(b Kutaisi, 4/Aug 16, 1871; d Tbilisi, Oct 6, 1933). Georgian composer and folklorist. Brought up in a Catholic family in which music occupied an important place, he sang in the church choir at the age of eight and at an early stage learnt to play the organ. In 1887 he moved to Tbilisi, joining a choir founded by the folk-music enthusiast L. Agniashvili. A few years later he entered the Tbilisi Music School, where he studied the horn and started to compose; he then went on to study with Sergey Taneyev at the Moscow Conservatory (1900–03). Returning to Tbilisi (1903), he taught at the Music School and the Georgian Grammar School, and helped to establish the Georgian Philharmonic Society (1905), under whose auspices he later founded a choir and orchestra. He also directed the society’s music school (1908–17...
(b Kömlőd, May 11, 1760; d Nagybajom, Jan 28, 1820). Hungarian poet and folksong collector . The son of a clergyman, he studied at the Reformed College in Debrecen from 1773 until 1780 and, after a short career as a public servant, devoted himself to farming. He was in close contact with the leading Hungarian poets and language reformers of his day and maintained an intense and many-sided literary activity, writing lyric and epic works, a comedy, and historical, linguistic, philosophical and scientific essays.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the Protestant colleges of Hungary fostered national traditions and opposed the centralizing, German-orientated tendencies of the imperial court in Vienna. Under this influence at the college in Debrecen, Pálóczi Horváth developed a sense of history that later expressed itself in activities as a collector of folksongs and historical and sacred songs. His manuscript collection Ó es Új, mint-egy ötödfél-száz énekek, ki magam tsinálmányja, ki másé...
Juan Pablo Gonzalez
(b San Carlos, Nuble, October 4, 1917; d Santiago, February 5, 1967). Chilean traditional singer, collector, cantautor (singer-songwriter), poet and artist. Parra inherited a folkloric repertory from her parents, singing with members of her family in circuses, theatres and bars in Santiago. From 1953 she dedicated her life to the subject of Chilean folklore: collecting, broadcasting on radio, recording and teaching. During the periods 1954–6 and 1961–4 she lived in France, based in Paris, performing in festivals, theatres, clubs, radio and television and recording Chilean music. In 1964 her art was exhibited at the Louvre’s Musée des Arts Decoratifs. On her return to Chile she installed a tent in a suburb of Santiago called La Reina, and here she lived and worked with Chilean popular culture, performing until her premature death by suicide.
With intuitive and powerful talent, Parra consciously introduced an original aesthetic to popular urban song, bringing together distinctive aspects of different Latin American traditions in a manner which could be described as a kind of ‘primitivism’, while at the same time developing literary, musical and performing aspects of the tradition, establishing her own influential models of popular Chilean musics during the 1960s. She had seminal influence on the emerging, groundbreaking generation who were to forge Chile’s ...
William H. Grattan Flood
revised by Patrick F. Devine
(b Lurgan, Oct 27, 1868; d Cork, Jan 16, 1934). Irish folksong collector, composer, writer on music, organist and lecturer . She studied at the Royal Irish Academy of Music and the Royal University of Ireland (BA, MusB 1887; MusD 1889). From 1887 to 1897 she worked in Dublin as an organist, conductor and music examiner. In 1897 she organized the first Feis Ceoil festival of Irish music and in the same year acted as music adviser for the first Oireachtas, the national Irish-language festival. After settling in Cork in 1909, Patterson became organist at St Anne's, Shandon, and held a lectureship in Irish music at University College, Cork (1924–34). She continued as a music examiner, contributed to various periodicals and broadcast frequently on the national radio station. Her deep interest in Irish traditional music stimulated the collection, arrangement and publication of folksongs and she composed art music inspired by Irish mythology. Her works, few of which were published, include three operas, ...
[Prach, Ivan; Práč, Jan Bohumir]
( b Silesia, c 1750; d ?St Petersburg, c 1818). Czech composer, teacher and folksong collector . Much of his life was spent in Russia. From 1780 until 1795 he taught music at the Smolnïy Institute, and in 1784 he was appointed harpsichord teacher at the St Petersburg Theatre School. His keyboard compositions include a sonata in C (1787), six variations on an allemande by Martín y Soler (1794), Fandango (1795), 12 variations (1802), a sonata based on Russian themes (1806), eight variations on the folktune Tï podi, moya korovushka, domoy (‘Be off home with you, my little cow!’, 1815) and an unpublished rondo. He also made a keyboard arrangement of the music from Martín y Soler’s opera Gorebogatïr Kosometovich (‘The Sorrowful Hero Kosometovich’) and Pashkevich’s Fevey (both 1789). His most important work, however, was the Sobraniye narodnïkh russkikh pesen s ikh golosami...
Alfred E. Lemmon
(dGuatemala, 1765). Guatemalan composer, teacher and collector. He was appointed maestro de capilla of Guatemala City Cathedral on 7 March 1738, and served there until his death. His 28 extant compositions, which survive only in the Archivo Histórico Arquidiocesano ‘Francisco de Paula García Peláez’, Guatemala City, are mainly Spanish villancicos which reveal his interest in local colour and ethnic texts. There are also a few compositions in Latin, including a double-choir motet, Parce mihi, Domine. Most works are for two or four voices, some for as many as seven; all have instrumental accompaniment.
Quiros was also active as a teacher and collector of music. His pupils included his nephew Rafael Antonio Castellanos, who succeeded him as maestro de capilla in Guatemala. His interest in Italian music was encouraged by the Italian-born maestro de capilla of Mexico City, Ignacio Jerusalem, and he acquired works by several Italian composers of the period, including Galuppi, Leo, Pergolesi, Porpora and Vinci. He also collected music by contemporary Spanish composers such as Sebastián Durón, José Nebra and José de Torres y Martínez Bravo, and by composers from elsewhere in the New World, for example Manuel de Zumaya. Through his efforts, copies were made of 16th-century polyphonic music by Iberian composers such as Gaspar Fernandes and Pedro Bermúdez, and also of works by Palestrina and Victoria. The music collected and copied remains in the Archivo Histórico Arquidiocesano....
(d Zürich, 1587 ). Swiss burgomaster and musician. He is listed as a citizen of Zürich in 1558, a guild master (Zunftmeister) of Meisen between 1574 and 1583, a head governor (Obervogt) to the villages of Wettswil and Bonstetten during the period 1575–82, and a provincial governor (Landvogt) in Andelfingen between 1583 and 1587. Johannes is the first member of this prominent Zürich family for whom an interest in music can be documented. His musical activities, when taken together with other members of the Schannis family, reveal the types of music that were collected, copied, sung and played by several generations of this family between 1578 and 1630.
On 12 November 1578 in Speyer, Johannes purchased for 14 batzen a second edition copy of George Forster’s Frische teutsche Liedlin (RISM 1549³5). To this collection of German Tenorlied ( CH-Zz T410–13) he added a manuscript appendix, in which he copied songs and motets by Clemens non Papa, Jean Mouton, Stephan Zirler, Nikolaus Selnecker, and Cosmas Alder. The partbooks remained in the possession of the Schannis family until ...
revised by Philippe Vendrix
(fl Liège, early 17th century). Flemish musician. His family, prominent in Liège during the 16th and 17th centuries, produced several ecclesiastics, clerks and musicians (among them Lambert Scronx, who worked on the revision of the Liège Breviary in the early 17th century). He was a monk at the monastery of the Crutched Friars, Liège. Dart showed that he was there between 1619 and 1621; he may have been a pupil of the blind organist of the monastery, Guillaume Huet. He was most likely the copyist of a manuscript of 1617 containing organ pieces by such composers as Andrea Gabrieli, Peter Philips, Sweelinck and Merulo ( B-Lu 153, olim 888). He included an echo of his own composition, which Dart described as ‘competent, but entirely uninspired’; the manuscript also includes 38 anonymous pieces, some of which may be by him. Dart was probably wrong in identifying the ‘Griffarius Scronx’ cited in the monastery records of ...
Jean R. Freedman
(b New York, NY, June 17, 1935). American folksinger, songwriter, and folksong collector, daughter of musicologist charles Seeger and composer, educator, and folksong anthologist Ruth Crawford Seeger. Peggy learned piano, guitar, music theory, and transcription from her parents. With her brother mike Seeger , she learned banjo from a book written by their half-brother pete r. Seeger . She later became proficient on autoharp, Appalachian dulcimer, and English concertina. She made her first recording, Folk Songs of Courting and Complaint, while a student at Radcliffe College (1953–5). During the autumn of 1955, she studied at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. From 1956 to 1959 she traveled throughout Europe, the United States, Russia, and China before settling in England with folksinger, songwriter, and playwright Ewan MacColl [James Henry Miller] (1915–89), who became her musical partner, husband, and father of her children, Neill, Calum, and Kitty. With MacColl, she made more than 100 recordings of traditional Anglo-American ballads, political songs, love songs, work songs, and songs from literature. They frequently performed in folk clubs and concert halls, at festivals, on television, and in films. Seeger and MacColl felt that traditional music was a solid foundation on which the modern songwriter could build. They brought to their songwriting a political dimension, believing that folksongs represent the struggles of ordinary people whose lives are often ignored and whose creations are frequently slighted....
(b Swalwell, nr Newcastle upon Tyne, March 5, 1748; d London, Jan 25, 1829). English composer, viola player and song collector. As the son of a music teacher he learnt the rudiments of music early, but after the death of his father in 1757 he was apprenticed to a boat builder, Edward Davison of South (or North) Shields. He resumed musical studies with Charles Avison of Newcastle, playing the violin in local concerts. His earliest known composition, now lost, was an anthem written for the consecration of St John’s, Sunderland, on 6 March 1769. About 1770, after finishing his apprenticeship, he became leader of the theatre band and conductor of the concerts first at Scarborough and then at Durham. Encouraged by Luigi Borghi, in 1772 he moved to London to play second violin at the King’s Theatre, transferring to principal viola the following season. He held that position for 18 years, even after replacing Michael Arne as house composer to Covent Garden in autumn ...