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Article

Eric Blom

revised by Malcolm Turner

(b Adelnau, Poznań, April 4, 1862; d Hildesheim, March 25, 1951). German musicologist. He received lessons in the violin and music theory from Otto Lüstner while at school in Breslau, and studied medieval history and classical philology at Marburg and Berlin (1882–5). After training as a librarian at the Royal University Library, Breslau (now Wrocław), he moved in 1889 to Greifswald University where in addition to his library duties he held the post of lecturer in medieval history and in librarianship from 1893. In 1900 he obtained a post at the Royal Library in Berlin, where he was instrumental in founding the Deutsche Musik Sammlung, and where he finally became director of the music section in 1915 in succession to Albert Kopfermann. He held this position until his retirement in 1927. The energetic cultivation of his dual interests, music and librarianship, both during his professional career and after his retirement to Hildesheim, resulted in the production of an invaluable series of catalogues of published works for various instruments or combinations of instruments....

Article

Gerard Béhague

(Paoliello de)

(b Varginha, Dec 6, 1911; d São Paolo, Feb 23, 1984). Brazilian folklorist and musicologist. At the São Paulo Conservatory of Drama and Music, Mário de Andrade directed her towards the study of Brazilian folk and popular musical traditions; she also studied ethnography and folklore with Dina Lévi-Strauss (1937). Her main areas of activity were sound archive organization, ethnomusicology and folklore: she organized and directed the Discoteca Pública Municipal de São Paulo from its foundation in 1935 until her retirement in 1968. The collection of historical recordings, the Discoteca Oneyda Alvarenga of the Centro Cultural São Paulo, was named after her to honour her contributions to the field. She was a founder-member of the Brazilian Academy of Music, a member of the Conselho Nacional de Folclore of the Ministry of Education and of the executive committee of the International Association of Music Libraries, a corresponding member of the International Folk Music Council, and a member of the Conselho de Música Popular Brasileira, do Museu da Imagem e do Som established at Rio de Janeiro. Her publications include editions of the volumes on music in the complete works of Mário de Andrade....

Article

Achilleus Chaldaiakis

(b Herakleion, Crete, 1946). Greek musicologist and conductor. He studied Byzantine music at the Greek Conservatory and Theology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, after which he received a scholarship from the Foundation of National Scholarships (IKY) and continued postgraduate studies in England. He served as professor of Byzantine chant and musicology at the University of Macedonia in Thessaloniki. His doctoral dissertation focused on Byzantine chant and was the first of its kind among Greek university dissertations. He has published several historical, theoretical, and hymnological papers, covering both Byzantine and post-Byzantine music, as well as material for a course on liturgical studies at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. He has served as academic supervisor for many university research programmes specializing in Byzantine music, and his research has resulted in the organization of special photographic and musical archives. He is conductor and founder of the Byzantine University Choir, established in ...

Article

Alypius  

Thomas J. Mathiesen

[Alypios]

(fl 4th century ce). Greek writer on music. His Introduction to Music (Eisagōgē mousikē) contains the most complete tabulation of ancient Greek musical notation. He is mentioned by Cassiodorus (Institutiones, ii.5) in the list of important Greek musical authors together with Ptolemy and Euclid (i.e. Cleonides). Alypius’s treatise may have been known to Boethius, who included notational symbols for the Lydian tonos in all three genera (De institutione musica, iv.3–4), but they are not attributed to him and could have been derived from other sources. Nothing is known of his life. The principal reasons for assigning such a late floruit have to do with the name (which is not otherwise attested before the 4th century), the content of the opening prose section (see below), and the general lack of interest in musical notation shown by writers securely dated before the 3rd century ce...

Article

James W. McKinnon

(b nr Metz, c775; d ?Metz, c850). Writer on liturgy and chant. He was probably educated under Alcuin at the monastery of St Martin in Tours, and served as archbishop of Trier from 809 and 814. In 813 he travelled to Constantinople at the behest of Charlemagne, returning the next year, apparently by way of Rome. He then began his literary activity, probably at Aachen. His longest and most significant work, the Liber officialis, first appeared in about 823, with a second edition in about 830. In 831 Amalarius visited Rome and requested a copy of the Roman antiphoner from Pope Gregory IV, only to be informed that Abbot Wala of Corbie had secured all available copies on his visit of 825 and had returned with them to Corbie. Amalarius himself made the journey to Corbie, there to compare the Roman antiphoners with their Frankish counterparts. Like ...

Article

F. Alberto Gallo

revised by Andreas Bücker

[Petrus Capuanus ]

(b ?Amalfi; fl 2nd half of the 14th century). Italian theorist . He was probably a member of the Amalfi nobility: in the 13th century a Petrus Capuanus de Amalfia was a cardinal, and an Andreas Capuanus was a canon in the choir of Amalfi Cathedral. Petrus's treatise, entitled Compendium artis motectorum Marchecti (ed. F.A. Gallo, Ant MI, Scriptores, i/1, 1966, pp.41–8), purports to be a summary of the mensural theory of Marchetto da Padova. In fact, however, it describes an Italian notation quite different from that of the early 14th century in that it is strongly influenced by the notation of 14th-century France. Petrus described a system containing three measures: tempus perfectum or duodenarium with each brevis divided into 12 minime, tempus imperfectum or octonarium with eight minime, and tempus imperfectissimum or quaternarium with four minime.

F.A. Gallo: La teoria della notazione in Italia dalla fine del XIII all'inizio del XV secolo...

Article

Achilleus Chaldaiakis

(b Anatoli at Ierapetra, Crete, 1938; d July 17, 2003). Greek musicologist. The son of a priest, Byzantine liturgical music was of great importance to his life, as was the folk music of his upbringing. He studied theology and Byzantine music in Athens. At the beginning of the 1970s he taught at the upper secondary school in Ierapetra, simultaneously serving as the cantor at the Timios Stavros Church. From 1971 until 1984 he worked at the Centre of Ethnography at the Academy of Athens, where he gathered and registered folk music. He wrote his doctoral dissertation (An Analysis of Stichera in the Deyteros Modes) under Jorgen Raasted in Denmark in 1973; his work was on fixed formulas in Byzantine chants as found in the manuscripts of Sinai 1230 from 1365. His dissertation was later published in the series Cahuers de l’ Institut du Moyen-Age Grec et Latin...

Article

Craig H. Russell

revised by Monica Hall

[Carles y Amat, Joan]

(b Monistrol de Montserrat, c1572; d Monistrol de Montserrat, Feb 10, 1642). Catalan theorist, guitarist and physician. Biographical information about Amat is drawn mainly from research carried out in 1918 by José Vilar (Revista Ilustrada Jorba, 1925, and Pujol, 1950). Although baptismal records are missing, Vilar placed Amat’s birth at around 1572, and this date is confirmed by a letter included in some editions of Amat’s treatise, which states that Amat was 67 in 1639. Amat himself said that he was born in Monistrol, naming his parents as Joan Carles and Joanna Amat. Amat received the doctorate in medicine at the University of Valencia, probably in 1595, and may have spent some time in Lérida. In 1600 he married Mónica Ubach Casanovas; they had no children. He was made municipal physician at Monistrol in 1618, performed a similar function at the nearby monastery of Montserrat, and occupied several other municipal offices. At the time of his death he had just started a period as mayor....

Article

Adeodatas Tauragis

(Jonas )

(b Kaunus, Feb 11, 1934). Lithuanian musicologist. He graduated from the Lithuanian State Conservatory (now the Lithuanian Academy of Music) in 1958 and later studied at the Leningrad Conservatory, gaining the MA (1969). He taught at the Vilnius Pedagogical Institute (1959–64) and then returned to the Conservatory to teach music theory and analysis. He became a professor in 1982 and doctor habilis in 1991 and he was head of the music theory department (1987–98). The main focus of his work has been Lithuanian contemporary music, particularly Gruodis, Juzeliūnas and Lithuanian symphonic music, and he has also studied the history of music theory. In 1979 he was awarded the Lithuanian State Prize as co-author and editor of Muzikos kūrinių analizes pagrindai (‘The basics of music analysis’, 1977) and in 1984 he gained the title of Honoured Art Worker.

Kompozitorius Juozas Gruodis (Kaunas, 1960)...

Article

Philipp Naegele

(b Mauth [now Vysoké Mýto], Nov 17, 1816; d Vienna, June 28, 1876). Austrian music historian and critic. His mother, sister of the musicologist Kiesewetter, fostered his love of music, painting and architecture; the performance of older music in the Kiesewetter home belonged to Ambros’s strongest early impressions. He acquired a musical training, despite his father’s objections, through a keen enthusiasm, an exceptional memory and an unbounded capacity for work. A humanistic Gymnasium education, a doctorate of law completed in 1839 at Prague University and vast reading, with a youthful predilection for Jean Paul, underlay his later scholarship and influenced his prolix style. Robert Schumann was his spiritual and journalistic model, and as ‘Flamin’ he associated with enthusiastic young followers, including Hanslick as ‘Renatus’, in a Bohemian branch of the ‘Davidsbund’ to fight musical conservatism in Prague. He was indebted more to the concepts and methods of art historians and historians of antiquity, of law and of literature, than to such musical colleagues as Kiesewetter or Fétis....

Article

Ambrose  

James W. McKinnon

(b Trier, c340; d Milan, 397). Saint, bishop and Doctor of the Church. He was the son of the Roman prefect of Gaul, and embarked upon a successful political career, being named consular governor of Liguria and Aemilia in about 370. While yet unbaptized he was elected Bishop of Milan by popular acclaim on 7 December 374. Together with Augustine and Jerome he is acknowledged as one of the three great Latin Church Fathers of the 4th and 5th centuries. He was primarily a public figure, however, unlike Augustine, the philosopher, or Jerome, the scholar; he consolidated the position of the Church against the powerful Arian heresy and the counter-attacks of paganism.

Tradition has assigned him a musical significance exceeding that of any other early Christian leader. This purported achievement can be summarized under four headings: (1) the co-authorship with Augustine of the Te Deum; (2) an involvement in the composition and organization of the Milanese or Ambrosian chant comparable to that formerly attributed to ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Neuss, July 6, 1899; d Lüdenscheid, Sept 1, 1994). German musicologist and choir director. He studied musicology with Ludwig at Göttingen University (1919–21) and subsequently with Gurlitt at Freiburg University, where he received the doctorate in 1924 with a dissertation on the melodies Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen and Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh' darein. He was a lecturer at the Bauernhochschule in Rendsburg (1924–5) and at the Volkshochschule in Kassel (1925–6). He then acted as music consultant to the Central Office for General Librarianship in Leipzig (1926–8) and lectured in Protestant church music at the University of Münster (1930–39). After the war he lectured at the Landeskirchenmusikschulen of Hanover (1947–8) and the Rhineland (1949–57).

In the early 1920s Ameln embarked on a fruitful career as a choral and orchestral conductor and director of choral courses. His object was the authentic performance of old music, and this was coupled with considerable editorial work. He edited the journal of the Finkenstein League, ...

Article

John Kmetz

(b Basle, Oct 11, 1495; d Basle, April 1562). Swiss humanist, musician and lawyer. The son of the printer Johannes Amerbach, he began studying the classics in Engental (near Basle) as the private pupil of Conrad Leontorius, who in 1507 described him as ‘both talented and lazy’. Between 1507 and 1509 he continued his education in Schlettstadt at the distinguished humanist school run by Hieronymus Gebwiler and by 1510 had matriculated at the University of Basle. In 1513 he was awarded the degree of baccalaureus artium, and upon graduation moved to Freiburg im Breisgau, where as a candidate for the degree of magister artium he specialized in ethics, physics and grammar. While in Freiburg he also began studying law under Ulrich Zasius and later continued these studies with Andrea Alciati in Avignon where, in 1525, he was awarded the degree of doctor juris. It was during his student days that Amerbach’s close relationship with Erasmus began; when the Dutch humanist died in Basle in ...

Article

Amerus  

F. Alberto Gallo

[Aluredus, Annuerus, Aumerus]

(fl 1271). English theorist, active in Italy. He was a clerk and a member of the household of Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi (later Pope Adrian V), and wrote his Practica artis musice in the cardinal's house, perhaps in August 1271 at Viterbo where the cardinal was staying for the conclave. The work is explicitly designed for teaching practical music to boys and includes all the conventional notions of the period concerning musica plana. The central part of the work contains the tonary according to the practice of the French and English churches and the Roman curia. There is a chapter towards the end devoted to the composition of polyphonic music (cantilene organice); this chapter may be the first treatise on measured music written in Italy. The simple notes described are the long, brevis and semibrevis, in a binary relationship (i.e. the long equals two breves and four ...

Article

Kristine H. Burns

(b Pasadena, CA, March 1, 1955). American composer, theorist and computer programmer. He studied at Pomona College (mathematics and music composition, BA 1977) and SUNY, Buffalo (MA 1979, PhD 1984); his teachers included Morton Feldman, Lejaren Hiller, Kohn, Kotoński, John Steele Ritter and Dorrance Stalvey. In 1995 he was appointed Senior Programmer Analyst with Client Logic Corporation (also known as the Softbank Services Group, UCA&L and Upgrade Corporation of America). He has also served as a visiting instructor for numerous courses in computer music, automated composition and systematic compositional procedures at SUNY, Buffalo, the New England Conservatory and the Kurzweil Foundation.

Ames is most noted for his work in systematic approaches to music composition. His use of computers in the composition of works for acoustic instruments has been influenced by techniques originated by Xenakis, Gottfried Michael Koenig and Hiller. His interests range from music cognition and hierarchical structures in music to computer-verified modelling of musical styles. His computer music programs, most notably Cybernetic Composer (...

Article

Robert Paul Kolt

(b Santiago, Chile, Jan 2, 1963). American composer, guitarist, ethnomusicologist, educator, and producer of Chilean birth. He immigrated to the United States as a child and studied guitar with Joseph Torello, Vincent Bredice, Lou Mowad, and George Aguiar. Amigo enrolled at Florida State University (1980) where he studied classical guitar with Bruce Holzman and William Carter and was active as a performer of popular music. In 1986, he moved to Los Angeles, earning a degree in political science from California State University, Northridge (BA 1995) and degrees in ethnomusicology (MA 1988, PhD 2003) from the University of Calfornia, Los Angeles. He studied in Los Angeles with Kenny Burrell, Gary Pratt, Harihar Rao, and wadada leo Smith. Amigo also performed with African, Arabic, funk, hard rock, free jazz, jazz, and reggae groups, and worked as a session guitarist for Hans Zimmer, Mark Mancina, Jay Rifkin, and Les Hooper, among others....

Article

Fredric Lieberman

(Marie)

(b Toulon, Feb 8, 1718; d Beijing, Oct 8, 1793). French writer on music. After a classical education, he entered the Society of Jesus as a novice in 1737, taught in Jesuit colleges for ten years, then, on being ordained, requested assignment to the China mission. He arrived in Beijing in 1751 and remained there until his death.

Amiot’s remarkable output of monographs, translations, dictionaries and voluminous scholarly correspondence includes several extensive works on Chinese music – among the first serious Western studies of any non-Western music. He first translated the 17th-century book Guyue jingjuan (‘Commentary on the Classic of Ancient Music’) by Li Guangdi; although paraphrased by Amiot and others, the translation was never published and the manuscript was lost. His next work on Chinese music, the Mémoire sur la musique des Chinois, was edited for publication by Abbé Pierre Joseph Roussier, a theorist specializing in ancient and foreign music; however, Roussier added lengthy, pedantic notes of little value while deleting many plates, all Chinese characters, and significant portions of the text, thus obscuring the original and impairing its value for future scholars. Other important manuscripts remain unpublished, including a study of contemporary Chinese music practice and a notebook containing 54 tunes transcribed into staff notation....

Article

Owen Wright

(d 1352). Persian scholar. The section on the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) in his encyclopedia Nafā’is al-funūn (‘Treasures of the sciences’), written in about 1340, contains a chapter on music which is one of the few theoretical texts in Persian from the period between the works of Quṭb al-Dīn Shīrāzī (...

Article

Wayne D. Shirley

(Bunshaft)

(b Brookline, MA, Nov 28, 1943). American conductor, musicologist, and music librarian. Anderson attended Bryn Mawr (BA 1965), the University of Illinois (MM 1969), and the University of Maryland (MLS 1989). Anderson was a Music Librarian at the Library of Congress from 1978 to 1995 before resigning to pursue an independent career as a conductor, specializing in the conducting of music to accompany the showings of silent films. Her interest in this area began in the late 1970s while working on the score for Carl Dreyer’s The Passion of Joan of Arc. Her conducting is informed by scholarly work; whenever possible her performances use the music for its original release; lacking that, she compiles a score using material which might have been used during the film’s first showings. A good example of her work is the 1922 film Häxan (now on Criterion Collection DVD 134)....

Article

Werner Gallusser

revised by Thomas B. Payne

(b Melbourne, May 1, 1929; d Armidale, June 30, 1981). Australian musicologist. He studied at the University of Adelaide under John Bishop, J.B. Peters and Andrew McCredie (BMus 1958, BMus Hons 1969, MMus 1970, DMus 1977). His scholarly activity concentrated on the music of the 13th century, particularly that of Notre Dame, and he produced a large body of articles and editions from 1969 to 1981. From 1970 to 1972 he was a research fellow at the Flinders University, Adelaide, and in 1973 he took up a lectureship in music at the University of New England, Armidale. Although he lived far from original sources and was able to visit Europe only once, he made a significant contribution to his field. Anderson played an important part in the establishment of an Australian Musicological Commission.

‘Mode and Change of Mode in Notre Dame Conductus’, AcM , 40 (1968), 92–114 ‘A New Look at an Old Motet’, ...