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Article

Asuba  

F.J. de Hen

Set of eight cylindrical, stopped flutes, made from bamboo or cane, of the Sua from the Epulu region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The blowing end of each tube is cut at a slant and the distal end is closed by the natural node. (...

Article

End-blown trumpet of the Teso people of Uganda. It is a straight wooden tube with a bottle-shaped calabash bell, the whole measuring 140 cm long. The trumpets are played by men in sets of three or more as accompaniment for dancing.

Article

Atabule  

Hourglass drum of the Yela people of Sierra Leone. The small version of this drum is called atama.

Article

Atang  

Brass clapper bell of the Igede people of Nigeria. Although it is a European-style handbell, it has been incorporated into some traditional instrumental ensembles.

Article

Atenesu  

K.A. Gourlay

Drum of the Teso people of Uganda and Kenya. In Uganda it was traditionally played only by women (with the flat of the hand), while men played the ideteta, a smaller stick-beaten drum made in various sizes; four ideteta were used with the atenesu to accompany the ...

Article

Gavin Webb

Bamboo duct flute of Ghana. Its name derives from the roots atente (the type of music played) and aben (Twi: ‘whistle’ or ‘horn’). The famous Ghanaian composer and teacher Ephraim Amu developed the modern atenteben in the mid-1940s, particularly by changing it from a transverse flute capable of playing only five notes to an end-blown vertical flute with a wooden block forming a duct just below a node. He added two fingerholes (making six fingerholes and one thumbhole) to facilitate playing a two-octave diatonic scale. The modern instrument, pitched in B♭ or C, is 40 or 35 cm long. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Nana Danso Abiam, director of the Pan African Orchestra, and Henaku-Pobi, former ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Naucratis, Egypt; fl c200 ce). Greek grammarian and encyclopedist. He settled in Rome at the beginning of the 3rd century ce. None of his works has survived except the Deipnosophistai, a vast compendium in 15 extant books, probably written after 192 ...

Article

Atoke  

Jeremy Montagu

Trough-shaped clapperless iron bell of the Ewe people of Ghana. It is rested on the palm of the hand and struck with an iron rod or nail, normally in an ostinato to provide a reference pattern in polyrhythmic music. High- and low-pitched types exist.

Article

Michel Domenichni-Ramiaramanana

Modern term for a free-bar xylophone found in southeastern Madagascar among the Antandroy, Bara, Mahafaly, Masikoro, Sakalava, and Vezo peoples. The instrument has Southeast Asian origins. It is also known locally as katiboky, kilangay, or valihambalo. It can have up to 12 bars but only five or seven are normally used in a performance. It is played by women. One woman supports the instrument with her legs. She plays a melody while another woman plays an ostinato. The instrument was traditionally used in magico-religious ceremonies, but it is now used for secular purposes, except among the Bara. It is often played at dusk, or to encourage young children to dance....

Article

Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b al-Qrayya, Syria, Oct 18, 1915; d Beirut, Dec 26, 1974). Syrian singer, composer, ‘ūd player and film actor and producer. In 1924 political circumstances forced his family to move to Egypt. His mother, the noted singer ‘Aliyya al-Munther, taught him singing in the Syrian style. He studied the ...

Article

Jeremy Montagu

Single-headed open barrel drum of the Anlo-Ewe people of the southeastern coast of Ghana. Barrel drums from this region are distinct because they are made of wooden staves joined by iron hoops and are always painted red, blue, or green. The atsimewu, 130 cm or more tall and about 40 cm in maximum diameter, is the master drum of an ensemble that includes the ...

Article

Atuamba  

K.A. Gourlay and F.J. de Hen

Bullroarer of the Kuma of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It consists of a slightly concave ellipsoidal piece of wood measuring 30 × 10 cm along the axes. The instrument is whirled by a cord attached to one end and the sound produced is said to resemble the growling of a leopard. The bullroarer has associations with spirit voices and secret ceremonies such as circumcision, and has restrictions against women and non-initiates seeing it, as is customary for other bullroarers of the Congo. The varied names collected by de Hen suggest an onomatopoeic derivation, for example, the Adoi, Amanga, Andebogo and Andowi ...

Article

Atumpan  

Goblet-shaped Talking drum (membranophone) of Ghana. See also Drum, §I, 2, (ii), (d).

Article

Atumpan  

K.A. Gourlay

Talking drum of West Africa. The atumpan, the principal talking drum of the Akan people of Ghana, is a large barrel drum with a tubular foot open at the base, thus resembling a giant goblet drum. The drums are played upright, usually in pairs (of different tones), by the master-drummer, who uses two angular hooked sticks. They also appear in ensembles as supporting drums. The ...

Article

Aulero  

Peter Cooke

End-blown flute of the Teso people of the Mbale district, Uganda. It is usually made from a lobelia stem and is sometimes blown obliquely. Frequently the narrow, open distal end is cut obliquely also.

See also Ndere .

Article

Jeremy Montagu

Sanskrit term for ‘tied on’ and thus for drums in general. It is one of the four categ ories of Indian instruments as classified in Assam, the others being ghana (idiophones), su ṣira (aerophones), and tata (chordophones).

D.R. Barthakur: The Music and Musical Instruments of North Eastern India...

Article

Daniel Avorgbedor

(b Gonder, Ethiopia, 1961). Ethiopian singer. Ashter began her singing career in the early 1970s in Addis Ababa, and performed with the band Roha (formerly Shebele Band). Her formative musical years were also shaped by the music of Bezunesh Bekele and the philanthropy of Ali Tango, which provided motivation for the singer. Ashter emigrated to the USA in ...

Article

Prayers sung by the priest in the Divine Liturgy of the Coptic Orthodox Church. See Coptic church music, §4.

Article

Azangi  

F.J. de Hen

Whistle of the Bali of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The cylindrical wooden stopped tube is notched at the blowing end.

LaurentyA, 180 F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 189, 192

Article

Aze  

Rattle of the Edo-speaking people of Nigeria.