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Andrew D. McCredie

revised by Samantha Owens

(b Sydney, Australia, April 16, 1887; d Brisbane, Australia, July 31, 1959). Australian conductor, composer, and music collector. He studied with Arthur Mason and Gordon Lavers in Sydney. In 1912 he was appointed organist and choir director at Christ Church Anglican Cathedral and conductor of the choral society in Grafton, New South Wales. After war service he went to London for further study with Frederick Bridge, R.R. Terry, and Charles W. Pearce. He returned to Australia in 1919 and settled in Brisbane, where he served as organist and choirmaster at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church (1919–32) and the Anglican churches of St Thomas at Toowong (1933) and All Saints, Wickham Terrace (1933–41). He directed the University of Queensland’s Musical Society (1920–30), an association that culminated in what was believed to have been the first Bach Festival in the southern hemisphere, held in ...


Geoffrey Norris

(fl c1760–90). Russian folksong collector. All that is known of him is that his name, perhaps a pseudonym, is associated with one of the most valuable 18th-century folklore collections. There is evidence that he began fieldwork in one of the south-western regions of Siberia during the 1760s, for in 1768 P.A. Demidov, a wealthy writer who possibly commissioned the collection, sent one of the song texts, ‘obtained from the Siberian people’, to the historian G.F. Miller; however, the manuscript of 70 songs (now in RUS-SPsc ) was probably not completed until the 1780s. For many years Demidov owned the collection, but in 1802 or 1803 it was passed to F.P. Klyucharyov, director of the Moscow postal service, who in 1804 arranged for the publication of 26 of the song texts without music; a second edition (1818), containing 61 songs with music, was prepared on the instructions of N.P. Rumyantsev, who had acquired the manuscript in ...


Gerard Béhague

(b Santiago, May 16, 1932). Chilean ethnomusicologist and folklorist. At the University of Chile he studied philosophy, specializing in Romance languages and Spanish education (1958–65); he also studied ethnomusicology and folklore privately with Carlos Lavín. He has held positions as professor of folklore at the Catholic University (1957–74), professor of ethnology and folklore at the University of Chile (appointed 1971), professor of ethnomusicology at the latter institution (appointed 1963), chairman of the art department of the Catholic University (1972–4) and president of the Research Committee of the University of Chile, northern campus (appointed 1974). In 1973 he visited the University of California at Los Angeles and Berkeley as a fellow of the University of Chile. He has lectured widely in Latin America and the USA, and participated in numerous international conventions and congresses. In his research he has concentrated on the study of Chilean folklore and folk music, devoting many years to field work; his extensive publications reveal a systematic and comprehensive approach to the subject....


(b Havana, Cuba, June 20, 1930). Cuban musicologist, historical essayist, recorded-sound collector, and lawyer; immigrated to Puerto Rico in 1960. Díaz Ayala studied journalism and law at the Universidad de La Habana, and began his musical career as a radio host on a jazz program in Havana. Although he is not a formally trained musicologist, his impressive archival work and research in the field of recorded folk music established him as an authority on Cuban musical culture.

A prolific writer with publications spanning thirty years, Díaz Ayala has made an extremely significant contribution through his compilation and examination of early to mid twentieth-century Cuban musical recordings. Monumental in scope, this project represents the most exhaustive reference work for scholars of Cuban and Latin American music. Aspiring at discographical completeness, the work documents nearly every musical recording produced in Cuba or involving any genre of Cuban music. In 2001...


Lester Levy

(b nr Warsaw, Poland, Dec 25, 1899; d Atlantic City, NJ, Jan 27, 1977). American collector of and dealer in sheet music, born in Poland. He immigrated to the USA in 1906. For some 40 years until his retirement in 1965 he worked as a waiter in Philadelphia. While operating a small bookshop, from 1929 to 1931, he developed a passionate interest in early American popular sheet music; he eventually collected and distributed approximately 500,000 sheets of the late 18th to late 19th centuries. Much of the music was purchased by universities and municipal libraries, many of which relied on Dichter as altant—from 1942 to 1945 he served the Free Library of Philadelphia in this capacity. With Elliott Shapiro, a sheet-music publisher, he wrote Early American Sheet Music: its Lure and its Lore, 1768–1889 (1941, rev. 1977 as Handbook of Early American Sheet Music, 1768–1889), still regarded as the leading reference work of its kind. Under his own name or that of Musical Americana he issued several collections of sheet music and other important publications, including J.J. Fuld’s ...


(b Rinteln an der Weser, Oct 7, 1801; d Nuremberg, May 25, 1880). German folksong collector. After abandoning his law studies at the University of Marburg (1820–25), he made the acquaintance of Spohr in Kassel. This, together with his interest in published folksong collections, inspired him to devote himself to poetry and music and especially to collecting folksongs. He took theory lessons with Moritz Hauptmann in Leipzig and also studied the music of the 15th and 16th centuries. From 1858 he was director of the Department of Old Music at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. He collected folksongs from Franconia and historical songs from Germany and Austria from the period 1618–1871.


Maria Domokos

(b Csíkvárdotfalva, June 28, 1901; d Budapest, Feb 18, 1992). Hungarian musicologist and folklorist. After taking a diploma in 1919 as a schoolmaster and music teacher in Csíksomlyó (now Şumuleu), he studied music and sciences at the Budapest Teachers' Training College (graduated 1926) and then worked as a music teacher and choirmaster in Csíkszereda (now Miercurea-Ciuc) from 1926 to 1929. Between 1926 and 1940 he played an important role in the cultural life of the Hungarian minority in Romania: he founded a newspaper, initiated a movement to revive popular customs and organized choral festivals to perform Kodály's works. Subsequently he was the principal of the teachers' college in Cluj (1940–44), taking the doctorate in 1943 at Cluj University. In 1944 he moved to Budapest.

Domokos began his research with pioneering fieldwork in Moldavia (1929, 1932), where he collected folksongs among the Csángó-Magyars, and in Bukovina (...


Jonas Westover

(b Brookline, MA, c1875; d Boston, MA, c1959). American collector, arranger, and civil engineer. He is responsible for one of the largest collections of sheet music in America. While growing up in Brookline he learned to play piano and organ under b.j. Lang, and there is some evidence that he also wrote arrangements of sacred music. This led to a long amateur engagement at Boston’s Sacred Heart Cathedral, where he led the choir and played the organ. “Benedixisti domine” by Bernhard Klein is one of Driscoll’s few remaining arrangements; the other extant editions or arrangements are of sacred pieces. By the 1890s Driscoll was already amassing material for his ever burgeoning collection, always looking for the perfect copy of any rare number. Well known for his sharp bargaining and compulsive habits, he refused to relinquish the search for the most complete collection possible. The James Francis Driscoll Collection of American Sheet Music at the Newberry Library in Chicago, IL, stores around 84,000 pieces of music dating from the 1770s until Driscoll’s death in ...


Bruce Alan Brown

(Pio Francesco Antonio Maria)

(b Genoa, April 27, 1717; d Padua, Oct 15, 1794). Italian diplomat, theatre director, librettist and art collector, and one of the principal catalysts of reform in 18th-century opera and ballet. The francophilia that coloured nearly all Durazzo's theatrical endeavours was largely the result of his birth into a noble Genoese family (of Albanian origin) with a long history of commercial and political dealings with France. The Durazzos (who produced several doges, including Giacomo's older brother Marcello) were active in Genoa's theatrical life, notably as proprietors of the Teatro del Falcone. Following his inscription into the nobility in 1744, Giacomo was entrusted with several commercial and diplomatic missions to France, during one of which, in 1748, he and his compatriot Agostino Lomellini conceived a plan to rework Quinault and Lully's Armide as an Italian opera on reformed principles. As versified by Migliavacca and set by Traetta, this project was realized in Vienna in ...


(b St Petersburg, 8/Jan 20, 1857; d St Petersburg, 16/Sept 28, 1891). Russian conductor and folksong collector, son of Otto Johann Anton Dütsch. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1866–75). After Borodin’s death he assisted with the preparation for publication of the vocal score of Prince Igor. From 1886 he was principal conductor of Belyayev’s Russian Public Symphony Concerts, and from 1889 he was in charge of the orchestral class at the conservatory. In 1886 he collected the music of 114 folksongs, Pesni russkogo naroda, sobrannïye v guberniyakh Arkhangel′skoy i Olonetskoy v 1886 godu (‘Songs of the Russian people, collected in the Arkhangel and Olonets governments in 1886’); F.M. Istomin was responsible for the words, and the collection was published in St Petersburg in 1894. Later, Balakirev, Rachmaninoff and Prokofiev all made arrangements of songs in his edition.

N.F. Findeyzen...