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(b London, Oct 6, 1912; d Farnham, Surrey, Feb 2, 1997). English musicologist, conductor and instrumentalist, brother of the double-bass player and composer Francis Baines. During his education at Westminster School (King’s Scholar, 1925–30), his musical talents became evident, encouraged by the school director of music, C. Thornton Lofthouse. In 1930 he went to Christ Church, Oxford, where he studied natural sciences and graduated with honours in chemistry in 1933. The award of an open scholarship to the RCM changed the direction of his career, and after two years’ study devoted mainly to the bassoon he joined the LPO as third bassoon and double bassoon in 1935. This appointment (interrupted by six years’ army service) continued until 1948 and led to his election as assistant conductor in 1949. The following year he became associate conductor to the International Ballet Company, but remained a regular conductor of the LPO Schools Concerts. Between ...


Jonas Westover

(b England, c1820s, d Brooklyn, NY, Dec 10, 1888). Composer, conductor, arranger, and violinist, active in the United States. The date and specific location of his birth remain unknown, but Baker’s youth was spent in England. By age seven he showed enough promise on the violin to merit the attention of Princess Augusta, who secured him a place at the Royal Academy of Music in London. There he studied violin under the tutelage of Francois Cramer and Paolo Spagnoletti. Baker also learned piano, composition, and harmony with Thomas Attwood, with whom Baker claimed to have studied many of Mozart’s manuscripts. As a violinist, Baker made his début at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden on 4 June 1832, while his conducting career began in 1840 with a concert at the Queen’s Concert Rooms, London. Shortly afterwards, he performed as concertmaster and violin soloist with the orchestra of Philippe Musard. Baker would reprise these two roles under the direction of Louis Jullien, for whom he also arranged several pieces of music. During this period, Baker had begun to compose, and Jullien himself published some of his earliest works. Though the start date of Baker’s contract with Jullien is not clear, he was still working with the conductor on his tour to the United States in the spring of ...


Stuart Campbell

( b Nizhniy Novgorod, Dec 21, 1836/Jan 2, 1837; d St Petersburg, 16/May 29, 1910). Russian composer, conductor, teacher and pianist .

Balakirev was the son of a minor government official. His musical education began with his mother’s piano tuition and proceeded to a course of summer lessons in Moscow with Aleksandr Dubuque. At that time the leading musical figure and patron in Nizhniy Novgorod (and author of books on Mozart and Beethoven) was Aleksandr Ulïbïshev, and it was through his household pianist and musical organizer Karl Eisrich that Balakirev’s induction to music, embracing the crucial discoveries of Chopin and Glinka, continued. Eisrich and Ulïbïshev provided Balakirev with further opportunities to play, read and listen to music, and to rehearse other musicians in orchestral and choral works, including, when he was 14, Mozart’s Requiem. His first surviving compositions date from the age of 15. Balakirev’s formal education began at the Gymnasium in Nizhniy Novgorod and continued after his mother’s death in ...


Barry Kernfeld

(b Stevensville, MT, March 20, 1916; d San Francisco, Oct 26, 1989). American pianist and bandleader. As a teenager he went with his family to Santa Clara, California, and in 1938 he moved to San Francisco, where he immediately began working professionally. He played traditional jazz with Turk Murphy (1942) and, after a brief period of army service, Lu Watters (1943) and performed and recorded with Bunk Johnson (1943–4). He led his own bands (1944–9), performed and recorded with Bob Scobey and Murphy again (December 1947, 1949–50), rejoined Watters (1949), and later worked with Marty Marsala (1954). Bales recorded as a leader in 1949, 1950, and 1957, and in 1958 and 1959 led bands at the first two Monterey jazz festivals, accompanying Lizzie Miles in the latter year. As an unaccompanied soloist he made recordings in ...


Ken Rattenbury

[Kenneth Daniel ]

(b Ilford, England, May 22, 1930). English trumpeter and bandleader. He took up trumpet at the age of 14 and first worked professionally when he was 17. In the early 1950s he played dixieland with several bands, notably those of Charlie Galbraith and the drummer Eric Delaney, and in 1953 he joined a group led by Sid Phillips, with whom he played a stylized brand of dixieland characterized by elaborate arrangements. Ball recorded as a leader from 1957, and after leaving Phillips’s group he worked briefly as a freelance and was a member of Terry Lightfoot’s ensemble. In November 1958 he formed the Jazzmen, with which he made several recordings that achieved great popularity (Samantha, 1961; Midnight in Moscow, 1961; So do I, 1962) and many tours, including one of the USSR (1985); the band remained busy in the 1990s. Ball’s full, muscular tone and strong sense of melody display the influence not only of Armstrong but also of Bunny Berigan and Bix Beiderbecke; in his performances he reveals a warm, extroverted personality....


Kathleen Haefliger

revised by Jonas Westover

[Gyorgy Braunstein]

(b Györ, Hungary, Apr 3, 1913; d San Jose, CA, June 22, 1996). American composer, conductor, and cellist of Hungarian birth. He took classes from Zoltán Kodály and studied composition with Leo Weiner at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest (1932–8), and he became well known as a cellist in Hungary. As a chamber musician, he made his mark through performances with the Pro Ideale Quartet, of which he was a founding member. He came to the United States shortly before World War II. From 1939 until 1943 he studied composition at Princeton University with ROGER SESSIONS and taught there as a cellist. He played cello with the San Francisco SO from 1946 to 1950, and continued performing chamber music in California. During this time, he also began composing regularly. An important move to Hawaii gave him the opportunity to conduct the Honolulu SO from ...


Charles Fox and Digby Fairweather

(b Welwyn Garden City, April 17, 1930). English jazz trombonist, arranger and bandleader. He studied the trombone and the double bass at the GSM in London, and formed his first traditional jazz band in 1949. In 1953 he helped to organize a band that was led by Ken Colyer, at that time the most ardent British propagandist for traditional New Orleans music. The following year Barber took over the band; Colyer was replaced by Pat Halcox, and the ensemble soon became one of the most popular and technically accomplished groups of its kind. From the mid-1950s Barber helped foster British interest in blues by bringing over such American musicians as Muddy Waters, the harmonica player Sonny Terry and the guitarist and singer Brownie McGhee. He made several tours of the USA beginning in 1959, and also recorded two albums with his American Jazz Band, which included Sidney De Paris, Edmond Hall and Hank Duncan. Barber expanded his interests, recording classic rags (scored for his band) long before the popular rediscovery of Scott Joplin, and working with musicians from other areas of jazz (notably the Jamaican saxophonists Bertie King and Joe Harriott). Renewed interest in traditional jazz in the early 1960s brought wide success to Barber and his group, which included as its singer his wife, Ottilie Patterson. After rhythm-and-blues achieved general popularity in the early 1960s he re-formed his group as Chris Barber’s Jazz and Blues Band, and, while retaining his roots in New Orleans jazz, engaged rock and blues musicians guitarist John Slaughter and the drummer Pete York. During the 1970s the band toured frequently in Europe. In ...


Jeannie Gayle Pool

(b Guelph, ON, 23 June 1968). Canadian film and television composer, orchestrator, conductor, pianist, and producer. Barber began composing at the age of ten and was an award winner in Canada’s SOCAN National Competition for Young Composers. She studied music at the University of Western Ontario (BM 1985) and composition at the University of Toronto (MA 1988), where she worked with the composers Gustav Ciamaga and Lothar Klein. She has composed music for various CBC radio dramas, made her film début with her score for Patricia Rozema’s award-winning film When Night is Falling (1995), and has written scores for Miramax, New Line, Focus Features, Nickelodeon, Warner Brothers, and Home Box Office.

Barber has also composed music for the more than 20 theatre productions of Canadian plays, including Unidentified Human Remains and The True Nature of Love (Brad Fraser), Love and Anger (George F. Walker), ...


Chadwick Jenkins

(b Lisle, IL, Nov 8, 1955). American singer, pianist, composer, and bandleader. Her father played with the Glenn Miller band and her mother was a professional blues singer. After studying psychology and classical piano at the University of Iowa, Barber returned to Chicago and began playing five nights a week at the Gold Star Sardine Bar, where she attracted varying critical attention for her husky voice and the inclusion of pop songs, including “Black Magic Woman” and “A Taste of Honey,” in her repertoire. She recorded her first album, Split (Floyd), in 1989 and her second album, A Distortion of Love (Antilles) in 1991. She subsequently moved to the independent label Premonition, which was bought by Blue Note in 1998. In 2003 Barber became the first songwriter to be awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. Under its aegis she composed a song cycle based on Ovid’s Metamorphoses. She is the subject of a documentary, ...


Ronald Crichton

revised by José A. Bowen

[Giovanni Battista]

(b London, Dec 2, 1899; d London, July 29, 1970). English conductor and cellist. He was the son and grandson of Italian musicians settled in London, and his mother was French. As a youth he won scholarships to Trinity College of Music, then to the RAM. In 1916 he became the youngest member of the Queen's Hall Orchestra, and he gave his first solo recital, at the Aeolian Hall, in 1917. The next two years were spent in the army, where he had his first experience of conducting, with a voluntary orchestra. After 1919 he returned to orchestral playing in London, and twice appeared as soloist with the Bournemouth Municipal Orchestra. In 1924 he joined the Music Society (later International) and Kutcher string quartets, and formed a string orchestra, which he often conducted. He was invited to conduct the British National Opera Company on tour and later (...