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Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[kikasa]

Drum of the Bena Kalundwe, Luba, and Sanga peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a cylindrical, footed body 1.2 to 1.5 metres long, with a single head nailed on. Among the Luba it is beaten for the enthroning of a chief, or in times of war....

Article

Tsimbi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Lamellaphone of the Loango region of the western Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has six or seven metal tongues and a resonator made of a hollowed piece of wood. It is open on the end nearer the player and beak-shaped at the opposite, closed end. The Sundi call it ...

Article

Tsinda  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[ntshinda]

Drum of the Mbole, Kutu, and Saka peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The single head is nailed to the footed body, which is decorated with geometrical incisions. It resembles the Nkundo bondundu.

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Article

Tolia Nikiprowetzky

The Tuareg (sing. Targi), probably of Berber origin, are defined here as traditionally nomads who are widely dispersed over the middle of the Sahara and the Sahelian steppe-country, to the south of the desert. The estimated population of 500,000 are Muslims and have a hierarchical matrilineal social structure with several castes. The Tuareg are in permanent contact with their neighbours, both those of African origin to the south and those of Arab descent to the north, and maintain economic relations with these groups through barter. In spite of this, they have retained their cultural identity and their own language, Tamachek or Tamacheq (with its own script, Tifinar). Many features of Tuareg music are likewise quite distinct from those of its neighbours. In contrast with black Muslim societies, there are no professional musicians among the Tuareg, although certain members of the servant caste do at times profit from their gifts as singers or instrumentalists....

Article

Ruth Davis and Leo J. Plenckers

(Arab. Al-Jumhūriyya al-Tūnisiyya)

Country in North Africa. It borders the Mediterranean Sea, flanked by Algeria and Libya, and has an area of 154,530 km² and a population of 9·84 million (2000 estimate). The population is almost entirely Arab-Berber and 98% Muslim. Arabic is the official language, with French reserved for the language of commerce.

Tunisian musical scholarship recognises a basic division between urban music traditions (belonging to the North African branch of Arab music), which are relatively homogeneous, and rural traditions (believed largely to derive from the Arab Bedouin tribes that settled in the individual regions), which are regionally diversified. In reality, the rural-urban divide is not quite so clearcut; migrations of rural peoples to the cities, the mass media and, since Tunisian independence from France (1956), tourism and government patronage have contributed to the widespread transplantation and transformation of previously localized rural traditions. However, with a few notable exceptions, Tunisian music scholars have concentrated almost exclusively on the urban sector and, particularly, on the repertory known as ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Double-headed drum of the Yeke, Luba, and Lomotwa peoples in the Shaba region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The body is made of a palm tree log, with both ends hollowed but left solid in the centre. The heads are nailed on. Frequently it is decorated with white and red geometrical patterns. It is suspended from the neck of the player and used to accompany songs of praise to the chief....

Article

Daniel Avorgbedor

(b Winneba, Ghana, 1937; d Legon, Ghana, June 14, 1993). Ghanaian composer. After obtaining diplomas in general and African music at the University of Ghana (1962–4), he entered the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest (1964), studying composition with Rezső Sugár. He later took the masters degree and the doctorate in musicology (1972) at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Most of his teaching and compositional career took place at the University of Ghana, Legon. Largely rooted in 20th-century avant-garde techniques, Turkson’s compositions emphasize atonality and serialism. Most of his early piano pieces are pedagogical. He was encouraged both by the analyses of Efutu traditional music he undertook for his doctoral dissertation and by criticisms of a lack of African sources in his works to explore indigenous musical elements in his compositions.

(selective list)

Article

David Scott

revised by Nigel Scaife

(b Melbourne, Oct 13, 1889; d London, Nov 18, 1946). Australian music critic and poet. Educated at the Scotch College, Melbourne, he emigrated to England in 1907 and from 1910 to 1914 he travelled in South Africa, Austria, Germany and Italy, where his studies ranged widely: he never devoted himself exclusively to music. In 1916 his first book of poems were published and in the same year he became music critic for the New Statesman, a post he held until 1940. After war service he was drama critic of the London Mercury (1919–23), music critic of Truth (1919–39) and literary editor of the Daily Herald (1920–23) and The Spectator (1942–6). From 1941 he was general editor of the series Britain in Pictures, which included his English Music.

Turner was one of the few non-specialist critics of his generation who maintained an unsophisticated approach without compromising critical perception. His criticism was often outspoken, controversial and highly opinionated but he was admired for his integrity and independence (many of his articles were reprinted in book form in ...

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Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe], Aug 17, 1942). British musicologist . He studied at the University of Cape Town (BMus 1963) and at Oxford, where he took the doctorate in 1969 with a dissertation on Janáček’s stylistic development as an operatic composer. He served as associate editor of Musical Times and worked on the editorial staff of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians before becoming lecturer at Nottingham University (1976; Reader in Opera Studies, 1989; British Academy Research Fellow in the Humanities, 1992–4; professor, 1996–7). In 1996 he became deputy editor of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and in the following year was appointed executive editor. He was appointed professorial research fellow at Cardiff University in 2000.

Tyrrell’s main research interest is Czech music, particularly Janáček and his operas, and he has done more than any other writer in this area to inform English-speaking scholars, students and audiences, through his lucid and informative writings and translations of key documentary sources. With Charles Mackerras he has produced definitive editions of ...

Article

Peter Cooke

Country in east-central Africa. Situated on the northern shores of Lake Victoria (Nyanja), it has an area of 241, 038 km² (including 43, 938 km² of water). Its population, numbering approximately 22·21 million (2000 estimate), is ethnically diverse, composed of over 30 individual societies distinguished by history, language, geographic location and social and political structures (fig.1 ). The many, varied musical traditions that result from this diversity serve as identity markers themselves.

The Ganda, Masaba (or Gisu), Gwere, Hima and Iru, Hutu, Kenyi, Kiga (Chiga), Konzo (Konjo), Kooki, Nyala, Nyambo, Nyole, Nyoro, Ruli, Sese and Tooro are Bantu-speaking groups who live south of a boundary formed by Lake Albert, the Victoria Nile and lakes Kyoga and Salisbury. Groups speaking River-Lake Nilotic languages live in north-central Uganda to the north of this boundary, which forms part of what is sometimes called the ‘Bantu line’; they include the Acholi, Alur, Labwor and Lango. Another related group, the Padhola, live in a small area in south-eastern Uganda. In the north and east, speakers of Plains Nilotic languages include the Karamojong (Karimojoŋ) and the Teso; in the north-west there are a few groups, including the Madi, that belong to the Moru-Madi division of central Sudanic languages, as well as a few representatives of the Plains Nilotes. In the extreme west of Uganda live a few small groups of ‘pygmy’ peoples: in the mountain rain-forests near the borders with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (the former Zaïre) live numerous bands of Twa. A few groups of Mbuti ‘pygmies’ inhabit the forest around the Semliki river along the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (For a discussion of their music ...

Article

Uindja  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Owen Wright

(b Denia, Spain, 1067; d Mahdia, Tunisia, 1134). Arab scientist and philosopher. His works, mainly on scientific topics, are said to have included a now lost Risāla fī al-mūsīqī (‘Treatise on music’). It is presumably from this that a surviving anonymous Hebrew translation was made which suggests that it originally formed part of the mathematical section (quadrivium) of an encyclopedia. It deals with the standard topics of definitions, intervals, tetrachord species, instruments and rhythm, and is largely derived from ...

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Undaji  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[kimpungili, mpungi]

Voice modifier of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made of reed or a hollow stem of the papaya tree. One end is covered with a thin skin or spider web that vibrates and alters the vocal timbre when the user sings into the other, open end. Although uncommon, it is used throughout the DRC and called by various names including ...

Article

Daniel Avorgbedor

(b Ogidi, Jan 1, 1946). Nigerian composer. After studying music at the University of Ibadan, Nsukka (diploma, 1973), he pursued graduate studies at Trinity College of Music (diploma, 1977). His completion of an MA in ethnomusicology at Queen’s University, Belfast, studying with John Blacking, marked an important shift in Uzoigwe’s theoretical background. In his works completed at Ibadan, notably the Igbo Songs (1972–3), he established as an important compositional trait the conscious application of Igbo instruments and performing practices, further reinforced through his systematic study of Igbo musical traditions in his doctoral dissertation. Such influences include the tonal properties of Igbo flutes, xylophones and drums, elements of improvisation within an aleatory framework and time-line patterns. Uzoigwe writes solely for African instruments in such works as Ritual Process (1980), solely for Western ones, as in Watermaid (1983), and for a combination of African and Western, as in ...

Article

Arvid O. Vollsnes

(b Stavanger, Aug 25, 1887; d Haugesund, Dec 14, 1952). Norwegian composer. The son of a missionary, he spent five years of his early childhood in Madagascar. He received his first musical education in Kristiania (now Oslo) between 1907 and 1909, qualifying as an organist and studying composition with Elling, an advocate of the Brahms tradition; he also published his first work. At the Berlin Conservatory (1909–11), where he studied the piano, theory and composition, one of his teachers was Bruch. Valen remained in Berlin for further study, working also as a teacher and accompanist. His first published works, such as Legend for piano, the Piano Sonata No.1 and the Violin Sonata, reflect the style of late German Romanticism and the influence of Brahms, Bruckner and Reger.

Valen returned to Norway in 1916 and settled in his secluded ancestral home, Valevåg, in the north-west. Preferring solitude, he made only short visits to the capital; he did, however, make a four-month visit to Italy in ...

Article

(b Calvinia district, Cape Province, April 26, 1916; d Stellenbosch, May 27, 1983). South African composer. Although he started to compose at an early age, he received no formal instruction until 1938; of his early works, only the Vier weemoedige liedjies are regularly performed. In 1938 he became the first South African recipient of a scholarship for overseas study from the PRS, and for four years studied with Theodore Holland at the RAM; he also gratefully acknowledged the advice and encouragement he received from Howard Ferguson. His first mature works, composed before leaving London in 1946, include the Five Elegies, the String Quartet no.1 and the Symphony no.1; notable performances in England include that of the Symphony under Wood and of Saudade by the violinist Olive Zorian at a Promenade concert, under Boult. During World War II Van Wyk also worked as an announcer for the BBC Afrikaans programme. After ...

Article

Alison Prain

(Albert)

(b Cape Town, May 12, 1942). South African composer. His composition teachers at the University of Cape Town (BMus 1964, MMus 1965, DMus 1971) were Erik Chisholm, Gideon Fagan, Stanley Glasser and Ronald Stevenson. In 1966 an award from the PRS enabled him to study for a year with Alan Bush at the RAM, where his Petrusa Variations (1967) won the Academy's Manson and West awards. He was appointed lecturer at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg (1976), later becoming associate professor (1982) and head of the school of music (1991–7). He has received many commissions and is prominent in South Africa as an adjudicator. His main compositional influences are Western: earlier works such as the sonata (1968) and concerto (1981) for violin have their roots in the music of Bartók, Schoenberg and Berg, while later works show the influence of modern American music and demonstrate his concern that contemporary music should be easily accessible to its audience. In ...