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Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

[kana’tsio:wi] (Seneca: ‘covered keg’ or ‘bucket’)

Water drum of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederacy peoples of northeastern North America. It is called gana’atso [gä no jo’ o] in Cayugan. The drum is a small wooden vessel covered with a soft-tanned hide which is held taut by a cloth-wound wooden hoop. Water is kept in it at all times and before being played it is inverted to soak the skin, which is then tightened until a characteristic high ‘pinging’ tone is heard when it is tapped lightly with a wooden beater. The body can be carved from a solid block of wood, in which case a binding ring is wrapped around it to prevent it from splitting, or it can be made from a staved wooden nail keg. The drums are usually 13 to 15 cm in diameter and 11 to 13 cm deep. A bung hole about halfway up the side allows water to be added without removing the head; if allowed to dry, solid-bodied drums tend to split and staved drums loosen and could collapse. The drumstick (...

Article

Kakosh  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Fiddle of the Holo people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a cylindrical wooden resonator with integral neck holding two or three vegetable-fibre strings. The soundboard, usually of soft wood and replaced often, is either loosely laid or nailed upon the resonator. Some instruments have a head sculpted at the end of the neck. ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Braced Musical bow of the Lunda people of Kasayi-Shaba, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has an attached half-calabash resonator. The bow is held vertically near the lower end by the left hand so that the middle finger can extend to touch the string lightly. The open end of the calabash is placed against the player’s chest and raised from time to time to modulate the sound and emphasize different overtones. The instrument is used mostly to accompany singing. Other names reported are ...

Article

Beverley Diamond

revised by J. Richard Haefer

[kalluraq, kalluak, kaylukuk, kotlookuk]

Ceremonial box drum associated with the Messenger Feast of the Iñupiaq-speaking people of Alaska. It is a rectangular wooden case (usually made of poplar), 45 to 90 cm tall by 18 to 30 cm long and wide. A fur-padded rail, attached along one side with a strip of black whale baleen, is struck with a thick, short stick while the drum is suspended from the ceiling of the ceremonial house. The drum is played by a seated drummer (usually male) wearing the tuutlik, a loon-skin headdress. A soundhole can be cut in the bottom of the drum and a handhold attached to one side. The drum is decorated with a zigzag pattern on the top edge and with eagle feathers. In the native cosmology that explains the origin of the feast, the drum is said to represent an eagle’s heartbeat.

The Tlingit people call the box drum lákt gaaw. Such instruments are often decorated in red and black stylized raven patterns....

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

[ka:nóˀskä:ˀ]

Rasp, or scraper, of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederation peoples of northeastern North America. It is called gaksaga:nye (‘chipmunk sticks’) in Cayugan. It is a pair of flat hickory sticks, each about 30 to 35 cm long, 1 to 3 cm wide, and 2 cm thick. One stick is notched along two-thirds of its length and the other is smooth with slightly rounded edges. The notched stick is held at its unnotched end while the notched end rests on the player’s left leg. The smooth stick, held in the right hand, is scraped up and down over the notches. The sticks produce a rasping sound in the same rhythm as the water drum ka’nohko’wah that leads the singing.

Rasping sticks are used only at wakes, held in people’s homes, and even here their use is quite rare, with preference given to the drum. The sticks are either buried with the person for whom the wake is held or are broken and burned with the drum-beater used during the singing....

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

[ká’nowa’, gasdöwøe’ sä]

Generic term for vessel rattles of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederacy peoples of northeastern North America. Haudenosaunee vessel rattles are made from horn, bark, gourd, tin, and coconuts, as well as snapping, box, and painted turtles.

The most important rattle is the kanyáhte’ [kánˀo:waỉ] (‘great turtle rattle’) made from the shell, head, and neck of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentine). It is called ganya:hde gano:wa or ganya:hde gasdawedra in Cayugan. Its construction is a skilled and lengthy process: the legs, tail, and viscera are removed and the shell is placed in the earth for ants to clean it; chokecherry pits are placed inside the shell and all openings are sewn closed. The head and neck are stretched out to form a handle, which is supported by a wooden rod or splints and wrapped with a rawhide thong, friction tape, or strips of inner tree bark (hickory or slippery elm are preferred). After the rattle has dried, it may be varnished and painted with red, black, or brown dots, bands, or crosses. The dimensions vary according to the size of the turtle and the total length can be from 25 to 50 cm. Instruments of about 30 cm are considered best for playing....

Article

Keledi  

Virginia Gorlinski

Gourd and bamboo mouth organ. The term is used primarily by Kayan and Bahau peoples of Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo, although similar instruments have been played by many Borneo peoples, including the Iban, Kanowit, Dusun/Kadazan, Murut, Sebop, Kenyah and Punan (see Indonesia §VII 1., (ii), and Malaysia, Federation of §III). While organological details vary from group to group, these instruments generally consist of a dried gourd wind chamber, into which are inserted five to eight bamboo pipes. The Dusun/Kadazan and Murut of north-eastern Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) organize the pipes into two parallel ranks of four tubes each. Peoples of the central highlands and adjacent areas to the east, west and south, usually arrange the tubes into a circular formation. With the exception of one mute pipe (typical of instruments from Sabah), the ends of the tubes sealed inside the wind chamber are equipped with free reeds. These vibrate when the player fills the reservoir with air by blowing into the neck of the gourd. Some instruments can also be made to sound by inhaling. Different pitches are produced with the fingers, either by covering one or two small holes on the exposed part of each tube, or by stopping the open end of the tube itself. A drone pipe is present on many instruments....

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

J. Richard Haefer

[cōcōkai]

Suspension rattle of the Wintu people of Northern California. It is made from insect cocoons filled with small seeds and strung on a cord about 2 metres long. The cord is worn around the neck of male dancers for the h’up chonas, traditionally a war dance, nowadays used to symbolize tribal authenticity....

Article

Chad Stephen Hamill

Term in the Sahaptin language for a bell used by Native Americans of the Columbia Plateau. It is a normal hand bell of thin brass with a wooden handle. Assimilated into the Washat (Seven Drum Religion) by the Sahaptin peoples, especially the Nez Perce, it is rung at the opening of the ...