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Article

Bruno Giner

revised by Élise Petit

(b Córdoba, Jan 21, 1943). Argentine composer and musicologist. From 1958 to 1963 he studied composition at the National University of Córdoba with Carlos Gasparini, Olger Bistevins, Juan Carlos Fernández, Ornella Devoto, and César Franchisena. He also studied serial techniques with Juan Carlos Paz (Buenos Aires, 1960–62). In 1961 he began composing his first instrumental works (Interpolations, for ensemble, and a piano sonata) and his first electro-acoustic works (Ceremonia and Hierro y espacio, 1962). From 1965 to 1968 he ran the electro-acoustic music studio of Córdoba University, and in 1966 took part in Lejaren Hiller’s course on computer-aided composition at the University of Illinois. During this time he concentrated his research on the interaction between instrumental and electronic music, in works such as Untitled, a multimedia composition involving four instrumental groups, electronic transformations, movement, and lights (1965), Sonata 2, Sonata 3, and ...

Article

Eric de Visscher

(b Charleroi, Jan 6, 1946). Belgian composer. After studying classical music at the conservatories of Mons and Brussels and with Absil, she encountered the acousmatic music developed by Pierre Schaeffer's Groupe de Recherches Musicales. Fascinated by the work of such composers as François Bayle and Pierre Henry, she attended the Paris Conservatoire to study with Schaeffer and Reibel. On returning to Belgium she founded the Musiques et Recherches association and the Métamorphoses d'Orphée studio, soon to be among the leading centres of musical teaching and creativity specializing in acousmatic and electro-acoustic music. Since 1986 she has taught in the main Belgian conservatories, at Liège, Brussels and finally at Mons, where she is building up a class in electro-acoustic composition. Her works are played at the leading festivals of electronic music. Faithful to her commitment to acousmatic art, she uses technological aids as a method of composition, the studio as her processing tool and the loudspeaker as a means of sound diffusion. She also collaborates with writers and poets, including Werner Lambersy, to attain a close fusion of text and sound....

Article

Leonardo Manzino

(b Santiago, Nov 2, 1950). Chilean composer . He received instruction in composition from Carlos Botto, Alfonso Letelier, Juan Lemann, Cirilo Vila and Juan Amenábar. He attended the University of Chile (teaching degree in music, 1974; licentiate in composition, 1977–84). He has taught harmony at the University of Chile, other courses in the Santa Elvira Institute for the Arts at the University of Tarapacá and at the Inter American Institute of Music Education sponsored by the Organization of American States....

Article

Valdemar Axel Roldan

(Martín)

(b Buenos Aires, 1943). Argentine composer. He studied at the Argentina Catholic University and with Francisco Kroepfl. He trained in electro-acoustic music at the Centre for Research into Mass Communication (now the Laboratory for Musical Research and Production) and later became the head of this organization. A professor at La Plata University, he is also secretary of the Argentine Federation of Electro-Acoustic Music and the Agrupación Nueva Música. His honours include commendations from both the National Fund for the Arts and the Bourges International Competition of Electro-Acoustic Music, the Buenos Aires Municipal Prize, a Guggenheim Foundation grant (1989) and the National Prize (1992). In 1997 he received commissions from the Groupe de Recherches Musicales and the Koussevitzky Foundation. He was awarded the chair of composition at the Argentina Catholic University in 1998.

(selective list)

Article

Stephen Montague

(Raul)

(b Buenos Aires, Sept 4, 1951). Argentine composer. He studied the guitar and conducting in Buenos Aires before moving to London in 1975 to continue his studies at the RCM; in 1988 he took the PhD in composition at City University, London, and thereafter worked in London as a freelance composer. Most of his works make use of electronics, and his skilful integration of acoustic instruments with computer or tape has frequently resulted in prizes at international electro-acoustic music competitions, including those at Bourges and Linz. In 1994 he was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship. The influence of his Latin American background permeates his music especially rhythmically; for example, he sees his melodic writing as developing through rhythmic rather than harmonic structures. His harmonic vocabulary is often consonant without necessarily being tonal, though in a work such as Son entero much of the attraction is its play on functional harmony. His expressed purpose in using technology is to create an illusion of acoustic instruments transforming into something new; something outside the physical world’s experience. He is interested, also, in exploring the ‘ambiguous area where harmony and timbre can no longer be distinguished as separate musical functions’....

Article

David Burnand

[Debra]

(b London, May 10, 1963). English composer. She graduated from the GSM, London, where she studied composition with Buxton Orr and the piano with James Gibb. Though she also composes concert and electro-acoustic music, she is best known for her television and film scores. She has been nominated for numerous awards and in 1993 won the TRIC TV Theme Music of the Year award for The Good Guys. Her work has been featured in radio and television programmes on music for the media, and she has contributed to educational programmes on this subject. In 1995 she was appointed visiting professor of film composition at the RCM.

Wiseman is drawn to writing descriptive music and adept at matching dramatic situations with appropriate sound worlds. Several scores provide an emotional subtext, for instance in the feature films Tom and Viv and Haunted. Her many memorable themes and signature tunes are the product of a strong sense of melodic line....

Article

Stephen Montague

(b Leeds, Oct 11, 1946). English composer and writer on music. He studied at Oxford University (BA 1968), the University of Nottingham (MA 1969) and the University of York (PhD, composition, 1973). Subsequently he remained in York working as a freelance composer, and has lectured at many institutions worldwide, with extended stays in Australia, Canada, USA, Sweden and the Netherlands as well as at British universities. His reputation among contemporaries is that of a radical innovator. His early works involve improvisation with found objects, environmental events, performance and installation art and participatory games and workshops designed to involve audiences in the creative process. In later works he has sought to extend the vocal repertory through the exploration of new vocal sounds (Anticredos and the Vox series) and pioneered the art of composing directly with sound, or ‘sonic art’ (see Electro-acoustic music, §2). This music moves between the pure manipulation of sonority and what he calls ‘cinematographic use of soundscapes’, employing sophisticated signal processing instruments of his own design to control the internal quality and the evolution of sounds themselves. His writings, particularly ...

Article

Bruno Giner

revised by Élise Petit

(b Lourdes, May 22, 1952). French composer. After studying for two years in the music department of Pau University, he entered the Paris Conservatoire in the electro-acoustic music class of Pierre Schaeffer and Guy Reibel (1974–6). In 1977 he became a member of the Groupe de Recherches Musicales at the Institut national de l’audiovisuel (Ina-GRM), where he gained experience as a director and producer of radiophonic transmissions. He has composed music for the theatre, the cinema, and dance, as well as acousmatic works for the concert hall. His interest in transforming sound material, concrete sound in particular, is exemplified in Courir (1989), which involves a microphone placed in the mouth of a runner to capture different rhythms of respiration; this raw material is then processed and reworked in the studio. Grand bruit (1990), based on the sounds of the Paris Métro, or ...

Article

Sigrid Wiesmann

(b Vienna, Jan 9, 1950; d Hanover, March 21, 1991). Austrian composer and percussionist. He studied at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik, where his teachers included Urbanner and Cerha, with Kotonski in Warsaw (1972–3), at Vienna University and at Humboldt University, Berlin (PhD musicology 1978). During this period, he worked at the Institut für Elektroakustik at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik (1969–72) and at the experimental studio of Polish Radio in Warsaw (1972–3). Active as a percussionist, he founded the improvisatory group Spiegelkabinett. In 1985 he served as visiting professor at the University of São Paolo, and from 1987 to 1991 he taught electro-acoustic music at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik. He was appointed president of the Austrian section of the ISCM in 1988.

Following an exploration of aleatory and postserial techniques, Zobl devoted himself to electro-acoustic composition. From his attempts to develop a new approach to tonality grew his work with animation and his collaboration with songwriters and amateur ensembles. Later, he became interested in ethnic music as a stimulus for integral rhythmic composition. He saw in this genre the possibility of overcoming an outmoded European conception of music on the one hand, and a chance to open music up to a variety of historical and cultural phenomena on the other. ‘Rhythmic composition,’ he explained, ‘means the conscious transformation and transposition of the cultural experiences that are deposited in rhythms, and is in no way a superficial borrowing from a foreign culture …’....