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Harry Eskew

(b Lebanon, VA, Feb 15, 1787; d Lebanon, Oct 28, 1854). American composer and tune book compiler. He was a Methodist minister. Records indicate that his compilation Songs of Zion was printed by Ananias Davisson in 1820 in Harrisonburg, Virginia, but no copies have been located. His more important tune book, compiled with the Presbyterian elder David Little Clayton (b Marion Co., VA, 15 Jan 1801; d Frederick Co., VA, 17 Sept 1854), was The Virginia Harmony (Winchester, VA, 1831, 2/1836), in which he claimed 25 settings. Although The Virginia Harmony tends to reflect a more northern urban orientation than did Davisson’s tune books, it has the distinction of including one of the earliest known printings of the anonymous pentatonic folk melody ‘Harmony Grove’ now associated with Amazing Grace.

G.P. Jackson: White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (Chapel Hill, NC, 1933/R) H. Eskew...


Antonio Delfino

(b Milan, c1550; d after 1615). Italian composer and editor. He was a monk in the order of S Basilio degli Armeni, and was at the monastery of SS Cosma e Damiano in Milan when Cardinal Borromeo visited the house in 1583. He had links with the church of S Maria della Scala, and the many points in common between his first book of Nova Metamorfosi (RISM 1600¹¹) and Orfeo Vecchi’s posthumous Scielta de madrigali (1604¹¹) show that he was regularly in contact with that church. From 1603 he was in Genoa, where his increasing collaboration with Simone Molinaro culminated in 1616 with the publication of the Madrigali de diversi autori (16168), in Loano, near Savona.

Cavaglieri is the compiler of five collections of Latin contrafacta of Italian madrigals, including three in the series Nova Metamorfosi (1600¹¹, 16056/...



(b Beaufort, Anjou, Feb 2, 1538; d c1580). French music editor and ?composer. A contemporary document records that Jehan Chardavoine, who rented a house near the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine at Paris on 6 July 1571 was ‘praticien’. On 20 August 1573 ‘Maistre Jean Chardavoyne’ was granted a royal privilege to publish, with a printer and bookseller of his choice, a collection of chansons ‘en forme de voix de ville’ with simple melodies that he had adapted or composed. The title-page of Le recueil des plus excellentes chansons en forme de voix de ville tirées de divers autheurs et poètes françois tant anciens que modernes (Paris, 1576/R) indicates that the ‘common tunes had been arranged so that they might be sung or played anywhere’. Chardavoine's preface, signed from Paris on 10 November 1575, mentions various dances as different types of voix de ville, notably ‘la pavane double, à la simple, et de la commune, rondoyante, moyenne ou héroïque; le bransle gay, le bransle simple, le bransle rondoyante, le tourdion’, and other songs ordinarily danced and sung in the streets....


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Arthur Hutchings

revised by Hervé Audéon

(b Caen, Oct 21, 1771: d Paris, June 29, 1834). French writer on music, instructor, publisher and composer. While still a boy, he taught himself Hebrew and German and acquired a permanent interest in scientific experiment and a fascination for music theory and the techniques of composition. Although he reached the age of 16 before taking music lessons, he had already attained elementary skill on keyboard and other instruments. He greatly valued a friendship with Grétry which began in his 20th year and which suggests that he moved to Paris after his father’s death.

Choron’s earliest publications, the three-volume Principes d’accompagnement des écoles d’Italie (1804) and Principes de composition des écoles d’Italie (whose publication was announced for 1806 even though it did not appear until the end of 1808 or early 1809 - the preface is dated 9 December 1808), include courses in thoroughbass together with instruction in counterpoint and fugue, implemented by exercises from Sala, Martini, Marpurg and Fux. In ...


Rodney Slatford and Marita P. McClymonds

[Giovanni Battista; J.B.

(b Venice, 1761; d Bath, Feb 27, 1805). Italian composer, singer, violinist and music publisher. Born of a noble family, he studied the violin, cello and piano. In 1789 his Ati e Cibele, a favola per musica in two short scenes, was performed in Venice. This was soon followed by Pimmalione, a monodrama after Rousseau for tenor and orchestra with a small part for soprano, and Il ratto di Proserpina. Choron and Fayolle reported that, dissatisfied with Pimmalione, Cimador burnt the score and renounced composition. Artaria, however, advertised publication of the full score in 1791 in Vienna and excerpts were published later in London. The work achieved considerable popularity throughout Europe as a concert piece for both male and female singers, being revived as late as 1836. While still in Venice he wrote a double bass concerto for the young virtuoso Dragonetti; the manuscript survives, together with Dragonetti's additional variations on the final Rondo, which he evidently considered too short....


Leon Plantinga

revised by Luca Lévi Sala

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and virtuoso, teacher, music publisher, entrepreneur, and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

The oldest of seven children of Nicola Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena (née Kaiser), Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90), and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Washington, DC, May 13, 1874; d Wollaston, MA, Sept 15, 1956). American music editor and composer. He studied organ with George William Walter and held various positions in Washington as a church organist. After moving to Providence in 1899 and then to Boston in 1901, he was a music editor for the firm of Ditson (...


Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...


Richard Crawford

(bap. Tewkesbury, June 24, 1774; d Baltimore, Aug 17, 1855). American composer, tunebook compiler and publisher of English birth. He moved to the USA with his family in 1785 and settled in Baltimore. Cole’s reputed attendance there at singing schools conducted by Andrew Law, Thomas Atwill and Ishmael Spicer during the years 1789–92 has not been verified. In the preface to The Devotional Harmony (1814), he wrote of his training: ‘The authour has never had what is called a musical education … he is a self taught genius, scarcely able to finger his own compositions on a keyed instrument’. He nevertheless seems at one time to have held the post of organist and choirmaster of St Paul’s Episcopal Church in Baltimore.

Cole’s career as a compiler of sacred tunebooks spanned almost half a century; he produced nearly 30 different collections, from Sacred Harmony (1799), adapted to the Methodist hymnbook, to ...