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Mark McKnight

(b Pasadena, CA). American librarian. She received the BA (1964) in English literature at Holy Names University, Oakland, California with additional study at San Francisco State University and University of Florence. Following a tour of duty in Nigeria as a Peace Corps volunteer (1965–7), she received her MSLS (1969) from the University of Southern California. From 1969 to 1976 she was employed at the U.S. Department of the Interior Library in a variety of capacities. Since 1976 she has worked at the Library of Congress, serving as chief of a number of divisions, including Cataloging-in-Publication, MARC Editorial, Social Sciences Cataloging, and Special Materials Cataloging, as well as served as coordinator of the Whole Book Cataloging Project. In 2005 she was appointed chief of the Music Division, where she has led a staff of 75 in a number of initiatives to increase access both online and on-site, including digitization of a wide array of special collections, retrospective conversion of the card catalog, preservation and security, and community outreach through such innovative projects as the Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song as a way of establishing ties with creators of popular music....

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Vizugo  

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Timothy D. Taylor

(b Pietermaritzburg, July 26, 1949). South African composer, naturalized Irish. A prodigiously talented pianist at an early age, he studied at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, graduating in 1972; he then went to Europe for postgraduate study at the University of Aberdeen. From 1973 until 1981 he lived in Cologne where he was a pupil of Stockhausen at the Hochschule für Musik and, in 1975–6, his teaching assistant. He also studied music theatre with Kagel, the piano with Aloys Kontarsky, and electronic music with Johannes Fritsch. During this time he was associated with the Neue Einfachheit movement in West Germany. While studying electronic music at the Hoschschule für Musik from 1976 to 1979, Volans made four journeys to South Africa to record diverse kinds of African music for WDR. In 1981 he returned to South Africa for an extended stay to teach composition at the University of Natal, Durban, where he was awarded the DMus in ...

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(b Kampala, Uganda, Aug 5, 1944). British violinist. His father was a German ethnomusicologist who went to Uganda to escape Hitler’s persecution. He took up violin at the age of nine, then the following year left Uganda and later studied music in England (gaining a BA at Durham University), the USA (1965–6), and Paris (with Nadia Boulanger, 1968–9) and taught at Durham University (1969–70). In 1971 he formed the group Chamberpot, which drew on many sources, including the music of Anton Webern, and from that time concentrated on free improvisation, developing the use of electronics as an integrated extension of the technical capabilities of the violin. Among the jazz musicians and groups with whom he has worked are Derek Bailey (1973–) and Bailey’s group Company (1982–6), a trio with Paul Lytton and Radu Malfatti (1974–5), another with Howard Riley and Barry Guy (recording ...

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Waka  

Ronnie Graham

Yoruba percussive and vocal genre. Waka has its origins in south-west Nigeria, where extensive Islamic conversion during the 19th century produced a variety of musical genres performed during key periods in the Muslim calendar. Waka (Hausa term for song or poem) was originally sung by women, accompanied by handclaps and beaten seli or pereseke (tin discs with metal rings attached), and remains one of the earliest of these genres. With the addition of drums in the Ijebu area, waka increasingly parted company with Islam by the 1920s, and with the involvement of professional musicians it became a more commercial and recreational music, devoid of religious purpose. The style continued to flourish informally over the next 40 years, until it assumed a new significance in the 1970s through the recordings of leading purveyors such as Madam Comfort Omoge and Salawa Abeni, the queen of Waka.

With men confined to instrumental ensembles, the modern ...

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Lisa B. Robinson

(b New York, June 29, 1946). American composer. She spent part of her childhood in Morocco, then returned to New York to attend the Juilliard Preparatory School, where she studied the piano, singing, theory and composition. She obtained degrees in composition at Sarah Lawrence College (BA 1967) and Columbia University (MA 1969), and, as a pupil of John Corigliano, at the Manhattan School of Music (DMA 1984). She has received several awards, including one from the National Orchestral Association in 1991 for The Tiger’s Tail; her commissions include a work for the New York Choral Society in 1994. Wallach’s works are widely performed in the USA and Europe and several have been recorded.

Her sacred works use a post-Wagnerian tonal idiom, while the more experimental orchestral works exhibit a wide range of influences – including Hebrew chant and North African dance traditions – and effects.

(selective list...

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James May

(b Cape Town, July 28, 1958; d Paarl, Nov 29, 2005). South African tenor . He studied singing at the University of Stellenbosch, and made his operatic début as Jaquino in 1981 in Cape Town. From 1982 he was attached to a number of opera houses in Europe, principally in Stuttgart and Zürich, where he sang Tonio in La fille du régiment (1989). He made his début at Covent Garden in 1985 as Almaviva and at the Vienna Staatsoper in 1989 as Tamino, singing Belmonte at Salzburg the same year. The lyric quality of his voice made him an ideal interpreter of the works of composers such as Donizetti, Mozart and Rossini. Although concentrating at first on lighter roles, he had more recently taken on more dramatic roles by Massenet, Verdi, Puccini and others. His most significant recordings include Così fan tutte and Fidelio (under Harnoncourt), Meistersinger...

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Washint  

Claire Lacombe

End-blown flute of Ethiopia. It is made of a kind of bamboo (schembeko) in various lengths and pitches and typically has four to six equidistant fingerholes, sometimes with any unused ones covered with adhesive paper. The blowing edge is sanded straight rather than notched, and the flute is held obliquely. It is played exclusively by males, often to improvise luxuriant ornamentations on folk melodies. Traditionally, the washint has a pentatonic anhemitonic scale (tizita) and is played by shepherds in the Amhara and Tigray regions, who alternately improvise tunes on the flute and sing melodically-related melismatic songs (zefen) about personal memories and family history. The use, tuning and repertory of the washint were modified during the 1960s when it was brought to Addis Abeba and entered the orchestra of the National Theatre. Since that time, to be able to play the four traditional pentatonic anhemitonic scales of northern and central Ethiopia (as chordophones do), a ...

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Gary Stewart

[(Jules) Shungu Wembadio]

(b Lubefu, Kasai Occidental Province, Belgian Congo [Democratic Republic of the Congo], June 14, 1949). Congolese singer and songwriter. Wemba's career began in 1970 in the group Zaïko Langa Langa. Zaïko was the most prominent of groupes des jeunes, youth bands that emerged in the late 1960s and early 70s as an alternative to older Congolese rumba bands. Personnel splits took Wemba to new groups, Lokole Isifi (1974), Yoka Lokole (1976) and his own Viva La Musica (1977).

Wemba sings in a strong, clear tenor voice, sometimes ascending to falsetto. His Mère Supérieure won best song honours in a 1977 poll of Kinshasa writers; Analengo (1981) and Evénement (1982) also earned acclaim. A 1986 album, L'Esclave (the slave), departed from the usual musings on love and relationships to attack the exploitation of Africa. Wemba starred in La vie est belle...

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(-Martin )

(b Mostaganem, Algeria, Jan 6, 1867; d Lyons, Aug 12, 1943). French composer . While training at the military establishment of Saint-Cyr he wrote an opéra comique, Le maître à chanter (1, M. Checzy), performed privately at the chateau of Mme de Trédern in Brissac (1890) and then re-orchestrated for the Grand Théâtre in Nantes (...

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Wonga  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Graham Wade

(b Edinburgh, Oct 4, 1955). British guitarist. He was educated in South Africa, and later studied with Narciso Yepes and at Goldsmiths' College, London. He made his début at the Newport Music Festival in 1984. Later he settled in Toronto. He was artistic director at the Music in Blair Atholl Chamber Music Festival, Scotland (1991), the Speedside Chamber Music Festival (1993) and the Guelph Spring Festival, Canada (1994). He specializes in 19th- and 20th-century chamber music with guitar, has recorded the music of José Ferrer and François de Fossa, and published editions of Napoléon Coste and Giulio Regondi. His many recordings include a set of ten discs devoted to the guitar works of Zani de Ferranti. Wynberg is not only a virtuoso performer of distinction but one of the guitar's foremost scholars, researching many areas of the instrument's neglected repertory, much of which he has recorded....

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Ferdinand J. de Hen

Drum of the Yeke people in the Shaba region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is a very large, double-headed instrument, part of the king’s regalia. The heads, of buffalo, antelope, or elk skin, are laced together and beaten with two sticks. The yamilango may be played only by the king and only on official occasions. (...

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Yeye  

Cylindrical Slit-drum of the Konda people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made from wood, 30 to 50 cm long and 15 to 20 cm in diameter, and has a square hole at both ends of the slit. The yeye is held in the crook of the left arm and is beaten with one stick; it accompanies dancing. ...

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Akin Euba

The Yoruba people live predominantly in the western state of Nigeria, Federal Republic of, but there is also a considerable Yoruba population in the central and southern areas of neighbouring Benin, and a lesser population in Togo. The Yoruba of the western state, who acknowledge Ile-Ife as their ancestral and cultural home, are grouped into the subcultures of Oyo, Egba, Egbado, Ijesha, Ife, Ijebu, Ekiti, Ondo and Akoko. At the height of the Oyo empire in the 18th century, most of these groups owed allegiance to the Oyo, a unity that was broken with the collapse of the empire in the 19th century. A more comprehensive and lasting unity developed under British administration and the term ‘Yoruba’, originally used to refer only to the Oyo, became the name for all Yoruba-speaking peoples.

Yoruba traditional music is marked by an impressive variety of genres, forms, styles and instruments. While this variety is partly a result of the diverse subcultures, much of it is common to Yoruba culture as a whole. The dominant music today is that known as ...

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Yua  

Laurence Libin

[wua, hua]

End-blown notched wooden flute or whistle found throughout northern Ghana particularly among the Builsa and Kasena Nankani peoples. It is played with drums and xylophone or alone by shepherds and hunters, sometimes for signaling or as a bird call. A modern commercial version, 12 cm long, has two fingerholes, one on either side in protrusions covered by thumb and index finger....

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Riëtte Ferreira

(b Pretoria, July 9, 1948). South African composer. Her early piano studies were with Goldie Zaidel then with Philip Levy and Adolph Hallis in South Africa and John Lill in London. She studied composition at the University of Pretoria (MMus 1971), where she was particularly influenced by Arthur Wegelin and Stefans Grové, both pioneers in the use of indigenous African elements. At the RCM in London she continued her composition studies with John Lambert and Tristram Carey. She was selected to participate in a masterclass with Boulanger. Her studies with Ligeti in Hamburg (1974) significantly influenced her style. In 1975 she began to lecture at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and at the University of Pretoria she became the first woman in South Africa to obtain the DMus in composition in 1979. Zaidel-Rudolph is one of the most prolific and commissioned composers in South Africa. Her style reflects both the inspiration of religious mysticism and the richness of a transcultural approach which merges African and Western musical elements....

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Moya Aliya Malamusi and Moses Yotamu

Country in south-central Africa. It has an area of 752,610 km² and a population of 9·87 million (2000 estimate). It was a British colony from 1895 to 1953, and after 1911 it was known as Northern Rhodesia. Part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963, it became an independent republic in 1964.

Except for small hunter-gatherer groups in the south-west who cross the borders with Namibia and Angola and speak a San language, all the peoples of present-day Zambia speak Bantu languages. Seven Zambian languages are officially approved by the Ministry of Education and are used in schools: Cinyanja (Nyanja), Icibemba (Bemba), Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Silozi (spoken by the Lozi) and Tonga.

Before 700 ce much of the south was occupied by San hunter-gatherers. When Bantu-language speakers migrated to areas of central and southern Zambia c300–400 ce from the north-east, Bantu-San interaction began. According to Gerhard Kubik (...