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Article

Alfred Clayton

(‘The Dwarf’)

Opera in one act, op.17, by Alexander Zemlinsky to a libretto by Georg Klaren after Oscar Wilde’s novel The Birthday of the Infanta; Cologne, Neues Theater, 28 May 1922.

The origins of Der Zwerg lie in Zemlinsky’s obsession with ugliness. Significantly, Alma Mahler referred to Zemlinsky himself in her memoirs as ‘a horrible dwarf’. He may first have come across Wilde’s story in 1908, when Schreker’s pantomime Der Geburtstag der Infantin was first performed in Vienna. Three years later Zemlinsky commissioned Schreker to write a libretto on the subject of ‘the tragedy of the ugly man’. This crystallized in Die Gezeichneten, which Schreker decided to set himself; its principal character, Alviano, bears a striking resemblance to the Dwarf. Zemlinsky’s involvement in the origins of Die Gezeichneten goes some way towards explaining why Klaren’s libretto differs significantly from Wilde’s story. In Klaren’s version the Infanta is no longer a girl but a young woman whose cruelty is premeditated. The Dwarf is no longer a charming natural monster but a much more complex and indeed civilized being. Zemlinsky’s emotional identification with the hero also suggests why the work seems so highly charged. In a letter to his publisher Emil Hertzka he confessed that it differed from ...

Article

William Kirk Bares

(b New York, NY, May 18, 1930; d Paris, France, April 2, 2010). American Jazz trombonist, bass trumpeter, and author. He is most widely known in musical circles for his work in Miles Davis’s Birth of the Cool band in 1948. Zwerin is better known to readers as a jazz contributor to Esquire, Playboy, Rolling Stone, Vogue, and Elle, and also as America’s preeminent European jazz correspondent. After a stint as a jazz critic for New York’s Village Voice (1964–9), he became the publication’s European editor (1969–71). In 1979 Zwerin became the Paris-based jazz critic for the International Herald Tribune, and in 2005 for Bloomberg News. His expatriate experiences are detailed with wit and candor in the autobiographical The Parisian Jazz Chronicles: an Improvisational Memoir (New Haven, 2005). His books La Tristesse de Saint Louis: Jazz under the Nazis (1987, reprinted as ...

Article

Karl Pfannhauser

[Johann Nepomuk Felix ]

(b Weitra, Lower Austria, bap. June 5, 1759; d Vienna, Aug 30, 1826). Austrian composer . He was a choirboy at the Schottenkloster in Vienna, studied humanities at Krems an der Donau and completed a philosophy course in Vienna. In 1778 he entered the Schottenkloster and in 1783 became a Benedictine priest; he was a priest (1786–1802) at the Laurenzkirche in the parish of Schottenfeld, Vienna, and parish administrator (1802–7) at the Ägydkirche in the Viennese suburb of Gumpendorf, where Haydn was also living. From 18 July 1807 until his death Zwetler was a prior and parish administrator at the Schottenkloster. He did much to improve its music, particularly during the period of peace (1815–48) that followed the Vienna Congress. Under him J.L. Eybler was the choir director, followed in 1824 by Ignaz Assmayr (1790–1862), and Franz Volkert (1778–1845) was the organist. During his administration the abbey’s archive and repertory were enriched by many works of the Classical masters, and Joseph Frühwald (...

Article

Victor H. Mattfeld

(b Konstanz, c1496; d Bischofszell, Oct 23, 1542). Swiss reformer, poet and hymnographer . In 1509 he entered Freiburg University to study law, where he met and became a friend of the humanist Bonifacius Amerbach. In 1518 he was ordained and, with his brother, matriculated at Bologna University, later going to study law at Siena University. In 1521 he became instructor in jurisprudence at Basle University and continued his studies in theology. At about this time he became a follower of Luther and eschewed humanism. In 1522 he married and took a parish at Riedlingen. Because of his Reformation activities he was ordered to appear in Rome in September 1524, but when he ignored this it was not pursued. However, because the peasants considered him a member of their party in the Peasants' War of 1525, he was expelled from Riedlingen. Later in the same year he assumed a pastorate in Konstanz where, with his brother Konrad and the brothers Ambrosius and Thomas Blarer, he was to become a leader of the reform movement....

Article

Zwickau  

Martin Schoppe

City in eastern Germany, dating from about 1200. The cathedral (St Marien) was consecrated in 1118, and in 1291 a city school was founded; its pupils provided music for the cathedral, but by 1470 the latter had appointed its own precentor. Typical of many medieval cities, it held performances of mystery plays and Latin comedies, and, in the early 16th century, Protestant plays at the school. The school day began and ended with choral singing; its library, established in 1537, contains some valuable manuscripts, including two volumes of music in a 15-volume original manuscript of Hans Sachs. The city was also a centre for itinerant musicians, a tradition which continued until 1846. On public occasions music was usually provided by the guild of Stadtpfeifers, employed by the city from the mid-15th century; by the mid-16th century there is evidence of an official Stadtpfeiferei. 16th-century precentors at the cathedral included Simon Cellarius, Cornelius Freundt and Johann Stolle. Zwickau's cultural life suffered during the Thirty Years War and as a result of the plagues of ...

Article

K. Robert Schwarz

(b Miami, April 30, 1939). American composer and violinist. She studied with John Boda at Florida State University (BM 1960, MM 1962), then moved to New York to study the violin with Galamian. As a member of the American SO under Stokowski, she acquired invaluable training in performance and orchestration. Eventually, she enrolled at the Juilliard School, where she studied with Carter and Sessions and, in 1975, became the first woman to take the DMA in composition. Meanwhile, performances of her music began occurring with increasing frequency: Symposium for orchestra (1973) was conducted by Boulez, the String Quartet 1974 was played at the ISCM World Music Days in Boston and the Sonata in Three Movements (1973–4) was performed by her husband, the violinist Joseph Zwilich. Symphony no.1, first performed in 1982 by the American Composers Orchestra under Schuller, brought her international renown in ...

Article

Elizabeth Norman McKay

(‘The Twin Brothers’)

Posse in one act by Franz Schubert to a libretto by Georg von Hofmann after a French vaudeville Les deux Valentins; Vienna, Kärntnertortheater, 14 June 1820.

Schubert received this, his first theatrical commission, at the end of 1818 and completed the work in January 1819. The naive plot is a love story in a pastoral setting complicated by problems of mistaken identity: twin brothers, Franz and Friedrich (played by the one baritone soloist), return separately to their village, the first of them expecting to marry Lieschen (soprano), who is already betrothed to Anton (tenor). Schubert was surely incapable of composing the simple, tuneful melodies and light accompaniments customary in the artless verse patterns of plays of this type. He adopted instead the romantic Singspiel style of such composers as Weigl and Gyrowetz, responding more to the love interest than to the farcical element, thus creating an imbalance between text and music. The rhapsodical sentiments of the young lovers drew him to add new if not entirely appropriate dimensions to the play: tender, lyrical melodies, fine tone-painting which includes nature imagery of great charm, and ensembles in which he used some of the techniques of Rossini, whose operas were becoming increasingly popular in Vienna. The finest music comes in Lieschen’s aria (no.3) ‘Der Vater mag wohl immer Kind mich nennen’, in the brilliant little quartet (no.5) ‘Zu rechter Zeit bin ich gekommen’, and in the energetic quintet with chorus (no.9) ‘Packt ihn, führt ihn vor Gericht’....

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b Hamburg, Germany, May 7, 1955). German pianist, brother of Torsten Zwingenberger. He studied classical piano from the age of six and adopted the boogie-woogie style in 1973. From 1974 he performed at numerous boogie-woogie, blues, and jazz festivals and broadcast frequently on television and radio throughout Europe, and between 1983 and 1991 he made regular appearances on the television program “ZDF-Teleillustrierte.” In addition he toured with Monty Sunshine and Max Collie (both 1978) and Alexis Korner (March 1979), recorded in Los Angeles with Joe Turner (ii) (May 1978, 1981), and toured and recorded with Lionel Hampton (April–May 1980, 1982, 1983) and the blues singer Champion Jack Dupree (October 1980, 1988, 1990). From the early 1980s Zwingenberger toured in the shows Stars of Boogie Woogie and Hot Jazz Meeting, and he made tours of East Asia (1981), Indonesia and Malaysia (...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b Hamburg, Germany, Jan 12, 1959). German drummer, brother of Axel Zwingenberger. From the mid-1970s he led his own groups and performed and recorded regularly with his brother; in 1978 the two recorded in Los Angeles as accompanists to Joe Turner (ii). In 1983 Zwingenberger made the album Buddy Tate Meets Torsten Zwingenberger (Moustache Music 120159) and formed the Swingburger Quintet, and in the 1990s he led a quartet. He recorded again as a leader in 1989 (with Plas Johnson as his guest soloist) and in 1993 (the album Open Sunroof, Blackbird 41012) and as an unaccompanied soloist in 1991. In November 1992 he played in New York in a hard-bop trio with Peter Bernstein and the double bass player Ari Roland.

ReclamsJ “Jazz News,” JP, 32/7 (1983), 37 A. Geyer: “Buddy Tate und Torsten Zwingenberger Band,” JP, 37/1 (1988), 35 C. Hasenmaile: “Moderner geworden: Torsten Zwingenberger,” JP...

Article

Robin A. Leaver

[Huldreich ]

(b Wildhaus, Jan 1, 1484; d Cappel, Oct 11, 1531). Swiss humanist and church reformer . Of all the reformers of the 16th century he was the most musically gifted and yet the most antagonistic towards the use of music in public worship. He was educated first in Basle, then in Berne where he came under the influence of the poet, composer and humanist scholar Wölflin. While in Berne, at the age of 12 Zwingli entered the chapel choir of the local monastery simply to further his musical ambitions. Many of his contemporaries (e.g. Bullinger and Myconius) commented on his extraordinary musical gifts. Wyss (see Finsler, 1901) wrote:

I have never heard about anyone who, in the musical arts – that is, in singing and all the instruments of music, such as lute, harp, large viol, small viol, pipes, German flute … the trumpet, dulcimer, cornett, and waldhorn, and whatever else of such like had been invented … could take it to hand as quickly as he....