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Ireland  

Harry White and Nicholas Carolan

(Irish Éire)

Country in Europe. It is the second-largest island of the British Isles. It is divided into two sections, the Republic of Ireland, which comprises 26 southern counties, and Northern Ireland, which comprises six counties of Ulster and is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Harry White

Although the distinction between ‘art’ music and ‘traditional’ music obtains with reasonable clarity in Ireland after the Battle of Kinsale (1601) and the defeat of the Gaelic aristocracy, it reflects an ethnic divergence and the pre-eminence of English norms over an oral Gaelic culture that thereafter was preserved and developed in severely polarized circumstances. The fragmented polity of modern Ireland, no more clearly expressed than in the counter-claims of Gaelic and Anglo-Irish perceptions of high culture, has determined the understanding of orally transmitted music as a corpus of ethnic melodies, with its roots in the culture of Gaelic Ireland. The concept of ‘art music’ incorporates the norms of European (English, German, Italian) musical patronage assimilated as part of the colonial status quo, especially after the Battle of the Boyne (...

Article

Israel  

Jehoash Hirshberg, Natan Shahar, Edwin Seroussi and Amnon Shiloah

Country in the Middle East. The history of the Jewish people was dominated by the traumatic destruction of the Second Temple (70 ce) and the dispersal of the majority of Jews in the Diaspora. Longing for a return to the Holy Land became a basic tenet in Jewish faith. Religious devotion, persecutions and the emergence of a Jewish national movement in the late 19th century triggered successive immigration waves of Jews to Palestine, beginning in 1880. The Jewish community of Palestine, referred to as the Yishuv (‘Settlement’), was culturally autonomous both under Ottoman rule (until 1918) and under the British mandate until the foundation of the independent state of Israel in 1948.

Israeli society has always been dominated by the ideological call to return to the Eastern biblical roots of the nation and to act as a melting pot, contrasted with internal pressures to preserve the heritage of the diverse Jewish ethnic groups, including the performance and study of classical Western repertory. Music played a role in bringing people together, whether for active participation in choirs, bands and folk singing, or as concert audiences. The deliberate revival of Hebrew as a modern language of communication was their most powerful unifying tool, and vocal music was encouraged as a potent device for disseminating the use and the correct accent of the language among immigrants. Lacking a common tradition of folksong, amateur and professional composers turned to inventing a new tradition of Hebrew songs in the hope of their dissemination among the people. Jewish communities of ancient Sephardi, or Middle Eastern, descent comprised expanded families that settled together, leading a mutually supporting cultural and religious life around their synagogue, with daily services and family events providing ample opportunities for music-making. By contrast, most European, or Ashkenazi, Jews immigrated as individuals or in nuclear families, and socialized through the Western institutional model of public concerts. Processes of acculturation ranged from complete compartmentalization to syntheses of traditions....

Article

Italy  

Tullia Magrini, Nino Pirrotta, Pierluigi Petrobelli, Antonio Rostagno, Giorgio Pestelli, John C.G. Waterhouse and Raffaele Pozzi

Country in Europe.

Tullia Magrini

Nino Pirrotta, revised by Pierluigi Petrobelli

The length and mountainous nature of the Italian peninsula, and its historical vicissitudes, have given its regional segments significantly different ethnic and linguistic profiles. Similar differences existed in the local ‘dialects’ of Western plainchant that developed during the early Middle Ages and continued in use until the imposition of Gregorian chant throughout most of Italy by the 11th century. In some areas of the peninsula, the Greek liturgies were followed, notably in the south where the Byzantine rite was celebrated in the old Basilian monasteries; Eastern practices are also known to have existed during the early medieval period in the Greek monasteries in Rome and in cities, such as Ravenna, that were once governed by Byzantium.

Traditionally, the origins of Roman chant were ascribed to Pope Gregory the Great (590–604), who, according to legends dating from the Carolingian era, composed the basic melodic repertory and established the Schola Cantorum as the model for the correct performance of liturgical music in the Western Church. However, there is no contemporary evidence to suggest that Gregory was particularly concerned with chant and it is now thought that the Schola Cantorum was founded in Rome during the second half of the 7th century. The repertory that bears his name – Gregorian chant – probably derives from the late 8th century, when the Carolingian kings attempted to introduce Roman chant into the Frankish lands. Whether Gregorian chant was actually sung in Rome at this time, however, is unclear and it has been suggested that it represents a ‘reworking’ of the genuine Roman repertory by Frankish cantors (...

Article

Philip Yampolsky, Dr Sumarsam, Lisa Gold, Tilman Seebass, Benjamin Brinner, Michael Crawford, Simon Cook, Matthew Isaac Cohen, Marc Perlman, Virginia Gorlinski, Margaret J. Kartomi, Christopher Basile, R. Anderson Sutton and Franki Raden

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Alan R. Thrasher, Joseph S.C. Lam, Jonathan P.J. Stock, Colin Mackerras, Francesca Rebollo-Sborgi, Frank Kouwenhoven, A. Schimmelpenninck, Stephen Jones, Han Mei, Wu Ben, Helen Rees, Sabine Trebinjac and Joanna C. Lee

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Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie and Elizabeth Falconer

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Nazir A. Jairazbhoy and Peter Manuel

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Sotirios Chianis

revised by Rudolph M. Brandl

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Kapila Vatsyayan

revised by Maria Lord

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Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie and Elizabeth Falconer

In 

Article

Jamaica  

Olive Lewin

revised by Maurice G. Gordon

The third largest of the Caribbean islands, with an area of about 11,000 km². Formerly part of the British West Indies, gained independence in 1962 and is a member of the British Commonwealth.

Columbus arrived in Jamaica on his second voyage (1494), naming the island Santiago. During the early 16th century it was colonized by the Spanish and by the time of the English conquest (1655) the indigenous Arawak Indians had been virtually exterminated. With the introduction of slaves from West Africa, beginning in the 16th century, blacks soon outnumbered Europeans, and the 20th-century population is predominantly creole or black with European, Chinese, Indian and Syrian minorities. Although English is the official language, creole (a mixture of English, Spanish and French combined with features from various African languages) is widely spoken and is often the language of folksong texts. Many Jamaicans belong to the Anglican Church but other religions include the Baptist, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Muslim and Ethiopian Orthodox faiths. African and non-Christian cults (for example, the Kumina) and Afro-Christian revivalist sects (such as the Zion Way Baptist and the Pukkomina) are particularly important in rural areas....

Article

Japan  

Hugh de Ferranti, Shigeo Kishibe, David W. Hughes, W. Adriaansz, Robin Thompson, Charles Rowe, Donald P. Berger, W. Malm, W.P. Malm, David Waterhouse, Allan Marett, Richard Emmert, Fumio Koizumi, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, Masakata Kanazawa, Linda Fujie and Elizabeth Falconer

(Jap. Nihon [Nippon])

Country in East Asia. With an area of 370,000 km² and a population of about 126·43 million (2000), it principally comprises four main islands (Honshū, Kyūshū, Hokkaidō and Shikoku) and the Ryūkyū archipelago, extending in an arc between Kyūshū and Taiwan. Early cultural influences flowed from Japan’s proximity to China and Korea to the west. Although generally considered to be ethnically homogeneous, Japan is culturally diverse, with distinctive cultures especially in the far south (Ryukyuan) and the far north (Ainu culture of Hokkaidō) complementing the mainstream of Japanese culture.

Hugh de Ferranti

Shigeo Kishibe

The modern period of Japanese history dates from the Meiji Restoration of 1868, when a constitutional monarchy was established after nearly seven centuries of feudalism. During this period the country was opened to the outside world and its influences, so that by the mid-20th century music in Japan reflected mixtures of three basic types: Japanese traditional music, Western traditional music and international modern trends. In Tokyo audiences enjoy concerts of Western classical music given by Japanese and foreign performers, while on nightly television programmes Japanese singers perform popular songs in Western or Japanese idioms. On the surface, traditional music seems neglected. But although there has been a decrease in the number of professional performers and lovers of such music, and a few genres have disappeared, the surviving traditions have been maintained at a high standard. An important factor in this is the continuing presence of a strong musicians’ guild system, which has since ancient times (see§3 below) reinforced the various styles of each musical genre. Such continuing traditions are sustained not only in art music but also in the rich variety of folk music that flourishes throughout the country....

Article

Abdel-Hamid Hamam

(Arab. Al-Mamlaka Al-Urduniya Al-Hashemiya)

Constitutional monarchy in West Asia. Located in the centre of the eastern Arab world, Jordan has an area of 91,860 km² and a population (est. 2000) of approximately 6·33 million, of which some 96% are Sunni Muslim. Through population movements and common geographical features, Jordan has close cultural and musical links with the neighbouring Arab cultures of Syria, Palestine, Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

Jordanian music is primarily vocal. Instruments are used to accompany singing or sometimes to reproduce songs instrumentally (although through acculturation instrumental music has recently gained some importance). Folk or folk-related genres predominate. Before the 1948 war with Israel, Jordan's small towns were mostly populated by agriculturalists; artisans and shopkeepers were not numerous. Following the unification of the West Bank and East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule after the 1949 Jordan-Israel armistice, Palestinian folk and art traditions became a part of the kingdom’s traditions (see Palestinian music...

Article

Alma Kunanbayeva and Saida Elemanova

(Kaz. Kazak Respublikasy)

Country in Central Asia. The Kazakhs are a Turkic-speaking people who inhabit a vast area of 3000 km² from east (the Altai mountains) to west (the Caspian Sea) and 2000 km² from north (the southern Urals) to south (Tien Shan); 2·7 million km² in total. In 1991 the Kazakhs numbered approximately 10 million people, of which 6,797,000 lived in the Kazakh Republic, 1,665,000 in republics of the former USSR and 1,535,000 in other countries. The percentage of Kazakhs in the Republic's population reached 53·4% in 1999. Russians, Ukrainians, Germans, Koreans, Uighurs, Uzbeks, Tartars and others (there are about a hundred ‘nationalities’) also live in the Republic, whose total population is estimated at 16·93 million in 2000.

Alma Kunanbayeva

Until the gradual annexation to Russia, completed by the mid-19th century, Kazakh musical culture was that of nomadic pastoralists, who migrated widely across steppeland in seasonal movements. Living in the transportable round felt tent or the ...

Article

Kenya  

William Umbima

, Republic of (Swahili Jamhuri ya Kenya). Country in East Africa. It has a population of 30·34 million (2000 estimate) and an area of 571,416 km². Music and music-making in Kenya are as varied as the country’s traditions and cultures. Apart from indigenous peoples, other important groups include the descendants of Arab settlers found mainly along the coast and recent Indian and European settlers following British colonization at the beginning of the 20th century. Each culture is distinct despite cross-influences. Kenyan music has much in common with that of other sub-Saharan African countries and beyond due to history and geography. Indeed, studies of musical instruments and many musical traditions in Kenya are best understood within this wider context. Kenya straddles the equator along the Indian Ocean (fig.1). As a colony, Kenya was carved out of a variety of peoples and cultures. The two parts (the British-controlled mainland and the Arab-influenced coastal protectorate) became the modern republic of Kenya in ...

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Article

Kosovo  

Rreze Kryeziu and Visar Munishi

In the middle of the 20th century art music began to flourish in Kosovo. After World War II the Kosovo-Albanian ethnic group shared the fate of other peoples from the former Yugoslavian state. However, this period also saw the creation of favourable economic, political, and social circumstances for the professional development of art music as an important aspect of cultural life.

In Kosovo art music emerged from the activities of amateur groups: instrumental, wind, and vocal ensembles that had formed in various cities and that participated in traditional ceremonies by performing folk music. Cultural life was also enriched by performances by church choirs. The dominance of sacred over secular music means that choirs continued to constitute an integral part of the educational and cultural mission of the Catholic religion in its cathedrals (Munishi, 1988). Special note should be made of the church of Saint Cecilia in Prizren, which from ...

Article

Kuwait  

Article

Mark Slobin, Alma Kunanbayeva, Subanaliyev Sagynaly and Dyikanova Cholpon

Country in Central Asia, formerly part of the USSR. It is bounded by Uzbekistan to the west, Kazakhstan to the north, China to the east and Tajikistan to the south.

Mark Slobin, revised by Alma Kunanbayeva

When Central Asia was reorganized territorially on a national basis in 1924, Kyrgyzstan was separated from Turkestan and formed into an autonomous region within the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that musical styles within a republic with such recent political borders express affiliations with those of its neighbours. Three musical styles may be identified: in the northern area (the Issyk-Kul and Naryn regions and the Chuy valley), styles are similar to those of neighbouring Kazakhs; Kyrgyz clans in the mountains of the north-western area (the Talas and Chatkal valleys and a part of the Fergana valley) use styles that seem more obviously indigenous; and the styles of those in the southern area (the Osh region) share features with neighbouring Uzbeks. In general, recitative styles prevail in southern Kyrgyzstan while more melodic styles are found in the north....

Article

Laos  

Terry E. Miller

[Lao People’s Democratic Republic] (Saathiaranarath Prachhathipatay Prachhachhon Lao)

The Lao People's Democratic Republic is a small, landlocked country in mainland South-east Asia bordering Vietnam, China, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Cambodia. Before its partition into the princedoms of Luang Prabang, Vientiane (also spelt Viang Chan) and Champassak soon after 1700, the 14th-century kingdom of Lan Sang (‘Million Elephants’) was a significant power in the region. After 1827, when Siamese armies defeated the Lao and sacked Vientiane, most Lao-occupied territory west of the Mekong river was absorbed into Siam (present-day Thailand). Although much of the current population of north-east Thailand is culturally Lao, their music has developed on a different path, one influenced by Bangkok's modernization and the development of urban popular culture. About half of the 5·3 million population is comprised of upland, non-Lao-speaking groups, many of whom practise swidden agriculture on the mountainsides. The ethnic Lao population is concentrated in lowland valleys, especially along the Mekong and its tributaries, and on the Vientiane plain north of the capital. Laos was a kingdom until ...