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Article

Franz Krautwurst

(b Neustadt an der Orla, Thuringia, c1540; d 1595–7). German music editor, composer and schoolmaster. He was most probably the ‘Balthasar Meuslin a Neapoli ad Orlam’ who matriculated at the University of Jena in the summer of 1557. He first worked in his native town, whence in 1575 he sent several songs (probably his lost print of that year) to the town councillors of Amberg and Nördlingen and in 1579 some partbooks to Naumburg an der Saale. Later, he was headmaster of the school at Ziegenrück, Thuringia, until 1595. Since his publication of 1597 was edited for him he was probably dead by then. The four-part songs that make up the 40 schöne geistliche Gesenglein, which from 1597 always appeared alongside pieces by Jacob Meiland, Orazio Vecchi and other composers, are anonymous settings of German texts, partly in the expressive polyphonic style of the late Netherlands motet, partly in a simple homophonic song style that shows the influence of the Italian villanella and canzonetta. Since they exhibit such a variety of styles and are of such differing quality, it must be assumed that only a few were composed by Musculus himself; some indeed are known to be by Jacob Meiland, Georg Körber, Antonio Scandello and Gallus Dressler. The popularity of the collection and its widespread use in Protestant grammar schools is demonstrated by the large number of editions and by the frequency with which individual pieces were reprinted. Further work needs to be done on the sources; five editions have been established....

Article

Franz Krautwurst

(b Wiebelsheim, nr Windsheim, Franconia, 1563; d Windsheim, Jan 9, 1621). German composer, music editor, poet and schoolmaster. From 1585 he studied at Wittenberg University. In 1588 he became teacher at the grammer school of the imperial town of Windsheim and in 1608 was promoted Kantor. In this post he produced numerous German and Latin school plays, which gained wide recognition. He edited a hymnal for the town of Windsheim, Geistliche Lieder aus dem Catechismo … zugericht (Giessen, 1614), which is lost, but the posthumous second edition, Ein recht christlich Gesangbüchlein (Rothenburg ober der Tauber, 1623), survives. Alongside many hymns then in general use, it contains texts and unharmonized melodies by Oesterreicher himself. Several of these melodies appear too in the Ansbach, Rothenburg and Heilbronn hymnbooks of that period. Oesterreicher also composed the music for the funeral service of Margarethe Barbara Seubold at Ansbach in 1620...

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by David W. Music

(b Hartford, CT, Nov 12, 1759; d Phoenix, Oswego Co., NY, Aug 15, 1848). American composer, tune book compiler, singing master and fifer. During the Revolutionary War he served as a fifer (1775–6) and played in a regimental band (1777–80). After the war he apparently settled in Connecticut and worked as a singing master. He served in the War of 1812, and in his later years lived in Whitestown, New York.

Olmstead compiled The Musical Olio (Northampton, MA, 1805, 2/1811), which was devoted mostly to European pieces and favoured the Methodist style, but also contained 25 of his own compositions. Drawing on his experience as a bandsman he also compiled Martial Music (Albany, NY, 1807), a collection of instrumental marches and dances, including nearly a dozen of his own. Olmstead’s range as a musician was unusual for Americans of his generation. As a psalmodist, he composed in both the indigenous New England idiom and a more Europeanized style, and he also wrote with some skill for instruments....

Article

Richard Crawford

(b Medway, MA, Feb 27, 1784; d Brookline, MA, 1864). American composer, compiler, teacher, and organ builder. He worked from 1806 to 1820 as a music teacher in New York City, though he spent some time in Albany in 1819. In September 1820 he performed at Boston’s Columbian Museum on the Apollino, a panharmonicon that he claimed to have invented (announced in The Euterpeiad, i/23 (1820), 91). He later built reed organs and in 1836 exhibited an eight-stop instrument of his own design at Boston’s Mechanic’s Fair. He compiled The Washington Choir (Boston, 1843), a collection of temperance music that identifies him on its title-page as “pupil of Dr. G.K. Jackson,” who was active in New York between 1802 and 1812. Plimpton’s few surviving compositions include eight marches, an air, a waltz, and a minuet in The Universal Repository of Music (a collection now in the New York Public Library, which he copyrighted on ...

Article

William Osborne

(b Fair Haven, CT, Feb 7, 1857; d Pasadena, CA, Nov 28, 1940). American organist, composer, teacher, music publisher, and music critic. Rogers studied with organ virtuoso Clarence Eddy in Chicago, followed by further study in Berlin and Paris, 1875–82. He worked for a year in Burlington, Iowa, before establishing himself in Cleveland as an organist of various churches, as well as the Euclid Avenue Temple, which he served for 50 years. He was a prolific composer, a teacher at the Cleveland School of Music, a critic at the Cleveland Plain Dealer (1915–32), and a publisher of his own works and those of others. He wrote about 550 pieces, and his more than 130 songs (issued between 1878 and 1933), organ pieces, and church music were widely performed in their time. For the organ he left three sonatas, two sonatinas, three suites, and many one-movement genre pieces. He also wrote secular partsongs, cantatas for both Christmas and Easter, several settings of the Latin Mass, and both a ...

Article

(b Braunau, Upper Austria, c1525; d Nuremberg, bur. July 15, 1586). German music editor, ?composer and schoolmaster. He was originally called Haunreuter; it is not known how he came to be called Rotenbucher. He probably attended the school of the monastery of St Nikola, just outside Passau, where Leonhard Paminger was headmaster; he enjoyed a lifelong friendship with Paminger’s son Sophonias and wrote an elegy on Paminger's death in 1567. In 1542 he began his studies at the University of Ingolstadt, moving to Wittenberg University in 1543. It was there, encouraged by Georg Rhau, that he decided to edit collections of music. Soon after Rhau’s death, probably in 1548, Rotenbucher joined the staff of the St Egidien school at Nuremberg, where he eventually became supremus (i.e. ranking third, after the Rektor and Kantor). He may have taught Hans Leo Hassler. With the arrival of Friedrich Lindner as Kantor in the late autumn of ...

Article

Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Edinburgh, June 1, 1776; d Philadelphia, Dec 11, 1831). American cellist, teacher, composer and music publisher of Scottish birth. He was the son of the Edinburgh cellist and composer J.G.C. Schetky and a nephew of Alexander Reinagle. Schetky emigrated to the USA in 1787 and became active as a performer and music teacher in Philadelphia, where he lived with the musicians Benjamin Carr and Joseph C. Taws. With Carr he was co-editor of The Musical Journal for the Piano Forte (vols.iii–v) and published music from about 1802 to 1811. Between 1812 and 1818 he apparently visited Britain, for he published piano compositions by his father and himself in London and Edinburgh. He was a co-founder in 1820 of the Musical Fund Society in Philadelphia, which owns a portrait of him.

Article

Bruce Degen

(b Middleborough, MA, March 13, 1779; d Providence, RI, Dec 31, 1848). American composer, compiler, teacher, singer, organist and publisher. After accidental eye damage leading to blindness, he undertook musical studies with John L. Berkenhead, Gottlieb Graupner and Thomas Granger about 1800. In 1805 he established himself as a teacher of the piano and organ in Dedham, Massachusetts, where he began to issue his music in collaboration with Herman Mann. Moving to Providence in 1807, Shaw became a central figure in the city’s musical life as organist, organizer of bands and composer of songs, odes, anthems and marches for patriotic and civic occasions. His ‘Military Divertimento’, Welcome the Nation’s Guest, celebrated the visit of Lafayette to Providence in 1824.

Shaw sought to improve the quality of local sacred music, co-founding the Psallonian Society, and provided inspiration to the founding of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society in 1815...

Article

Joel F. Reed

revised by Harry Eskew

(b Cherry Grove, VA, May 1, 1858; d Chattanooga, TN, Sept 24, 1924). American music educator, publisher, and composer. He grew up in a part of the Shenandoah Valley with a rich shape-note singing tradition. His first music teacher was his father, John, who later sent him to the Virginia Normal Music School. He became a singing school teacher and an agent for the Ruebush-Kieffer Company. In 1884 he was sent to open a branch office in Dalton, Georgia, and a year later he started his own company there. The A.J. Showalter Company became the largest music publishing company south of Cincinnati. By the time it stopped publishing music in 1940, the company had sold six million copies of Showalter’s songbooks, hymn collections, and theory books. About 1885 Showalter established the Southern Normal Musical Institute, a school held in a dozen or more states that was attended by every gospel music teacher of prominence in the South and Southwest. Among his students were Jesse R. Baxter Jr., who, in ...

Article

Daniel Jay Grimminger

[John B.]

(b Kirchenberg, Switzerland, May 25, 1848; d Milwaukee, May 29, 1924). American teacher, composer, author, editor, and organist, born in Switzerland. Singenberger enrolled at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, to study composition with Carl Geith (cathedral musician at St Gallen). After accepting a teaching position in applied voice at the seminary in Chur, Switzerland, he established a Caecilian Society, an organization committed to historic Catholic music and liturgical practices (e.g., Gregorian chant and the polyphonic works of Palestrina). He completed his academic studies under Franz Xaver Witt at Regensburg. In 1873 he arrived in St. Francis, WI, to teach at the Catholic Normal School of the Holy Family, a position he held until his death. Soon afterward he founded the American Caecilian Society.

He edited the journals of the society and was a faithful promoter of Caecilian ideals. The journal Caecilia (1874–1965) was the society’s German-language publication, and ...