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Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Neuss, July 6, 1899; d Lüdenscheid, Sept 1, 1994). German musicologist and choir director. He studied musicology with Ludwig at Göttingen University (1919–21) and subsequently with Gurlitt at Freiburg University, where he received the doctorate in 1924 with a dissertation on the melodies Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen and Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh' darein. He was a lecturer at the Bauernhochschule in Rendsburg (1924–5) and at the Volkshochschule in Kassel (1925–6). He then acted as music consultant to the Central Office for General Librarianship in Leipzig (1926–8) and lectured in Protestant church music at the University of Münster (1930–39). After the war he lectured at the Landeskirchenmusikschulen of Hanover (1947–8) and the Rhineland (1949–57).

In the early 1920s Ameln embarked on a fruitful career as a choral and orchestral conductor and director of choral courses. His object was the authentic performance of old music, and this was coupled with considerable editorial work. He edited the journal of the Finkenstein League, ...


Christopher Palmer

revised by Sergio Miceli


(b St Petersburg, 16/Oct 29, 1901; d Rome, June 7, 1983). Italian composer and conductor of Russian origin. A grandson of the composer Nikolay Sokolov and a brother of the cellist Massimo Amfitheatrof, he studied with Vītols in St Petersburg and Křička in Prague, but the greater part of his training was undertaken in Rome, where he studied composition with Respighi at the Conservatorio di S Cecilia (diploma 1924) and the organ at the Pontifical Academy of Sacred Music. He was engaged as a pianist, organist and chorus assistant at the Augusteo (1924–9), also conducting the orchestra under Molinari's supervision. Thereafter he was artistic director of the Genoa and Trieste radio stations and conductor and manager for Italian radio in Turin; he also conducted elsewhere in Europe. In 1937 he went to the USA as associate conductor of the Minneapolis SO, and in ...


Christopher Palmer and Sergio Miceli


(b St Petersburg, Russia, 16/29 Oct 1901; d Rome, Italy, 7 June 1983). Italian composer and conductor of Russian origin. A grandson of the composer Nikolay Sokolov and a brother of the cellist Massimo Amfitheatrof, he studied with Vītols in St. Petersburg and Křička in Prague, but the greater part of his training was undertaken in Rome, where he studied composition with Respighi at the Conservatorio di S Cecilia (diploma 1924) and the organ at the Pontifical Academy of Sacred Music. He was engaged as a pianist, organist, and chorus assistant at the Augusteo (1924–9), also conducting the orchestra under Molinari's supervision. Thereafter he was artistic director of the Genoa and Trieste radio stations and conductor and manager for Italian radio in Turin; he also conducted elsewhere in Europe. In 1937 he went to the United States as associate conductor of the Minneapolis SO, and in ...


Kenny Mathieson

[Eugene; Jug]

(b Chicago, IL, April 14, 1925; d Chicago, Aug 6, 1974). American jazz tenor saxophonist and bandleader, son of Albert (C.) Ammons. He studied music under Captain Walter Dyett at Du Sable High School and was influenced by Lester Young and Coleman Hawkins. After touring with the trumpeter King Kolax in 1943, he was a member of Billy Eckstine’s seminal big band from 1944 to 1947—Eckstine is said to have given him the nickname Jug, referring to his hat size—and was also a member of Woody Herman’s Second Herd in 1949. Ammons began leading his own small groups in 1947 and had a hit with “Red Top” (named after his wife) that year. In the early 1950s he co-led a popular two-tenor band with Sonny Stitt and in the early 1960s he took part in successful collaborations in a soul-jazz idiom with several organists, including Jack McDuff and Johnny Smith. He served prison sentences for drug offences (...


Jeffry Mark

revised by Gaynor G. Jones

(b Bamberg, 1763; d Wallerstein, nr Nördlingen, March 29, 1825). German conductor and composer. He studied singing with Fracasini and the violin with Bäuerle at Bamberg. After his voice broke, he studied the horn with Punto, who took him on concert tours in Germany, France and Austria. From 1781 to 1782 they stayed in Paris, where Amon studied composition with Sacchini. During his subsequent travels, Amon met J.A. Hiller, Reichardt, Hoffmeister, Haydn and Mozart. He continued to tour with Punto until 1789, when he accepted the post of musical director at Heilbronn. Poor health forced him to give up playing the horn, and he concentrated on improving his violin, viola and piano technique. In 1817 he became Kapellmeister to the Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein, in whose service he remained for the rest of his life.

Amon was an expert conductor and a versatile musician, a good performer on the horn, and later on the violin, viola and piano; he also taught singing and a variety of instruments. His many compositions include duos, trios, quartets, quintets, symphonies, marches, solo sonatas for various instruments and sonatas and variations for piano. He also wrote concertos, two Singspiels, two masses, cantatas, songs and a requiem which was performed at his funeral. Many of his works are unpublished. His eldest son Ernest wrote a set of variations for flute and orchestra....


Barbara A. Petersen

revised by Don C. Gillespie


(b Philadelphia, Nov 17, 1930). American composer, horn player and conductor. As a youth he played the piano, trumpet and horn, developing a strong interest in jazz as well as classical music. After a year at Oberlin Conservatory (1948), where he studied the horn, he attended George Washington University (BA in history, 1952). He was engaged as a horn player with the National SO, Washington, DC (1951–2), and then played with the Seventh Army SO in Europe; during his three years there he also toured as a soloist, performed with chamber ensembles, and in Paris took part in jazz sessions. He returned to the USA in 1955 and enrolled in the Manhattan School, where he studied with Mitropoulos, Giannini and Schuller; he was also a member of the Manhattan Woodwind Quintet. He was awarded honorary degrees from Moravian College, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (1979...


Jeremy Thurlow

(b Paris, Aug 29, 1936). French composer and conductor. Having won national first prize in the philosophy Baccalaureat in 1955 he began to compose, and went to study music at the Paris Conservatoire (1955–60), where his teachers included Milhaud, Messiaen and Loriod. But his ideas about composition were particularly galvanized by meeting Boulez in 1956 and his subsequent attendance at the Darmstadt summer courses in 1958 and 1960; the first performance of Mouvements in 1958 by the Domaine Musical marked the beginning of international interest in his work. He began conducting professionally in 1962, and in 1965 he attended Boulez’s conducting course in Basle, going on to succeed him as director of the Domaine Musical from 1967 until it disbanded in 1973. He was then appointed musical adviser to the ORTF, and in 1976 founded the Nouvel Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio-France, an ensemble of variable forces with a particular commitment to contemporary music; he was its chief conductor and artistic director until ...


Arthur Jacobs

revised by Charles Barber and José A. Bowen

(b Tučapy, Bohemia, April 11, 1908; d Toronto, July 3, 1973). Czech conductor. He studied composition and conducting at the Prague Conservatory (1925–9) and then was assistant conductor to Hermann Scherchen in Alois Hába’s opera The Mother at Munich in 1931. He became a member of Scherchen’s conducting class in Strasbourg, and later also studied with Talich in Prague. His career as conductor for the theatre and for Prague radio (1933–9) was interrupted by the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia. He was sent to concentration camps and was the only member of his family to survive. He returned to conduct the Prague Opera (1945–8), the Czech RSO (1947–50) and the Czech PO (1950–68), and from 1942 to 1952 was a professor at the Prague Conservatory. He received a Czechoslovakian State Prize in 1958 and was named National Artist in ...


Hans Åstrand

(b Stockholm, March 13, 1914; d Malmö, Jan 4, 1972). Swedish composer, pianist and conductor. During the period 1936–8 he studied composition in Stockholm, Copenhagen, Paris and London, and later in Salzburg and Vienna. He was a piano pupil of Olof Wibergh in Stockholm and studied conducting with Paumgartner, Walter and Weingartner at the Salzburg Mozarteum. In 1934 he made his début as a pianist and composer in Malmö with the later discarded Concertino. He was conductor of the Hippodromtheater, the Malmö operetta theatre (1939–42, 1949–50), and in 1946 founded a chamber orchestra which he directed until its activities ceased in 1950. Thereafter he lived as a freelance composer in Malmö, latterly spending much time in Cologne and Vienna; he sometimes appeared as a pianist or conductor, particularly with the Malmö Ars Nova. His electronic works were composed in his own studio, FEM.

Anderberg’s music of the 1930s and 40s showed French influence, but later he went through a 12-note serial period, stimulated by his profound analyses of Schoenberg’s piano music. In this way he integrated new techniques into an individual style, solidly craftsmanlike in the orchestral works and instrumentally brilliant in the chamber music. Many of his works were suggested by literature or by contemporary events, the latter particularly in later years: the piano concerto (...


Wayne D. Shirley


(b Brookline, MA, Nov 28, 1943). American conductor, musicologist, and music librarian. Anderson attended Bryn Mawr (BA 1965), the University of Illinois (MM 1969), and the University of Maryland (MLS 1989). Anderson was a Music Librarian at the Library of Congress from 1978 to 1995 before resigning to pursue an independent career as a conductor, specializing in the conducting of music to accompany the showings of silent films. Her interest in this area began in the late 1970s while working on the score for Carl Dreyer’s The Passion of Joan of Arc. Her conducting is informed by scholarly work; whenever possible her performances use the music for its original release; lacking that, she compiles a score using material which might have been used during the film’s first showings. A good example of her work is the 1922 film Häxan (now on Criterion Collection DVD 134)....


Howard Pollack

(b Cambridge, MA, June 29, 1908; d Woodbury, CT, May 18, 1975). American composer, arranger and conductor. He studied piano and organ with his mother and Henry Gideon, and double bass with Gaston Dufresne. He also worked with Spalding (theory), Ballantine (counterpoint), Heilman (fugue), and Piston and Enescu (composition) at Harvard where, from 1930 to 1934, he pursued studies in German and Scandinavian languages. In the early 1930s he tutored at Radcliffe College (1930–32), directed the Harvard University Band (1931–5), and conducted and arranged music for dance bands. In 1936 he composed an arrangement of Harvard songs for the conductor of the Boston Pops, Arthur Fiedler, who subsequently commissioned two short pieces, Jazz Pizzicato (1938) and Jazz Legato (1939). While serving in the military (1942–6), Anderson continued writing music for Fiedler and, after World War II, he became a principal arranger for the Boston Pops in addition to providing them with a series of popular short original compositions, often with picturesque titles....


(b Brussels, June 10, 1893; d Woluwé Saint-Lambert, Brabant, Jan 20, 1975). Belgian conductor. He studied the violin with César Thomson at the Brussels Conservatory until 1914, and composition and conducting with Weingartner at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin. From 1920 he taught at the Brussels Conservatory, resigning his directorship of the conducting class in 1944; he conducted the orchestra there, 1940–45. In 1935 he founded the Belgian RSO, of which he was conductor until 1958. From that year he became concerned with the administration of the Queen Elisabeth of Belgium Competition. A tireless interpreter of contemporary works, André was awarded the Schoenberg Medal in 1952 for his services to 20th-century music, especially Schoenberg’s. He also gave the first performances of works by Milhaud, Koechlin, Jolivet and Sauget, among others, and was the dedicatee of Karl Amadeus Hartmann’s First Symphony. He made orchestral transcriptions of works by Rameau, Lully, Grétry, Leclair and Bach and wrote incidental music for radio plays....


Peter Ross

revised by Erik Levi

(b Berne, July 5, 1879; d Zürich, June 18, 1962). Swiss conductor and composer. He spent his school years in Berne, studying the piano and composition with Karl Munzinger, and was then a pupil of Franz Wüllner in Cologne (1897–1900), where his first compositions were performed. There followed a one-year engagement as répétiteur at the Munich Hofoper, and in 1902 he settled in Zürich, where he was to dominate musical life for the next half-century. He was appointed director of the Zürich Gemischter Chor (1902), the Winterthur Stadtsängerverein (1902) and the Zürich Männerchor (1904), but his most important position was as conductor of the Tonhalle Orchestra (1906–49). In addition he directed the Zürich Conservatory (1914–41), and held classes at the university (where he received an honorary doctorate in 1914). He also served as its musical director (...


Eva Öhrström

(b Visby, Feb 19, 1841; d Göteborg, Jan 11, 1929). Swedish composer, conductor and organist. She was the first woman organist and telegraphist in Sweden, the first to compose chamber and orchestral music and the first to conduct a symphony orchestra. Initially taught music by her father, in 1855 Andrée went to Stockholm and in 1857 passed her examination as the first woman organist in Sweden. In 1860 she studied composition with Ludvig Norman and in 1870 with Niels Gade in Copenhagen. She brought about the revision of a law enabling women to hold the office of organist, and in 1861 became an organist in Stockholm. In 1867 she moved to Göteborg, where she was organist at the cathedral until she died. She performed frequently and conducted performances of her works for choir and orchestra. In 1897 she took charge of the so-called Labour Concerts, for which she organized about 800 concerts. She became a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music in ...


Irina Boga

(b Braşov, Romania, Oct 18, 1946). Romanian conductor and composer. He studied at the Bucharest Conservatory with Constantin Bugeanu (conducting) and Ștefan Niculescu (composition), received the Herder grant, and studied at the Vienna Academy of Music with Hans Swarowsky and Karl Österreicher, continuing his education with Sergiu Celibidache in Bucharest, Trier, and Munich. He has been the main conductor of the Ploiești Philharmonic (1974–87), main conductor of the Bucharest Philharmonic (1987), and musical director of the National Radio Orchestra (1992). Horia Andreescu is a permanently invited conductor at the Radio Orchestra Berlin (1981–93), Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra (1983–93), and Staatskapelle Schwerin (1979–90). He conducted prestigious ensembles including the Wiener Symphoniker, Gewandhaus Leipzig, the Madrid, Lisabon, Copenhagen, and Leipzig Radio Orchestras, the Stuttgart Philharmonic Orchestra, the BBC—Scottish Symphony Orchestra, the Berliner Staatskapelle, the Israel Chamber Orchestra, the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra, NDR—Hamburg, and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra—London. He received numerous awards in international competitions (‘Nicolai Malco’, ‘Ernest Ansermet’), the Critics’ Award at the Berlin Musical Biennial (an award for his entire activity), the ‘Conductor of the Year’ in ...


Rainer E. Lotz

(b São Paulo, 1892; d Rio de Janeiro, 1979). Brazilian bandleader, violinist, and saxophonist. He studied music in Rio de Janeiro (1917–19) and directed his own dance orchestra, gradually changing its repertory from Latin American music to jazz. He recorded prolifically on the Odeon label (1919–24) and although he did not perform as a soloist he became one of the pioneers of jazz in Brazil. While touring Europe (1924–34) he played for a time with the dancer and bandleader Grégor Kélékian. He made several recordings for Grammophon in Berlin (including Everything is hotsy totsy now, 20338, and Big Bad Bill, 20340, both 1926), some of which show to advantage the hot trumpet playing of Mickey Diamond and the blue blowing on kazoo of Sydney Sterling. (R. E. Lotz: “Eduardo Andreozzi: the Jazz Pioneer from Brazil,” Sv, no.122 (1985–6), 62 [incl. discography])...


José López-Calo

(b Sanahuja, Lérida, Nov 7, 1786; d Barcelona, Nov 23, 1853). Spanish choirmaster and composer. He began his musical studies in the cathedral at Seo de Urgel, where he was a choirboy for nine years. Later he moved to Barcelona for advanced study with Juan Quintana (organ) and Francisco Queralt (composition). In 1808 he entered the competition for choirmaster of Tarragona Cathedral; although he was ranked first by the examining tribunal, the chapter of the cathedral did not grant him the position. On 1 June of the same year he won the post of choirmaster of Tafalla, but turned it down to take an identical position at Segorbe Cathedral, where he remained until 1814, when he was appointed choirmaster of S María del Mar in Barcelona. In 1819 he was named choirmaster of Valencia Cathedral and in 1830 advanced to the same post at Seville Cathedral. All of these appointments were obtained by competitions. In ...


William Osborne

(b Wayne, OH, Jan 19, 1862; d Honolulu, HI, Aug 18, 1932). American organist, conductor, teacher, and composer. His family moved to Oberlin when Andrews was six; two years later he began study at what was then a department of music of Oberlin College. He graduated from what had become a Conservatory of Music in 1879 and only three years later joined its faculty, where he spent the rest of his career until retirement in 1931. He took two leaves for further study in Leipzig, Munich, and Paris and eventually became a nationally known organ recitalist. He was a founding member of the American Guild of Organists and later an honorary president of that organization. He was named organist and later director of Oberlin’s Musical Union and also of the Conservatory Orchestra, serving the former for thirty years, the latter for two decades. He also conducted choruses in Akron and elsewhere in northern Ohio. Oberlin conferred an honorary Master of Arts degree on Andrews in ...


Rudolf Klein

(b Vienna, May 16, 1927). Austrian conductor, viola player and composer. From 1941 to 1946 he studied theory, the piano, violin and organ at the Vienna Music Academy. After playing the viola in the Vienna SO and winning a medal at the Geneva Music Competition in 1948, he was engaged by the Zürich Tonhalle Orchestra, and then by the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (1949–52). From 1953 to 1956 he was principal viola player in the Vienna SO. He also won first prize for an organ composition in the competition in Haarlem in 1954.

Angerer’s subsequent career as a conductor has extended from the post of director and chief conductor of the Vienna Chamber Orchestra (1956–63), and numerous tours as guest conductor, to an engagement as composer and conductor of the Vienna Burgtheater (1960–64). In this capacity he wrote and performed music for various plays. He was principal conductor of the opera house of Bonn (...


John Beckwith

(b Budapest, April 12, 1919; d Kingston, ON, February 24, 2012). Canadian composer, conductor and pianist of Hungarian birth. He studied with Kodály at the Budapest Academy (1937–41). As a young man he spent a period with other Jewish youths in a forced-labour contingent of the Hungarian Army; his later war experiences – escape, then concealment by friends during the winter of 1944–5 – are described in the memoirs of the novelist Theresa de Kerpely (Teresa Kay). After a season as assistant conductor at the Budapest Opera (1945–6), he went to Paris for further studies in piano (Soulima Stravinsky), conducting (Fourestier) and composition (Boulanger), remaining there for three years. He moved to Canada in 1949 (taking Canadian nationality in 1955), and for three years held a Lady Davis Fellowship and an appointment as assistant professor at McGill University. There he founded the electronic music studio and served for six years as chair of the department of theoretical music. He held grants for electronic music research from the Canada Council (...