’s musical importance lies in his chapter on music in The Compleat Gentleman (1622), a compendium of knowledge intended for the education of children from noble households. Peacham advocated the inclusion of music in the curriculum, though he warned against allowing musical pursuits to distract a gentleman from ‘his more weightie imployments’: ‘I desire no more in you then to sing your part sure, and at the first sight, withall, to play the same upon your Violl, or the exercise of the Lute, privately to your selfe’. Appealing to scripture and to the writings of the ancients, he pointed to music’s therapeutic properties. Peacham related music to poetry, the topic of his preceding chapter, and to rhetoric: ‘hath not Musicke her figures, the same which Rhetorique?’. Most of his material is derived from unacknowledged sources: he borrowed from Byrd’s preface to ...


Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Reşiţe, Feb 17, 1932). Romanian composer, musicologist, journalist, writer, and teacher. Closely connected to his activities as a musicologist and author of monographs, analytical studies, essays, and music criticism, his compositional practice is characterised by expressive and lyrical works, where traditional (especially Byzantine psaltic) elements are mixed with new music.

He began his music education in Reşiţa and continued at the Municipal Conservatory of Timişoara. After a period of private study with Liviu Rusu (harmony, counterpoint, and musical forms) and Hedviga Haliţchi (piano), Popovici studied at the Bucharest Academy (1950–55) with Mihail Jora, Mihail Andricu (composition), and Theodor Rogalski (orchestration). In 1968 he attended the summer courses in Darmstadt.

Between 1968 and 2002 he was a music editor with the Romanian Radio, while also teaching at the National University of Music Bucharest and at the private universities Luceafărul and Spiru Haret. The composer himself outlined three periods of his creative development. The first one (...


James Deaville

(b Lachen, nr Zürich, May 27, 1822; d Frankfurt, 24/June 5, 1882). German composer, critic and teacher. His father, a teacher and organist who had fled to Switzerland from the Black Forest to avoid military conscription during the Napoleonic wars, taught him to play the violin and organ and to sing. He attended the Gymnasium in Rottenburg (Württemberg), then followed the family to Schwyz, where in 1838 he enrolled in the Jesuit Gymnasium to study philology. He taught in a primary school in Rapperswil between 1840 and 1844, during which time he decided to become a musician. He became an accomplished pianist and organist, and began composing for the piano. In 1843 he sought the opinion of Mendelssohn, who praised the works and recommended their publication to Breitkopf & Härtel (they appeared as opp.2–6). Upon leaving school service, Raff received help from Franz Abt to establish himself in Zürich, where he taught the piano, gave concerts and copied music to make a living. Raff met Liszt in the summer of ...


William Osborne

(b Fair Haven, CT, Feb 7, 1857; d Pasadena, CA, Nov 28, 1940). American organist, composer, teacher, music publisher, and music critic. Rogers studied with organ virtuoso Clarence Eddy in Chicago, followed by further study in Berlin and Paris, 1875–82. He worked for a year in Burlington, Iowa, before establishing himself in Cleveland as an organist of various churches, as well as the Euclid Avenue Temple, which he served for 50 years. He was a prolific composer, a teacher at the Cleveland School of Music, a critic at the Cleveland Plain Dealer (1915–32), and a publisher of his own works and those of others. He wrote about 550 pieces, and his more than 130 songs (issued between 1878 and 1933), organ pieces, and church music were widely performed in their time. For the organ he left three sonatas, two sonatinas, three suites, and many one-movement genre pieces. He also wrote secular partsongs, cantatas for both Christmas and Easter, several settings of the Latin Mass, and both a ...


Ralph Scott Grover

(b Northampton, May 23, 1901; d Gerrards Cross, Feb 14, 1986). English composer, critic, pianist and teacher.

Born into a poor working-class family, Rubbra was fortunate in having music-loving parents. His mother’s pure soprano voice was prominent in her church choir, and she was in demand locally as a soloist. He began piano lessons at eight, transferring later to a teacher who added instruction in harmony and counterpoint. In his uncle’s music shop he discovered the music of Cyril Scott and Debussy. Leaving school at 14 to help his family financially, he worked as an office boy, then a railway clerk. At 17 he organized an all-Scott concert in Northampton, prompting the composer to accept him as a private pupil. In 1920 he won a composition scholarship to Reading University for study with Holst, and also piano with Evlyn Howard-Jones. In 1921 Rubbra won an open scholarship to the Royal College of Music where his teachers were, Holst, Howard-Jones (privately) and R.O. Morris in counterpoint; Vaughan Williams was used as a substitute during Holst’s absences. Of Rubbra’s earliest compositions, some of his songs were published during his RCM days. One, ...


Brett Boutwell

(b New York, NY, June 3, 1943). American music critic, journalist, consultant, composer, and educator. He graduated with a BA from Harvard University and a senior diploma in voice from the Longy School before studying composition at the Yale School, where he earned a master’s degree in 1974. He has contributed criticism on classical and popular music to a wide variety of publications, including the Village Voice (1980–86), the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner (1988–9), Entertainment Weekly (1990–92), and the Wall Street Journal (intermittently since 1983). His online columns for http://www.newmusicbox.org (2001–04) led to an ASCAP Deems Taylor Award in 2002, and since 2003 Sandow has written a blog for the website http://artsjournal.com (http://artsjournal.com/sandow). His concerns regarding the contemporary health and future prospects of classical music—a recurring theme of his criticism—led to consultancies on audience development and engagement with leading orchestras, arts organizations, and institutions of higher learning, including a faculty position at the Juilliard School (since ...


Othmar Wessely

(b Pihl, nr Česká Lípa, Bohemia, Jan 30, 1787; d Salzburg, July 3, 1857). Austrian writer on music. He was the son of Count Kinsky’s brewer, Andreas Schmid, and his wife, Theresia Bergmann. After his initial instruction in singing and the piano, he received further musical education after 1798 as a singer in the monastery of the Calced Augustinians in Česká Lípa. From 1804 he lived as a theatre musician and music teacher in Prague, where he also began his literary activity. In 1812 he settled as a private teacher in Vienna. He became a drafting probationer for the Viennese court library in 1818, and was made a Skriptor in 1819 and a Kustos in 1844. At the request of Moritz, Count Dietrichstein, he organized the collection which became the basis for the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, and was its first keeper; his handwritten catalogue is still in existence. From this task arose not only his fundamental studies on the history of printing music from movable type, but also his more than 500 supplements and reports appended to C.F. Becker’s ...


John Warrack

(b Neumünster, Holstein, Oct 4, 1893; d Bielefeld, Jan 15, 1976). German musicologist and critic. After studies in Geneva and Leipzig, he took the doctorate in 1919 with Riemann (whose last assistant he became) and Schering with a dissertation on the Buxheimer Orgelbuch. From 1922 to 1925 he was music critic for newspapers in Dresden and Leipzig, becoming in 1926 music editor of the Dresdner Anzeiger; he also lectured at the Dresden Conservatory. During this period began his lifelong interest in Weber. He lost his library and musicological materials in the bombing of Dresden, and after the war lived briefly in Berlin. Renewing his contacts with Weber’s descendants, he resumed his Weber research, giving special attention to the diaries and letters. Schnoor moved in 1949 to Bielefeld, where he worked as a music critic and writer until his death.

Though he published many articles and books on general musical subjects, and made a special study of oratorio, it is his work on Weber that has been Schnoor’s most important contribution to musicology. The first major product of these studies, ...


Ramona H. Matthews

(b Appleton, WI, July 21, 1893; d Neenah, WI, Nov 3, 1975). American pianist, teacher, and writer on music. He was educated at Charleston (South Carolina) College and the University of Wisconsin, and then went to Europe (1920) to study at the University of Madrid and elsewhere, his teachers including the pianist moriz Rosenthal. He settled in Paris to perform, teach, and write, serving as music and drama critic for the Paris Tribune (1921–34) and Paris correspondent for the Musical Digest of New York (1922–9), the Musical Courier of New York (1932–41), the Nuova Italia musicale of Rome, and the Musical Times of London. He was an enthusiastic promoter of concerts of American music in France, and organized the first European festival of American music (Bad Homburg, Germany, 1931). On his return to America (1942) he settled in Appleton to teach and write. He received several honors from the French government for his services to music, and was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur in ...


Liliana González Moreno

[Frederick] (Anthony)

(b New York, NY, March 16, 1929; d Matanzas, Cuba, July 21, 1977). composer, music critic, and pedagogue, active in Mexico and Cuba. He started his musical studies in Los Angeles. In 1949 he moved to Mexico City where he studied with Blas Galindo, Rodolfo Halffter, José Pablo Moncayo, and Carlos Jiménez Mabarak. In the 1950s he actively composed and promoted new music, organizing concerts and collaborating in theater productions by Alfonso Arau. In the early 1960s he lived in the southwestern Mexican state of Michoacán, where he conducted folk music research and directed folk music groups. In 1962 Smith moved to Havana, Cuba, to collaborate with Alfonso Arau in a project about the reorganization of the Teatro Musical de La Habana and opted to stay in the island. From 1963 to 1966 he taught harmony, analysis, music history, and composition at Havana’s Escuela Nacional de Música. His interest in the use of mathematical models in music composition and analysis was very influential in the development of chance, stochastic, and electroacoustic music in Cuba. He became active as a composer and arranger with the Instituto Cubano de Radio, Cine y Televisión, and later joined the faculty of the Grupo de Experimentación Sonora del ICAIC. In the early 1970s, he moved to Matanzas, Cuba, where he remained until his death, working as a music teacher and conductor....


Brian C. Thompson

(b London, England, Feb 14, 1826; d Ottawa, Ont., Feb 6, 1896). Canadian organist, composer, teacher, and critic of English birth. Smith was raised in Paris, where he studied piano with P. J. G. Zimmermann. His studies were interrupted by ill health and the Revolution of 1848, but he returned to the Conservatoire for further studies before travelling to Canada in 1856. On settling in Montréal, he became music director at St Patrick’s Church and taught at the Sacré-Coeur Convent at Sault-au-Recollet. He produced the first of several pedagogical works during this time, began writing newspaper criticism, and published a short-lived journal, Les beaux arts (1863–4). In 1866 he relocated to the United States, living briefly in New York and then New Orleans, where he became organist at the Bishop’s Chapel. With Theodore La Hache, Jacques Oliveira, and other members of New Orleans’s musical community, Smith organized numerous concerts, frequently accompanying the leading singers of the day, but failed to earn an adequate living. In ...


Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b Leninakon [now Gryumri, Armenia], April 7, 1924; d Leningrad, March 12, 1977). Soviet musicologist, aesthetician, sociologist and critic. He graduated in 1949 from the faculty of theory and composition at the Leningrad Conservatory, in 1953 from the Research Institute of Theatre and Music, and in 1954 from the philosophy department of Leningrad University. A year later he joined the staff of the Leningrad Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography, and in 1968 was also appointed to a professorship at the Leningrad Conservatory. He was awarded the Kanditat degree in 1954 for his dissertation on populist song during World War II and received the doctorate in 1965 for his dissertation on Borodin. In 1976 he initiated the formation of the Soviet Union’s first department of music criticism, at the Leningrad Conservatory. In the last ten years of his life he was a director of the criticism and music studies divisions of the Leningrad Union of Composers and of the Union of Composers of the USSR....


Nicola Scaldaferri

(b Shkodër, Albania, 14 June 1920; d Tirana, 12 March 2008). Albanian ethnomusicologist, musician, composer, and writer. He began his musical studies as a boy in Shkodër. In the years between 1940 and 1944 he studied the flute and composition at the Conservatory of Florence, Italy. Back in Albania in the early years of the Hoxha regime, Sokoli was imprisoned, as were other scholars who had studied abroad, and he spent five years in incarceration.

In 1952 he moved to Tirana, where he taught the flute and folklore in the high school. Although he was not qualified to teach at the higher academic level, he played a key role in musical research in Albania. He collaborated on ethnomusicological expeditions carried out in 1957 with East German scholars and in 1958 with Romanian scholars.

He was the author of numerous pioneering books and articles on Albanian musical folklore, employing both descriptive and analytical approaches, as well as surveying important figures of the musical, and wider cultural, Albanian tradition. His writings and ideas shaped the discipline and educated two generations of Albanians ethnomusicologists, including scholars in Kosovo. His many publications include the books ...


L.M. Butir

revised by Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b Vitebsk, 20 Nov/Dec 3, 1902; d Novosibirsk, Feb 11, 1944). Russian musicologist, and theatre and music critic. He studied at the University of Petrograd (1921–4), specializing in Romano-Germanic philology and Spanish Classical literature. At the same time he studied drama at the Institute for the History of the Arts, graduating in 1923 and later pursuing postgraduate studies (1926–9). Apart from a few lessons in conducting from Malko in the mid-1920s, he was musically self-taught. While still young, his phenomenal memory, wide knowledge and linguistic mastery made him a well-known figure in academic circles. From 1923 he lectured in the history of literature, the theatre, music, psychology and aesthetics in various higher education establishments in Leningrad, including the Conservatory, where he became a professor in 1939. For 12 years from 1929 he was a lecturer at the Leningrad Philharmonic, and was also in charge of its repertory section. Later he became editor of the Philharmonic publishing house (...


Edward Garden and Jennifer Spencer

(b Petrozavodsk, 27 April/May 9, 1846; d Petrograd (St Petersburg), 14/Dec 27, 1916). Russian composer, critic and teacher. His father wanted him to make a career in medicine, but he allowed him to enter the St Petersburg Conservatory (1868), where he studied with Zaremba. He completed an overture in 1869, and in 1872, the year of his graduation, he was commissioned to write a cantata to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Peter the Great. He taught music theory at the conservatory from 1874, and was later professor of composition (1885–1909). From 1905 he was also Director of Music at the Imperial Chapel. He was an enthusiastic member of the St Petersburg Russian Musical Society, of which he was the official representative at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. From 1870 he was a music critic, working for most of the St Petersburg periodicals, including ...


Gabriela Cruz

(b Liège, April 8, 1906; d Oporto, Aug 1, 1997). Portuguese composer, teacher and critic. She studied at the Oporto Conservatory. Between 1927 and 1929 she worked in Paris with Wilhelm Backhaus, Theodor Szántó and Georges Migot. She was also a pupil of the pianist José Vianna da Motta in Lisbon and the conductor Clemens Krauss in Berlin. Later, she attended courses given by Alfred Cortot (piano) and Edgar Willems (music education). She received the 1941 Moreira de Sá prize in composition. In 1939 she became a critic for the Oporto newspaper Primeiro de Janeiro, and from 1946 she taught at the Oporto Conservatory. After an initial tonal period, Sousa’s music reflects a closer affinity with the impressionist movement, but also employs polytonal techniques. Some of her works are based on Correia de Oliveira’s system of ‘sound symmetry’ (expounded, in Portuguese and English, in his Simetria sonora, Oporto, ...


Karl-Ernst Bergunder


(b Erfurt, Aug 31, 1609; d Erfurt, April 5, 1680). German writer on music and organist. He spent his whole life at Erfurt. He attended the St Michael Lateinschule until 1621, when he transferred to the Protestant Ratsgymnasium, which was at that time noted for its fostering of music. One of his teachers there was Liborius Capsius, director of the collegium musicum and an important Erfurt University professor. He matriculated at the university in 1626, took his bachelor’s degree in 1628 and became a Master of Philosophy in 1629. He then became organist at the Protestant Thomaskirche and at the Catholic church of the Neuwerk monastery. From 1632 to 1635 he was Kantor and teacher at the Protestant school of preaching and also studied theology. In 1635 he was ordained and became deacon (in 1638 pastor) of the Kaufmannskirche in succession to Joseph Bötticher, who had won a good reputation as a musician. In ...