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Frank J. Cipolla

(b Lochside, Scotland, 1828; d New York, May 23, 1883). American bandmaster and cornetist of Scottish origin. He joined the 26th Regiment of the British Army, known as the Cameronians, at 13; he served in India and China, returned to Britain, then went to Canada with a military band. He reportedly deserted his regiment to assume the leadership of a band in Troy, New York, where he remained for six months before accepting a similar position in Worcester, Massachusetts. Three years later, in 1860, he joined the Gilmore Band, which in 1861 became attached to the 24th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment; he served with the band during the Civil War. Arbuckle was an outstanding cornet soloist, who was admired for his beautiful, cantabile style of playing. He was a soloist at the National Peace Jubilee of 1869 and the World Peace Jubilee of 1872, both of which were organized by Gilmore. In ...

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Daria Semegen

(b Istanbul, April 23, 1919; d Stony Brook, NY, Nov 24, 1990). American composer of Turkish birth. He graduated from the Ankara State Conservatory with a diploma in composition, conducting and piano performance (1947). In 1951 he studied sound engineering in Ankara with Joze Bernard and Willfried Garret of Radio Diffusion Française. He co-founded the Helikon Society of Contemporary Arts and was the first music director of Radio Ankara's Western music programmes (1951–9). With his 1957 work, Music for String Quartet and Tape, Arel became a pioneer in the world of electro-acoustic composition. A grant from the Rockefeller Foundation (1959) enabled him to work at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, New York, where his compositions and teachings greatly influenced the development of electronic music. In 1965, after establishing Yale University's first electronic music studio (1962), he became a professor at Yale. He went on to found the Electronic Music Studio at SUNY, Stony Brook (...

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Laurence Libin

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Talila Eliram

[Abramovich, Aleksander ]

(b Moscow, Oct 26, 1914; d Tel Aviv, Sept 27, 1995). Israeli popular music composer. His family name was Abramovich, but he changed it to the Hebrew name Argov in 1946, 12 years after emigrating to Israel. He was known as Sasha. His mother was a professional pianist and his father a dentist. Argov began to play the piano at the age of three and a half, and when he was six he began composing songs which his mother wrote down for him. He had no formal training in music, and in his adult life music was not his main source of income – he worked as a bank clerk and later owned a bookshop – but composing was always his mission in life.

He wrote approximately 1200 songs including songs for military and civilian entertainment troupes, and songs with piano accompaniment. He accompanied some performances of his songs, and emphasized that in his music the piano plays an important part in creating an atmosphere and illustrating the meaning of the text; he ascribed considerable importance to the relationship between text and music, and attempted to represent words in music using frequent changes of rhythm and metre. He also composed several musicals and film scores; his most famous musical was ...

Article

Alina Pahlevanian, Aram Kerovpyan and Svetlana Sarkisyan

(Armenian Hayastan)

Country in Transcaucasia. It borders Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Iran and covers approximately 29,800 kms ². At the end of the 20th century its population stood at just under four million, most of which is Christian and belongs to the Armenian Apostolic Church. Formerly a republic of the USSR, it became independent in 1991. Its capital is Yerevan.

Situated on the border between Europe and Asia, Armenia has a culture and history that spans more than a millennium. This is attested by archaeological finds that can be dated to the 5th and 4th millennia bce as well as by numerous rock paintings and ancient written sources. Originating within the Armenian uplands, and assimilating in the course of its history several ancient peoples on the edges of Asia and in Anatolia (the Hurrians, the Assyrian-Aramaic and Urartian peoples), Armenia was already a slave-owning state with a single language and with its own distinctive culture by the 3rd millennium ...

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Jean Gribenski

(b Düsseldorf, Aug 16, 1930). Israeli and French ethnomusicologist . After studying the french horn with Jean Devémy at the Paris Conservatoire (1951–4), he was first horn in the Israel Broadcasting Authority SO in Jerusalem (1958–63). In 1963 he founded the Musée National Boganda at Bangui in the Central African Republic, and was its director until 1967, and on returning to Paris he undertook musicological studies with Chailley at the Sorbonne (1968–73). He entered the CNRS in 1968 and his subsequent career has been with that institution. In 1993 he was appointed lecturer at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. He was an associate professor at Tel-Aviv University (1979–83) and music director of the Israel Broadcasting Authority (1980–82). He has been awarded the Grand Prix International du Disque de l’Académie Charles Cros (1971, 1978 and ...

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André Clergeat

(b Hanoi, Vietnam, April 26, 1950). French trumpeter and flugelhorn player. He discovered jazz at the age of 14 through listening to recordings by Louis Armstrong. In Paris he studied trumpet at the Conservatoire and became active in traditional jazz, most notably in the band Les Haricots Rouges (1969–73) and Michel Attenoux’s sextet, with which he recorded under Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis’s leadership in Antibes and appeared at the Newport Jazz Festival New York (both 1975). In 1976 he joined the Anachronic Jazz Band. He recorded several albums with Claude Bolling’s orchestra and played with the Jazz Five (which included Sam Woodyard). As a freelance Artero worked in settings as diverse as Martial Solal’s big band (1983–4) and the classic jazz group Paris-Barcelona (1992–4).

Article

Andrew Harrison

Australian contemporary improvisation quintet. Its members were Elliott Dalgleish (reed instruments), John Rodgers (violin), Adrian Sherriff (bass trombone, flute, and south Indian percussion), Jon Dimond (six-string electric bass guitar, trombone, and various percussion instruments), and Ken Edie (drums). It was formed by Dalgleish in 1989 and performed at the Pinnacles Festival in Brisbane that year. Between 1991 and 1992 the ensemble invited established musicians from other parts of Australia (including Roger Frampton and Roger Dean) to play with them in Brisbane, where they were based, and in the latter year it made an eponymous recording, Artisans Workshop (Tall Poppies 028). After receiving government funding, it embarked on national tours in 1993 and 1994, performing at universities, art galleries, and clubs. In 1996 the quintet appeared in Bombay, India, and at the New Music Tasmania Festival at the University of Tasmania. Artisans Workshop was a collaborative group with a broad philosophical position on contemporary music whose members exhibited remarkable technical virtuosity; their performances usually included completely improvised pieces and their own rythmically elaborate compositions, often involving metrical modulation. (J. Clare [G. Brennan, pseud.]: ...

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Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Yerevan, Sept 23, 1920; d Yerevan, March 28, 2012). Armenian composer and pianist. At the Komitas Conservatory in Yerevan he studied composition (with Barkhudaryan and Tal′yan) and the piano (with O. Babasyan), graduating in 1941. He continued his studies at the Moscow Conservatory with Litinsky, Peyko and Zuckermann (1946–8). He was artistic director of the Armenian Philharmonic Society between 1954 and 1990. He began to teach composition at the Yerevan Conservatory in 1965, and was appointed to a professorship in 1977. He joined the Union of Composers in 1939 and the Union of Cinematographers of Armenia in 1975. He was awarded the State Prize of the USSR in 1949 for his graduation work Kautat hayreinki masin (‘Cantata on the Homeland’), and was made a People’s Artist of Armenia in 1960. He received numerous awards in Armenia, the USA and elsewhere.

The development in the late 1940s of Arutiunian’s artistic perception, with its dualism between Classical and Romantic elements, coincided with the development of vitalist trends in Soviet art of the postwar period. Arutiunian’s individual response to vitalism involved a spontaneous and improvisatory approach which drew on Armenia’s cultural heritage, revealing the immanent potential of the national melodic style and the energy of its rhythms. Elements of vitalism also conditioned other aspects of Arutiunian’s music: his preservation of Classical sequences of contrasting movements and his use of Baroque forms and genres, especially suites and concertos. The concertante principle influences not only his concertos and other orchestral and chamber works, but also the opera ...

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Abdel-Hamid Hamam

(b Jan 17, 1929). Jordanian traditional composer, singer and buzuq player of Palestinian Gypsy origin. At an early age he joined a group of Gypsy musicians as a singer and player of the ‘ūd (short-necked lute) and the buzuq (long-necked lute), and performed at weddings and other celebrations in Jerusalem and the neighbouring villages. He began to learn religious chants and Qur’anic recitation at the age of nine. In 1949 he joined the choir of the broadcasting service in Ramallah, and in 1959 he joined the music section of the newly established radio station in Amman. In 1963 he was appointed leader of the radio station’s music ensemble; he held this position for several years, during which he performed many of his songs and also had the opportunity to join a group of researchers making a field survey of folk heritage including Jordanian folk singing and music in an area covering both banks of the river Jordan. As a ...

Article

Gregory Salmon

Capital of Turkmenistan. Although the Turkmen Dramatic Theatre, founded in 1929, presented some opera, regular productions came only with the establishment of an opera studio in 1937. The opera-ballet studio of the Turkmenskiy Muzïkal’nïy Teatr (founded 1940) formed the basis of the Turkmenskiy Teatr Operï i Baleta, which opened on 10 February 1941 with the first Turkmen national opera, Sud’ba bakhshi (‘The Fate of Bakhshi’) by G. Kakhiani, director of the opera theatre in Baku. Early premières included a number of national operas: A. G. Shaposhnikov’s Gyul’ i bil’bil’ (‘Rose and Nightingale’, 1943), Yu. S. Meytus and D. Ovezov’s Leyli i Medzhun (‘Leyli and Medzhun’, 1946) and Shaposhnikov and V. Mukhatov’s Kemine i kazï (‘Poet and Judge’, 1947). The repertory mixes Russian and European classics with new national operas, performed in Turkmen and in Russian. In 1948 Ashkhabad was struck by an earthquake which destroyed the theatre. In ...

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Razia Sultanova

(b Bukhara, 29 May/June 11, 1912; d Tashkent, Dec 10, 1975). Uzbek composer. He studied at the Samarkand Institute of Music, Theatre and Choreography (1929–31), then at the Moscow Conservatory with B. Shekhter and S. Vasilenko (1934–7) and the Leningrad Conservatory with M. Steinberg (1941–3). He joined the staff of the Tashkent Conservatory in 1944 and was later its director (1947–62) and rector (1971–5). He is regarded as one of the founders of new Uzbek music and was a leading public figure in the country: he was the director of the Navoi Theatre of Opera and Ballet (1943–7) and both founder and director of the Samarkand Theatre of Opera and Ballet (1964–6). He received a large number of honours and prizes in his lifetime, including the title of People’s Artist of the USSR (...

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Article

Loren Kajikawa

The boundaries of Asian American jazz are debatable. Its practioners could be said to extend from the popular fusion group Hiroshima to Filipino Americans playing in the early New Orleans jazz scene. The term, however, has had the greatest resonance with a cohort of musicians and activists that has come together since early in the 1980s to organize its musical activities around racial issues. These include Anthony Brown, Jeff Chan, Glenn Horiuchi, Fred Ho, Jason Kao Hwang, Vijay Iyer, Mark Izu, Jon Jang, Miya Masaoka, Hafez Modirzadeh, and Francis Wong.

Confronting a lack of interest in their work by mainstream outlets, these musicians used “Asian American” as a rubric to promote, present, document, and distribute their work. They have consequently established a nationwide network of artists and organizations with nodes in major US metropolitan areas. For example, in 1981 Paul Yamazaki, George Leong, and Izu co-founded the San Francisco Asian American Jazz Festival. Similar festivals have since been established in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York. Asian American musicians produced their own recordings as a way to maintain creative control and reach target audiences. Jon Jang’s first were released on RPM Records, an independent label created to record the avant-garde Afro-Asian group United Front co-led by Brown, Izu, Lewis Jordan, and George Sams. In ...

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Joseph Jordania

(b Artanuji, nr Artvini, 10/March 23, 1896; d Tbilisi, Dec 13, 1981). Georgian musicologist. After graduating from the Tbilisi State Conservatory (1927), he studied at the Leningrad Conservatory with Yury Tyulin and Khristofor Kushnaryov (1927–30). He taught music theory at the Tbilisi College of Music (1924–7) and at the Conservatory (from 1930). He established and headed the department of music theory at the Conservatory (1937–73), and was head of the ethnomusicology section of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography in Tbilisi (1946–50). He conducted fieldwork expeditions throughout Georgia (1927–50), on the basis of which he introduced a course in Georgian harmony at the Conservatory. His work formed the basis for further theoretical studies in Georgian musicology, both concerning folk music and Western music. He was awarded the doctorate (1964) for his book on Georgian folksong, and was the recipient of the Z. Paliashvili award (...

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Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b during a voyage from Turkey to Syria, 1917; d Egypt, July 14, 1944). Syrian singer. Born to a well-known Syrian family, she moved to Cairo with her family in 1924 and made some commercial recordings while still a teenager. In 1932 she married her cousin Prince Ḥasan al-Aṭrash and returned to Syria. After giving birth to a daughter she was pronounced unable to produce any more children (and not therefore a son and heir). She left her husband to give him the chance of having an heir, and thereafter deep sadness marked her life and the romantic meanings in her songs.

Staying in Cairo with her mother, she made singing her profession. She sang compositions by her brother, Farīd al- Aṭrash, and later co-starred in his film Intiṣār al-shabāb (‘Triumph of youth’). The greatest composers wrote for her: Midhat Assem, Zakariyyā Aḥmad, Muḥammad al-Qasabjī and Riyāḍ al-Sunbaṭī. She sang in Muḥammed ‘Abd al-Wahhāb's film ...

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Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Constantinople, Jan 3, 1922). Armenian composer. During his early life in France (1923–47) he attended the Collège Parc Impérial in Nice and studied composition with Eleuthier Lovreglio at the conservatoire there (1940–45). He moved to Yerevan in 1947 and worked as a music editor for the publishers Sovetakan grokh (1950–91) and joined the Armenian Composers’ Union in 1949. His First Symphony (1970) was commissioned by the Armenian Ministry of Culture and the Chorale and Queen of Kilikia was written to mark the inauguration of an international symposium on the ancient Armenian kingdom of Kilikia, held in New York in 1993. His works have been heard at festivals in Vilnius (1972), Los Angeles (1980), Buenos Aires (1986) and Lille (1995). As a composer, Astvatsatrian is primarily concerned with rationalization of the creative process. Even the neo-classical works of the late 1950s and early 60s, such as the ...

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Alina Pahlevanian

(b April 11, 1938). Armenian k‘anon player. She graduated from the Melikian Music College, Yerevan, in 1955. In the same year she joined the Ensemble of Folk Instruments of Armenian Radio and Television, performing as a soloist and as a member of the ensemble; many of the group’s performances were recorded by the Melodiya company. In 1957 she received four gold medals and a finalist’s diploma in performers’ competitions held at the 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow. She began to teach at the Melikian Music College in 1959. In 1972 she created an ensemble of k‘anon players with her sisters Apolina, Eghisabet, Anahit and Dsovinar; they performed in Armenia, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldavia, Germany and Hungary, and the group subsequently developed into a larger vocal and instrumental ensemble in which the children and grandchildren of the Atabekian sisters participated. In 1983 Angela Atabekian joined the staff of the Komitas State Conservatory, Yerevan where she graduated in ...