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Sarah L. Martin

(b Hominy, OK, Sept 25, 1915; d Norman, OK, Aug 10, 1987). American organist, teacher, and clinician. Andrews Boggess received her BM degree from the University of Oklahoma and a MFA degree from the University of Michigan. She was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. She did additional graduate work at Union Theological Seminary in New York. Her teachers included Arthur Poister, David McK. Williams, Palmer Christian, Carl Weinrich, and Marcel Dupré. She served as organist/choirmaster of St John’s Episcopal Church in Norman, Oklahoma (1936–62). She taught at the University of Oklahoma from 1938 until her retirement in 1976, at which time she was named the David Ross Boyd Professor Emeritus of Music. She received every award given by the University of Oklahoma, including Outstanding Young Woman Faculty Member (1948), Outstanding Professor (1952), and the Distinguished Service Citation (1976). She was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in ...


Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Detroit, MI, Sept 24, 1951). American composer, theorist, and jazz saxophonist. He attended public schools in Detroit, including Cass Technical High School, where he studied jazz and led his own band, the Seven Sounds. He continued his education at the University of Michigan (BMEd 1973, MA 1974) and at Yale University (MDiv 1977, PhD music theory 1993). Andrews was ordained as a minister in 1978, serving as Yale University campus chaplain and as faculty member in the Music Department and Department of African American Studies for more than a decade. During that period he met Lloyd Richards, director of the Yale Repertory Theatre, and playwright August Wilson. Andrews became resident music director (1979–86) for the company and contributed original music scores to a number of Wilson’s plays, including Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, Fences, The Piano Lesson, and Seven Guitars...


William Osborne

(b Wayne, OH, Jan 19, 1862; d Honolulu, HI, Aug 18, 1932). American organist, conductor, teacher, and composer. His family moved to Oberlin when Andrews was six; two years later he began study at what was then a department of music of Oberlin College. He graduated from what had become a Conservatory of Music in 1879 and only three years later joined its faculty, where he spent the rest of his career until retirement in 1931. He took two leaves for further study in Leipzig, Munich, and Paris and eventually became a nationally known organ recitalist. He was a founding member of the American Guild of Organists and later an honorary president of that organization. He was named organist and later director of Oberlin’s Musical Union and also of the Conservatory Orchestra, serving the former for thirty years, the latter for two decades. He also conducted choruses in Akron and elsewhere in northern Ohio. Oberlin conferred an honorary Master of Arts degree on Andrews in ...


(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, Dec 22, 1894/Jan 5, 1895; d Bucharest, Feb 4, 1974). Romanian composer, pianist, teacher, and critic. An erudite personality of Romanian music, he contributed to the formation of a Romanian school of composition during the inter-war years. At the Bucharest Conservatory (1906–13) he studied with Kiriac-Georgescu, Castaldi, Klenck, and Dunicu. In 1919 he graduated law school in Bucharest and then took the PhD in 1922 in Paris. During his stay in France, he participated in the courses of composition of Vincent d’Indy and Gabriel Faure. In 1920, he founded the Society of Romanian composers with other important musicians. At the Bucharest Conservatory (now the National University of Music Bucharest) he taught chamber music (1926–48) and composition (1948–59). His students include Stefan Niculescu, Dumitru Capoianu, and Aurel Stroe. He was not only a partner at the chamber concerts of George Enescu, but also promoted together with Enescu the new Romanian and French chamber music. He wrote for numerous publications on subjects ranging from music aesthetics to jazz and folk music, for instance, ‘George Enescu the Way I Met Him’ in ...


John Lade

(b Ghent, April 25, 1798; d Ghent, Jan 21, 1872). Belgian composer and teacher. He began his career in 1813 as a violinist in the orchestra of the Ghent theatre and from 1817 was its leader for more than 35 years. When the Ghent Conservatory was founded in 1835 Andries was appointed professor both of the violin and of instrumental ensemble. From 1851 until his retirement in 1859 he directed the conservatory and also taught harmony and composition. His music, all unpublished, includes a Concertino and La tempête for violin and L’orpheline, a three-act drama.

Aperçu historique de tous les instruments de musique actuellement en usage (Ghent, 1856) Précis de l’histoire de la musique depuis les temps plus reculés, suivi de notices sur un grand nombre d’écrivains didactiques et théoriciens de l’art musical (Ghent, 1862) Instruments à vent: la flûte (Ghent, 1866) Remarques sur les cloches et carillons...


Emilia Zanetti

(b Lucca, July 16, 1834; d Lucca, Jan 13, 1901). Italian composer, teacher and bandmaster. He studied with Michele Puccini, father of Giacomo, and spent his life in Lucca except for a period in Florence (1855–62). Of his activities, the most important was his teaching at the Istituto Musicale Pacini. As the institute's director, and especially as teacher of singing, the organ, harmony and counterpoint (1864–95), he educated several generations of young musicians, among them Alfredo Catalani and Giacomo Puccini, who remained devoted to him. His works include eight operas, five of which were performed between 1854 and 1871 and the last after his death, in 1902, though all were given only in Lucca or other small towns; the manuscripts of his Asraele degli Abenceraggi and Dramma in montagna are preserved in Rome ( I-Rsc ). Angeloni also produced a large number of sacred works distinguished by their originality, dignity of style and sound contrapuntal technique. These include a mass for the jubilee of Leo XIII (...


Paula Morgan, Jon Stroop and Paula Matthews

(b Providence, RI, Feb 18, 1922; d Tucson, AZ, April 6, 2001). American musicologist. He attended Columbia University (BS 1946, MA 1948), the University of Paris (diploma 1951) and the University of Southern California, where he took his doctorate in 1964 with a dissertation on André Campra’s opéra-ballets. After serving on the faculty of the University of Montana (1948–50) he became a professor at the University of Arizona (1952); he retired in 1992. Anthony’s particular area of study was French music of the 17th and 18th centuries, and he concentrated on opéra-ballet of the French Baroque in many of his writings. His book on French Baroque music is valuable as an introduction to a vast body of instrumental and vocal music which has not been thoroughly explored; the volume has been cited as the classic study of its subject. Anthony was also known as a harpsichordist. He was named Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government in ...


[Abbondio, Abondio, Abundii]

(b Fabrica, nr Viterbo; d probably at Rome, ? in or before 1629) Italian composer and teacher. According to Casimiri he must have taught music at the Seminario Romano, Rome, some time between 1602 and 1606. The first post he held that is specifically documented is that of maestro di cappella of S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, where he is recorded from 1 June 1611 to 20 July 1613 (there is no evidence to substantiate Pitoni’s and Baini’s statements that he was there by 1608); Tullio Cima was one of the boys who sang under him there. The title-pages and dedications of works that Antonelli published in 1614 and 1615 indicate that he was then maestro di cappella of Benevento Cathedral. That he had returned to Rome by February 1616 can be determined from the dedication of his print of that year. In 1619 he corresponded with Romano Micheli regarding what he considered to be Micheli’s excessive application of ...


Rreze Kryeziu

(b Skopje, Macedonia, Sept 23, 1909; d Pristina, Kosovo, Oct 21, 1991). Albanian composer, music pedagogue, conductor, and ethnomusicologist. He learned music by analysing the works of other composers and by attending private lessons with professors in Belgrade. During his secondary education he learned to play the violin, the cello, and the piano. He arrived in Kosovo to pursue a career as a music pedagogue. He spent a decade in Prizren (1946–56), which was typified by intense musical activity and during which time he directed the choir SH.K.A. ‘Agimi’ (1944) and was a professor and director of the School of Music (1948). (See E. Berisha: Studime dhe vështrime për muzikën, Pristina, 2004, 209–14).

His familiarity with folk music is evidenced by his analyses of Albanian folk songs, which he summarized in a seven volume work called Albanian Folk Music. As a result of this work, he became known as the first ethnomusicologist specializing in Albanian folklore....


Ellen Highstein

revised by Anya Laurence

(b Elmer, NJ, Nov 22, 1952).

American violist and violinist. Born into a family of amateur musicians, he began his studies with Max Aronoff, first at the New School of Music in Philadelphia then at the Curtis Institute, and with Joseph Di Pasquale. He was the winner of the Young Concert Artists International Auditions. By the age of 15 he was playing engagements ranging from popular music and church concerts to solo appearances with the Philadelphia Orchestra. He became assistant principal violist with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra in 1970 and the following year made his Carnegie Hall recital debut. From 1975 to 1977 he was a member of the Lenox Quartet and was on the faculty of SUNY, Binghamton, NY, from 1972 to 1979. He also taught at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, the University of New Mexico, and Carnegie Mellon University.

Appel has given recitals at Alice Tully Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and has appeared at the Marlboro Festival in Vermont. In demand as a chamber musician he is a regular guest artist with Tashi. He is interested in many different areas of music and gave the world premiere of Ezra Lademan’s ...


James Bash

(b Chicago, IL, Oct 13, 1967). American composer, pianist, and educator. Applebaum grew up in a musical family in Chicago. His father, Bob Applebaum, a high school physics teacher, studied classical music and composes. Applebaum graduated from Carleton College (BM 1989); his senior thesis took him to Mexico City to interview Conlon Nancarrow. He received his Masters (1992) and his Doctorate (1996) in composition from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), studying with Brian Ferneyhough, Joji Yuasa, RAND STEIGER, and ROGER REYNOLDS. He taught at USCD, Mississippi State University, and Carleton College before his current faculty position at Stanford University, where he also serves as the founding director of the Stanford Improvisation Collective.

Applebaum’s solo, chamber, choral, orchestral, operatic, and electro-acoustic work has been performed throughout the United States, Europe, South America, Africa, and Asia at numerous new music festivals. His music is mercurial, highly detailed, disciplined, and exacting, but it also features improvisational and whimsical aspects. As such, he is considered as much in the experimentalist camp exemplified by composers such as Cage and Zappa as part of the European modernist lineage represented by his principal teacher Brian Ferneyhough. He has drawn inspiration from jazz pioneers and maverick composers such as Nancarrow and Partch, who found it necessary to use or invent unusual instruments to realize their artistic visions....


Gulbat Toradze

(b Vladikavkaz, Feb 23, 1878; d Tbilisi, Aug 13, 1953). Georgian composer, musicologist and teacher. An academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Laureate of the USSR State Prize (1950), Arakishvili is one of the founders of the Georgian School of composition. In the period 1894–1901 he attended the school of music and drama (attached to the Moscow Philharmonic Society) where he studied composition with A. Il′insky, and theory with S. Kruglikov (1894–1901), later improving his compositional technique with Grechaninov (1910–11). In 1917 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Archaeology. In 1897 he had started writing for the Russian and the Georgian press on musical matters, in 1901 became a member of the musico-ethnological commission at Moscow University, and in 1907 a member of the Georgian Society for Literature and Art in Moscow. He was an associate of the foremost Russian composers of the day – such as Taneyev, Ippolitov-Ivanov, Arensky and Pyatnitsky – and was one of the organizers of the People’s Conservatory in Moscow (...


Marina Lobanova

(b St Petersburg, Sept 12, 1905; d St Petersburg, Jan 27, 1992). Russian composer and teacher. He received his first music lessons as a child from his mother in Poltava, and later with the pianist Zaytseva-Zhukovich. He began composing at the age of nine. In 1921 he moved to Petrograd, where he studied the piano with Mariya Yudina and Samara Savshinsky; because of an injury to his hand he gave up his career as a pianist and in 1923 entered the Petrograd Conservatory where he studied composition with Shcherbachyov and M.M. Chernov. He then taught music theory at the Central Music School (1927–32) and at the State Institute of Art History (1929–30). In 1930 he started teaching at the Leningrad Conservatory, becoming professor in 1940, deputy director in 1945–6 and dean of the orchestral department in 1950. Among his students are B.I. Arkhimandritov, G.A. Armenian, Yu.A. Balkashin, G.I. Firtich, N.M. Shakhmatov, I.I. Schwartz, S.M. Slonimsky, D.A. Tolstoy and V.A. Uspensky....


E. Douglas Bomberger

(b Neef, Rheinland, Oct 28, 1856; d Los Angeles, Jan 28, 1932). American conductor, composer, and voice teacher of German birth. He was brought to America at age eleven, received his first musical training from his father, Clemens Arens, and later studied with John Singenberger at the Normal College in St. Francis, Wisconsin. After further studies with Joseph Rheinberger in Munich 1881–3 and with Franz Wüllner in Dresden 1883–4, where he earned a Preiszeugnis (one of six in a student body of 734), he settled in Cleveland as conductor of the Cleveland Philharmonic Society and the Cleveland Gesangverein.

He returned to Europe around 1890 to study vocal pedagogy with Julius Hey in Berlin. In 1891 and 1892 he conducted American Composers’ Concerts with orchestras in Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, Weimar, Hamburg, and Sondershausen, concluding his tour with an appearance at the Vienna Musical and Theatrical Exhibition on 5 July 1892...


John Koegel

(b Guadalajara, Mexico, July 5, 1843; d Los Angeles, CA, June 28, 1900). American guitarist, composer, and music teacher of Mexican birth. He began his musical studies at the age of 15 in Guadalajara, where he was active in musical circles and where he also probably helped establish the Sociedad Filarmónica Jalisciense (founded 1869). Arévalo left Mexico for San Francisco in 1870, moving permanently to Los Angeles the next year. He became the preeminent guitarist in Los Angeles and Southern California, and was active there through the 1890s. Arévalo was also a teacher of guitar, voice, and piano, and a composer for the guitar. He played in many recitals, society musicales, club events, and other contexts throughout Southern California, and the Spanish- and English-language press frequently mentioned him and favorably reviewed his performances. At least two of his students achieved prominence, including guitarist Luis Toribio Romero and pianist María Pruneda. Arévalo’s guitar works are in the standard European and American salon styles of the day, though he also wrote “Latin-tinged” pieces (e.g. his guitar duet ...


Alicia Valdés Cantero

( b Havana, Oct 28, 1856; d Havana, June 30, 1930). Cuban composer, pianist and teacher . She studied first of all with her father, the pianist and composer Fernando Arizti (1828–88), and continued more formally with Francisco Fuente and Nicolás Ruiz Espadero. In 1887 a number of her piano works, including Danza, Mazurka and Reverie, were published in New York. She taught the piano privately and at Peyrellade’s Conservatorio de Música y Declamación, Havana, and gave recitals in Cuba and, in 1896, New York; she also wrote a manual of piano technique. In addition to several piano works, her compositions include violin pieces, two works for small band, and a piano trio (1893, the first chamber work to have been written by a Cuban woman); written in a traditional harmonic language, they are marked by melodic beauty and careful formal construction. Her piano writing shows the influence of Chopin. In ...


Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...


Bernarr Rainbow

(b Norwich, Aug 15, 1836; d Durham, Feb 10, 1908). English cathedral organist, teacher and composer. After training as a chorister at Norwich Cathedral (1846–8) and at Rochester Cathedral (1848–50) Armes became pupil-assistant to J.L. Hopkins at Rochester (1850–56). He was subsequently organist of Trinity Church, Gravesend (1855–7), St Andrew’s, Wells Street, London (1857–61), Chichester Cathedral (1861–2) and Durham Cathedral (1862–1907). He took the Oxford BMus in 1858 and DMus in 1864. He was resident examiner in music at the University of Durham from 1890 and became its first professor in 1897; he was examiner at Oxford from 1894. During the 1880s Armes collated and indexed the four sets of manuscript partbooks surviving at Durham. These contained the service music together with separate organ parts of a wide repertory from Tallis to Purcell, formerly used in the cathedral. He composed three oratorios, various anthems, services and other church music....


Greg A. Handel


(b West Hempstead, NY, April 26, 1956). American music educator, choral arranger, editor, and conductor. He was a member of the American Boychoir (1969–71), and received degrees from St Olaf College (BM 1978), the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (MM 1980), and Michigan State University (DMA 1987). He was on the summer faculty of the American Boychoir School and now serves on the Board of Trustees. He taught at Calvin College (1980–90) before becoming the fourth conductor of the St Olaf Choir and the Harry R. and Thora H. Tosdal Endowed Professor of Music (1990–). Armstrong is the editor for Earthsongs publications and co-editor of the St. Olaf Choir Series. He chronicled the history of the St Olaf Choir in his doctoral dissertation. He is featured on an instructional video for adolescent singers, Body, Mind, Spirit, Voice (2002...