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Burmese double-headed barrel drum. It is suspended horizontally across the chest of the musician who strikes both ends with his hands. Bon-gyì are usually played in pairs, for rice planting festivals, or for pagoda festivals. The term also refers to the ensemble in which these drums are played. This consists of a ...

Article

Bồng  

Nguyen Thuyet Phong

Single-headed hourglass drum of Vietnam. The head is made from boa skin and is struck by the hand. It was used in the former court and ritual ensembles in Huế (central Vietnam) and remains in use in the nhạc lễ instrumental ensemble of southern Vietnam....

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Kettledrum of the Mbwanja and Eso peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The head is usually made of an elephant ear, affixed to a clay pot resonator by fibre or leather thongs. It is known among the Ngando as ebondza and by the Nkundo as ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Drum of the Eso people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The elephant skin head is affixed to the small cylindro-conical wooden body by means of nails bent in the shape of staples.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et due Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1951), 8, 63....

Article

Bongolo  

F.J. de Hen

Single-headed barrel drum of the Ngando in the central Democratic Republic of the Congo. The iguana-skin head is beaten by the hands.

BooneT, 63 G. Knosp: Enquête sur la vie musicale au Congo belge, 1 (Tervuren, 1968)

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Bongos  

James Blades, James Holland and Thomas Brett

A pair of Afro-Cuban single-headed drums with conical or cylindrical hardwood shells, joined together horizontally. The shells are of the same height but of different diameters; the drumheads (animal membrane or plastic) are generally screw-tensioned and tunable, usually tuned to high pitches at least an interval of a 4th apart. The bongos are usually played with the bare hands, the fingers striking the heads like drumsticks. Created in Cuba around ...

Article

F.J. de Hen

Double-headed drum of the Bangba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The heads are tightened together with leather straps over a body about 70 cm tall (BooneT, 25f). See Nabita, §1 .

Article

Bonkeli  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Single-headed drum of the Kota and Kutu peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The head, of antelope, snake, or crocodile skin, is attached to the footed body with liana cords.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et due Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1951), 62....

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Largest, lead drum in a set of hand-beaten drums and other percussion used in Afro-Cuban Akubua dance music. The drum set can also include the binkome or biankome (highest drum), eroapa (high drum), kuchiyerema or kotchierima (medium-size drum), and obiapa or opiapa (low drum; the lead drum in the Abakua three-member ...

Article

Bonkolo  

Rainer Polak

Conical drum of the Bamana, Boso, and Somono peoples of Mali. The hardwood body is 50 to 70 cm tall and 25 to 30 cm in diameter. A single head of goatskin or antelope rawhide is sewn to a rope lacing affixed to small holes near the bottom. The head is beaten by one bare hand and with one light stick, which produces a sharp cracking sound. The drum can be tuned by screwing short sticks into the staggered lacing. Ensembles usually consist of two to four ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Scraper of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Various types of scrapers bear this or a similar name. The Lia and Oli peoples call it bonkwasa and the Nkundo call it bonkwata. The Konda and Kala know it also as bokwese. Typically it is a bamboo tube with one or several slits notched on both edges or sometimes only on one edge. Wooden ones are rare and mostly confined to the Lower Congo. Here variant forms exist, such as a wooden box with a grooved stick attached to a board; an anthropomorphic body covered with skin; or a box shaped like a goat, with a notched bamboo tube replacing the vertebrae and scraped with two sticks, one solid and the other partly slit. Lemba-type wooden slit drums sometimes have the sides of the slot notched to serve also as scrapers....

Article

Boobams  

James Blades

A series of small tunable drums introduced in the 1950s in the USA; they are classified as membranophones: struck drums. Boobams have a distinctive ‘dark’ tone quality. In the original form of the drum, a membrane drumhead about 11 cm in diameter was secured to the top of a long open stem of bamboo (hence boobam) which acted as a resonator. Later the heads and resonators were made of plastic and a three-octave chromatic range was available (...

Article

Bote  

Bowl-shaped kettledrum used in northern Sierra Leone by Susu, Mandingo, Yalunka, and Koranko musicians. It is approximately 40 to 50 cm in diameter and is played suspended at waist level. The player strikes the head with his right hand, while clapping together metal rings (...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Dance drum of the Mbelo and Kongo peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is double-headed and beaten with the hands. Before playing, the heads are tightened by heating.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et due Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1951), 61.

Article

Boy  

Generic term for drum, used by the Dogon people of Mali. The term also refers to the rhythm beaten for the dance and to the dancing place itself (boy yala). The large and small double-headed cylindrical drums, boy na and boy dagi, respectively, have laced skins; they are played in a slanting position (the ...

Article

Bozhozh  

Jonathan McCollum

Small spherical pellet bells of Armenia. Strings of them hung around animals’ necks and women’s ankles served as noisemakers to ward off evil. They have been discovered at various sites in Armenia, some dating back to 2000 bce. In the Armenian Apostolic Church, the bozhozh...

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Branok  

Single-headed frame drum of the Temiar people of Melaka, West Malaysia. It is beaten by the hand and is played for the selumbang dance cycles.

Article

Brau  

Claudie Marcel-Dubois

Indirect friction drum, from Rouergue and the south of France. It is sounded by rubbing a cord that passes through the head. The body of the drum is of earthenware or, less commonly, wood. The cord can be rubbed internally or externally. Its sound symbolizes the roaring of bulls (hence the name) and is used to accompany rituals, especially the charivari....

Article

Friction drum. See also Drum, §I, 4.

Article

Bubanj  

Cvjetko Rihtman

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The kidskin heads are stretched over a wooden body made of bent board 5 mm thick, the depth of which is smaller than the diameter of the head (about 35 cm). One of the heads usually has a snare. Similar, smaller drums are called ...