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Article

Michael Tilmouth

(Ger.: ‘interlude’)

An interlude or intermezzo. The term has been applied to musical interludes that serve simply to entertain between the acts of operatic works of the 19th and 20th centuries, although ‘entr’acte’ or ‘Entrakt’ has often been preferred even in German-speaking countries. It has also been used of those interludes that contribute to the essential dramatic structure of the whole, e.g. the Zwischenspiel between Acts 1 and 2 of Schoenberg’s Moses und Aron; ‘Siegfrieds Rheinfahrt’ is described as a Zwischenspiel in some editions of Götterdämmerung, though it is doubtful whether Wagner himself so described it.

In writings about music the word is commonly used of the episodes in a fugue or rondo, the orchestral tuttis of a concerto, the purely instrumental interludes in a song accompaniment, organ interludes between the stanzas of a congregational hymn or the passages between statements of the chorale tune in a chorale prelude and, rather loosely, of the ...

Article

Article

Luise Marretta-Schär

(Johann Josef Maria )

(b Bauen, canton of Uri, Nov 17, 1808; d Mehrerau, nr Bregenz, Nov 19, 1854). Swiss composer . He is best remembered for Trittst im Morgenrot daher, now the Swiss national anthem. At the age of 12 he entered the school of Wettingen Abbey. There he studied the piano, organ, violin and guitar, the last-named remaining his favourite instrument. He took his final vows as a Cistercian monk in 1827 and was ordained priest in 1832. He became secretary to the abbot, a music teacher and an organ specialist, but his main post was that of Kapellmeister; he contributed to the abbey's reputation as a distinguished centre of the arts.

In 1841 the radicals resolved to abolish the Aargau monasteries and the monks were dispersed; Zwyssig was offered several outstanding positions, which he declined, preferring to remain in attendance on his abbot. A nomadic existence followed, during which they stayed in St Karl (near Zug) for some time; there Zwyssig composed ...

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Zydeco  

Mark F. DeWitt

Regional accordion-based music for partner dancing, originating from traditional music of Afro-French Creoles of rural southwest Louisiana and influenced by Cajun music and African American popular music genres such as urban blues, rhythm-and-blues, and hip hop.

In the context of zydeco, “Creole” as an ethnic term refers to persons of African descent with francophone family histories that may also include French, Spanish, Native American, and other backgrounds. This usage of the contested term Creole varies somewhat in New Orleans, on the opposite (east) side of the Atchafalaya Basin. Cajun music and zydeco developed in parallel in the same region of the United States, borrowed extensively from each other, and took advantage of the same regional recording industry. (See also Creole music and European American music: French American music .)

The terms “Creole music,” “French music,” and la-la are often used to refer more specifically to an older style of Creole dance music with Afro-Caribbean elements that predates zydeco. A dance held in someone’s home was known as a ...

Article

Lothar Knessl

(b Vienna, April 29, 1935). Austrian composer and pianist. He studied at the Vienna Music Academy, where his teachers included Karl Schiske (composition), Bruno Seidlhofer and Josef Dichler (piano). He also attended the Darmstadt summer courses (1958, 1964–6), winning the Kranichstein Music Prize of the international piano competition on his first visit. In 1965, with Kurt Schwertsik and H.K. Gruber, he founded the neo-tonal and ironically intended Salonkonzerte, through which he hoped to counter a view of ‘music as a substitute religion’. After 1967 the group developed into the MOBart & toneART ensemble, whose productions, linking performance, music and language, related to the ‘instrumental theatre’ movement. Zykan's most characteristic works are his ‘total art productions’, in which processes of permutation extend to movement, sounds and linguistic elements alike, sometimes producing compromise and sometimes distortion, and often reducing critical comment to the absurd. As his creative work has been conceived entirely in relation to the present, a number of his works exist only in a sketch-like draft form. He has mostly dispensed with publication, since the majority of his works depend on his personal interpretation. As a result, a number of compositions have been lost. He has also created TV advertisements for well-known firms....

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Irena Poniatowska

(b Żary or Laskowiec, Feb 13, 1796 or 1793; d Warsaw, June 19, 1867). Polish tenor and conductor . He studied the violin and then made his début as a singer in Paisiello’s La frascatana at Minsk (1814). He sang at Vilnius (1815–23, 1838 and 1851...

Article

Alan Blyth

(b Landvarov, nr Vilnius, Jan 23, 1935). Polish soprano . She studied at Łódź and made her début in 1957 at Kraków as Halka. After winning the 1960 Munich radio prize she sang at Oberhausen, Dortmund (1962) and Düsseldorf (1965–70). She appeared as Octavian at Glyndebourne (1965), made her Covent Garden début in 1968 as Violetta, then sang Countess Almaviva, Donna Elvira and Desdemona, a role she took to La Scala in 1977. She made her Metropolitan début in 1968 as Donna Elvira; later roles there included Tatyana, Suor Angelica, Fiordiligi, Elsa (Lohengrin), Elisabeth (Tannhäuser), Marguerite, the Marschallin, Mimì, Tosca, Butterfly and Manon Lescaut. She sang throughout Europe and the USA, her repertory including Adriana Lecouvreur, Amelia (Un ballo in maschera), Leonora (Il trovatore), Liù, Lisa (The Queen of Spades), Maddalena de Coigny, and both the Composer and Ariadne. Zylis-Gara was also admired as a concert singer and recitalist. She was a dignified yet impassioned actress, and had a fresh, lyric voice, notable for its smoothness of production. Among her recordings are a radiant Composer under Kempe....

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Jacqueline Avila

(b Mexico City, June 21, 1956). American composer and professor, born in Mexico. Zyman began his training in Mexico City, where he studied with flutist Héctor Jaramillo and pianist José Calatayud. He later studied piano and conducting at the Conservatorio Nacional de Música del INBA and composition with Humberto Hernández Medrano, earning a diploma in piano performance in 1980. He continued his musical studies in New York at the Juilliard School (MM 1984, DMA 1987) under the guidance of Stanley Wolfe, Roger Sessions, and David Diamond. Since 1987 Zyman has been on the Juilliard faculty in the department of Literature and Materials of Music. His musical works include two symphonies; concertos for piano, guitar, and harp; several symphonic pieces and chamber works; pieces for voice; and a sonata for solo guitar. Zyman also composed an original symphonic score to the film La otra conquista (The other conquest, ...

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Zofia Chechlińska

[Živný; Vojtěch, Zhyvny, Ziwny, Żiwny, Zwiny]

(b Bohemia, May 13, 1756; d Warsaw, Feb 21, 1842). Polish piano teacher and composer of Bohemian origin. He studied the violin, the piano, harmony and counterpoint with Jan Kuchař in Bohemia, where his earliest compositions were also written. After a probable stay in Stuttgart and Zweibrücken, he arrived in Poland some time during the reign of Stanisław August (1764–95). For three years he worked at the court of Prince Kazimierz Sapieha; he then moved to Warsaw, where within a short time he became one of the most successful piano teachers. Of the large number of pianists who studied with Żywny, the most famous was Chopin, whom Żywny taught from 1816 until 1822. Chopin thought highly of him, saying that, ‘with Żywny and Elsner the greatest ass would learn’; and the greatness of the pupil helped to spread the fame of the teacher. It was Żywny who eventually decided to discontinue Chopin’s lessons, feeling that there was nothing further he could teach him. Żywny wrote a number of works for the piano, including sonatas, preludes and polonaises, as well as lieder and overtures. None of his works were published and nearly all are lost. (...